Bow and arrow
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device and long-shafted projectiles. Archery is the practice, or skill of using bows to shoot arrows. A person who shoots arrows with a bow is called an archer. Someone who makes bows is known as a bowyer, one who makes arrows is a fletcher, one who manufactures metal arrowheads is an arrowsmith; the use of bows and arrows by humans for hunting predates recorded history and was common to many prehistoric cultures. They were important weapons of war from ancient history until the early modern period, where they were rendered obsolete by the development of the more powerful and accurate firearms, were dropped from warfare. Today and arrows are used for hunting and sports. A bow consists of a semi-rigid but elastic arc with a high-tensile bowstring joining the ends of the two limbs of the bow. An arrow is a projectile with a pointed tip and a long shaft with stabilizer fins towards the back, with a narrow notch at the end to contact the bowstring.
To load an arrow for shooting, the archer places an arrow across the middle of the bow with the bowstring in the arrow's nock. To shoot, the archer pulls back the arrow and the bowstring, which in turn flexes the bow limbs, storing elastic energy. While maintaining the draw, the archer sights along the arrow to aim it; the archer releases the arrow, allowing the limbs' stored potential energy to convert into kinetic energy, transmitted via the bowstring to the arrow, propelling it to fly forward with high velocity. A container or bag for additional arrows for quick reloading is called a quiver; when not in use, bows are kept unstrung, meaning one or both ends of the bowstring are detached from the bow. This removes all residual tension on the bow, can help prevent it from losing strength or elasticity over time. For many bow designs, this lets it straighten out more reducing the space needed to store the bow. Returning the bowstring to its ready-to-use position is called stringing the bow; the bow and arrow appears around the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic.
After the end of the last glacial period, use of the bow seems to have spread to every inhabited region, except for Australasia and most of Oceania. The earliest definite remains of bow and arrow are from Europe. Possible fragments from Germany were found at Mannheim-Vogelstang dated 17,500-18,000 years ago, at Stellmoor dated 11,000 years ago. Azilian points found in Grotte du Bichon, alongside the remains of both a bear and a hunter, with flint fragments found in the bear's third vertebra, suggest the use of arrows at 13,500 years ago. At the site of Nataruk in Turkana County, obsidian bladelets found embedded in a skull and within the thoracic cavity of another skeleton, suggest the use of stone-tipped arrows as weapons about 10,000 years ago. Microliths discovered on the south coast of Africa suggest that projectile weapons of some sort may be at least 71,000 years old; the oldest extant bows in one piece are the elm Holmegaard bows from Denmark which were dated to 9,000 BCE. Several bows from Holmegaard, date 8,000 years ago.
High-performance wooden bows are made following the Holmegaard design. The Stellmoor bow fragments from northern Germany were dated to about 8,000 BCE, but they were destroyed in Hamburg during the Second World War, before carbon 14 dating was available; the bow was an important weapon for both hunting and warfare from prehistoric times until the widespread use of gunpowder in the 16th century. Organised warfare with bows ended in the mid 17th century in Europe, but it persisted into the early 19th century in Eastern cultures and in hunting and tribal warfare in the New World. In the Canadian Arctic bows were made until the end of the 20th century for hunting caribou, for instance at Igloolik; the bow has more been used as a weapon of tribal warfare in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. The British upper class led a revival of archery from the late 18th century. Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, under the patronage of George Prince of Wales.
The basic elements of a bow are a pair of curved elastic limbs, traditionally made from wood, joined by a riser. Both ends of the limbs are connected by a string known as the bow string. By pulling the string backwards the archer exerts compressive force on the string-facing section, or belly, of the limbs as well as placing the outer section, or back, under tension. While the string is held, this stores the energy released in putting the arrow to flight; the force required to hold the string stationary at full draw is used to express the power of a bow, is known as its draw weight, or weight. Other things being equal, a higher draw weight means a more powerful bow, able to project heavier arrows at the same velocity or the same arrow at a greater velocity; the various parts of the bow can be subdivided into further sections. The topmost limb is known as the upper limb. At the tip of each limb is a nock, used to attach the bowstring to the limbs; the riser is divided into the grip, held by the archer, as well as the arrow rest and the bow window.
The arrow rest is a small ledge or extension above the grip which the arrow rests upon while being aimed. The bow window is that part of the
Lava and his twin brother Kusa, were the children of Rama and Sita. Their story is recounted in the Ramayana. Lava was younger of the two and is said to have a wheatish golden complexion like their mother, while Kusha had a blackish complexion like their father. Lava is purported to have founded Lavapuri, named after him; the Sikarwar Rajputs, the Lohana and Leva Patidar are present-day Indo-Aryan ethnic groups who claim their descent from Lava. Lava belongs to Suryavansha Dynasty of Kshatriyas in ancient India. According to the Ramayana, Sita was banished from the kingdom of Ayodhya by Rama due to the gossip of the kingdom folk, she took refuge in the ashram of Sage Valmiki located on the banks of the Tamsa river. Lava and Kusha were born at the ashram and were educated and trained in military skills under the tutelage of Sage Valmiki, they learned the story of Rama. Lava and Kusha became rulers after their father Rama and founded the cities of Lavapuri and Kasur respectively; the king of Kosala Raghava Rama installed his son Lava at Kusha at Kushavati.
There is a temple associated with Lava inside Lahore. Luv Kush
The gada is a club or blunt mace from the Indian subcontinent. Made either of wood or metal, it consists of a spherical head mounted on a shaft, with a spike on the top. Outside India, the gada was adopted in Southeast Asia, where it is still used in silat; the gada is the main weapon of the Hindu God Hanuman. Known for his strength, Hanuman is traditionally worshipped by wrestlers in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Vishnu carries a gada named Kaumodaki in one of his four hands. In the Mahabharata epic, the fighters Bhima, Duryodhana and others were said to be masters of the gada; the martial art of wielding the gada is known as gada-yuddha. It can either be wielded singly or in pairs, can be handled in twenty different ways. Various gada-yuddha techniques are mentioned in the Agni Purana and Mahabharata such as aahat, prabrita, udarvagatra, vamadakshina, paraavrita, avaplata and vibhag; the gada is one of the traditional pieces of training equipment in Hindu physical culture, is common in the akhara of north India.
Maces of various weights and heights are used depending on the strength and skill level of the practitioner. It is believed. For training purposes, one or two wooden gada are swung behind the back in several different ways and is useful for building grip strength and shoulder endurance; the Great Gama was known for excessive use of gada. Winners in a kushti contest are awarded with a gada. Chi'ishi, a karate conditioning equipment and its exercise pattern was inspired by the gada and mugdar; the war clubs were inspired by gada. Mace
In Hinduism, Hanuman is an ardent devotee of Lord Rama. Lord Hanuman, known as the Lord of Celibacy was an ideal "Brahmachari" or called Naistika Brahmachari in Sanskrit and is one of the central characters of the Indian Epic ￼￼Ramayana￼￼. ￼￼As one of the Chiranjivi, he is mentioned in several other texts, such as the Mahabharata and the various Puranas. Hanuman is the son of Anjani and Kesari and is son of the wind-god Vayu, who according to several stories, played a role in his birth. If yoga is the ability to control one's mind Hanuman is the quintessential yogi having a perfect mastery over his senses, achieved through a disciplined lifestyle tempered by the twin streams of celibacy and selfless devotion. In fact, Hanuman is the ideal Brahmachari, if there was one, he is a perfect karma yogi since he performs his actions with detachment, acting as an instrument of destiny rather than being impelled by any selfish motive. While Hanuman is one of the central characters in the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, the evidence of devotional worship to him is missing in the texts and archeological sites of ancient and most of the medieval period.
According to Philip Lutgendorf, an American Indologist known for his studies on Hanuman, the theological significance and devotional dedication to Hanuman emerged about 1,000 years after the composition of the Ramayana, in the 2nd millennium CE, after the arrival of Islamic rule in the Indian subcontinent. Bhakti movement saints such as Samarth Ramdas expressed Hanuman as a symbol of nationalism and resistance to persecution. In the modern era, his iconography and temples have been common, he is viewed as the ideal combination of "strength, heroic initiative and assertive excellence" and "loving, emotional devotion to his personal god Rama", as Shakti and Bhakti. In literature, he has been the patron god of martial arts such as wrestling, acrobatics, as well as meditation and diligent scholarship, he symbolizes the human excellences of inner self-control and service to a cause, hidden behind the first impressions of a being who looks like an Ape-Man Vanara. Hanuman is stated by scholars to be the inspiration for the allegory-filled adventures of a monkey hero in the Xiyouji – the great Chinese poetic novel influenced by the travels of Buddhist monk Xuanzang to India.
The meaning or the origin of word "Hanuman" is unclear. In the Hindu pantheon, deities have many synonymous names, each based on the noble characteristic or attribute or reminder of that deity's mythical deed. Hanuman has many names like Maruti, Bajrangbali, Mangalmurti but these names are used. Hanuman is the common name of the vaanar god. One interpretation of the term is that it means "one having a jaw, prominent"; this version is supported by a Puranic legend wherein baby Hanuman mistakes the sun for a fruit, attempts to heroically reach it, is wounded and gets a disfigured jaw."Hanuman": the name derives from the Sanskrit words Han and maana. This epithet resonates with the story in the Ramayana about his emotional devotion to Sita, he combines two of the most cherished traits in the Hindu bhakti-shakti worship traditions: "heroic, assertive excellence" and "loving, emotional devotion to personal god". Linguistic variations of "Hanuman" include Hanumat, Hanumantha, Hanumanthudu. Other names of Hanuman include: Anjaneya, Anjaneyar, Anjanisuta all meaning "the son of Hanuman's mother Anjana".
Kesari Nandan, based on his father, which means "son of Kesari" Maruti, or the son of the wind god. Sankata Mochana, the remover of dangers The earliest mention of a divine monkey, interpreted by some scholars as the proto-Hanuman, is in hymn 10.86 of the Rigveda, dated to between 1500 and 1200 BCE. The twenty-three verses of the hymn are a riddle-filled legend, it is presented as a dialogue between multiple characters: the god Indra, his wife Indrani and an energetic monkey it refers to as Vrisakapi and his wife Kapi. The hymn opens with Indrani complaining to Indra that some of the soma offerings for Indra have been allocated to the energetic and strong monkey, the people are forgetting Indra; the king of the gods Indra responds by telling his wife that the living being that bothers her is to be seen as a friend, that they should make an effort to coexist peacefully. The hymn closes with all agreeing that they should come together in Indra's house and share the wealth of the offerings; the orientalist F. E. Pargiter theorized.
According to this theory, the name "Hanuman" derives from the Tamil word for male monkey, first transformed to "Anumant" – a name which remains in use. "Anumant", according to this hypothesis, was Sanskritized to "Hanuman" because the ancient Aryans confronted with a popular monkey deity of ancient Dravidians coopted the concept and Sanskritized it. According to Murray Emeneau, known for his Tamil linguistic studies, this theory does not make sense because the Old Tamil word mandi in Caṅkam literature can only mean "female monkey", Hanuman is male. Further, adds Emeneau, the compound ana-mandi makes no semantic sense in Tamil, which has well developed and sophisticated grammar and semantic rules; the "prominent jaw" etymology, according to Emeneau, is therefore plausible. Hanuman is mentioned in both the
A Rakshasa is a mythological being in Hindu mythology. As this mythology influenced other religions, the rakshasa was incorporated into Buddhism. Rakshasas are called "Maneaters". A female rakshasa is known as a Rakshasi. A female Rakshasa in human form is a Rakshesha; the terms Rakshasa are sometimes used interchangeably. Rakshasas were believed to have been created from the breath of Brahma when he was asleep at the end of the Satya Yuga; as soon as they were created, they were so filled with bloodlust that they started eating Brahma himself. Brahma shouted "Rakshama!" and Vishnu came to his aid, banishing to Earth all Rakshasas. Their literary origins can be traced to Vedic sources through Hymn 87 of the tenth mandala of the Rigveda, they are classified amongst mythological beings that consume raw flesh. Rakshasas were most depicted as ugly, fierce-looking and enormous creatures, with two fangs protruding from the top of the mouth and having sharp, claw-like fingernails, they are shown as being mean, growling like beasts, as insatiable cannibals that could smell the scent of human flesh.
Some of the more ferocious ones were shown with flaming red eyes and hair, drinking blood with their palms or from a human skull. They could fly and had Maya, which enabled them to change size at will and assume the form of any creature; the female equivalent of rakshasa is rakshasi. In the world of the Ramayana and Mahabharata, Rakshasas were a populous race. There were both good and evil rakshasas, as warriors they fought alongside the armies of both good and evil, they were expert magicians and illusionists. As shape-changers, they could assume different physical forms, it was not always clear whether they had a natural form. As illusionists, they were capable of creating appearances which were real to those who believed in them or who failed to dispel them; some of the rakshasas were said to be man-eaters, made their gleeful appearance when the slaughter on a battlefield was at its worst. They served as rank-and-file soldiers in the service of one or another warlord. Aside from its treatment of unnamed rank-and-file Rakshasas, the epics tell the stories of certain members of the "race" who rose to prominence, some of them as heroes, most of them as villains.
The Battle of Lanka pitted an army of Rakshasas under Ravana against an army of Vanaras, or monkeys, under Rama and Sugriva. Ravana was the King of Lanka, he was the commander of the Rakshasas. He was the immortal enemy of the hero of the Ramayana. In the Mahabharata, the Sage Markandeya recounts the story of how Ravana kidnapped Rama's wife Sita and whisked her off to his stronghold Lanka. Rama, aided by the monkey King Sugriva and his army of monkeys, laid siege to Lanka, slew Ravana, rescued Sita. Vibhishana was Ravana's younger brother, he was beautiful and assiduous in his religious observances. When Brahma granted him a boon, he asked never to swerve from the path of righteousness and to always be illumined by divine knowledge Vibhishana joined Rama in his campaign against Ravana and helped Rama's army to cross the ocean into Lanka; when invisible Rakshasas infiltrated Rama's camp, Vibhishana caused them to become visible. After Rama's final victory over Ravana, the loyal Vibhishana was made king of Lanka and remaining Rakshasas.
Kumbhakarna was another brother of Ravana. Like Rakshasas, he ate large quantities of food and meat. A fearsome warrior and master of illusion, he slept through most of the Battle of Lanka; when Ravana awakened him with alarming news about the conflict, he took the field. Upon marching out of the city, Kumbhakarna was swarmed by Rama's monkeys; when the monkey king Sugriva attacked, Kumbhakarna started to drag him off. At that point Rama and his brother Lakshmana used arrows and a secret Brahmastra to kill Kumbhakarna, dropping him "like a huge tree cleft in twain by a thunderbolt." Other Rakshasas that are featured in the Ramayana include Kabandha, Shurpanakha, Subahu, Prahasta, Akshayakumara and Indrajit - the most powerful son of Ravana. The Pandava hero Bhima was the nemesis of forest-dwelling Rakshasas who dined on human travellers and terrorized human settlements. Bhima killed a cannibal Rakshasa; the Mahabharata describes him as a cruel cannibal with prodigious strength. When Hidimba saw the Pandavas sleeping in his forest, he decided to eat them.
He sent his sister Hidimbi to reconnoiter the situation, the young woman fell in love with the handsome Bhima, whom she warned of danger. Infuriated, Hidimba declared he was ready to kill not only the Pandavas but his sister, but he was thwarted by the heroism of Bhima, who defeated and killed him in a duel. Ghatotkacha, a Rakshasa who fought on the side of the Pandavas, was the son of Bhima and the Rakshasa Hidimbi, who had fallen in love with the hero and warned him of danger from her brother. Bhima killed the evil Rakshasa Hidimba, their son's nam
Mara, in Buddhism, is the demon that tempted Prince Siddhartha by trying to seduce him with the vision of beautiful women who, in various legends, are said to be Mara's daughters. In Buddhist cosmology, Mara is associated with death and desire. Nyanaponika Thera has described Mara as "the personification of the forces antagonistic to enlightenment." The word "Māra" comes from the Sanskrit form of the verbal root mṛ. It takes a causative form mārayati. Māra is a verbal noun from the causative root and means'causing death' or'killing', it is related to other words for death from the same root, such as: mṛtyu. The latter is sometimes identified with Yama; the root mṛ is related to the Indo-European verbal root *mer meaning "die, disappear" in the context of "death, murder or destruction". It is "very wide-spread" in Indo-European languages suggesting it to be of great antiquity, according to Mallory and Adams. In traditional Buddhism, four metaphorical forms of "māra" are given: Kleśa-māra, or Ma̋ra as the embodiment of all unskillful emotions, such as greed and delusion.
Mṛtyu-māra, or Māra as death. Skandha-māra, or Māra as metaphor for the entirety of conditioned existence. Devaputra-māra, the deva of the sensuous realm, who tries to prevent Gautama Buddha from attaining liberation from the cycle of rebirth on the night of the Buddha´s enlightenment. Early Buddhism acknowledged both a psychological interpretation of Mara. Specially Mara is described both as an entity having an existence in Kāma-world, just as are shown existing around the Buddha, is described in pratītyasamutpāda as the guardian of passion and the catalyst for lust and fear that obstructs meditation among Buddhists. "Buddha defying Mara" is a common pose of Buddha sculptures. The Buddha is shown with his left hand in his lap, palm facing upwards and his right hand on his right knee; the fingers of his right hand touch the earth, to call the earth as his witness for defying Mara and achieving enlightenment. This posture is referred to as the bhūmisparśa "earth-witness" mudra. In some accounts of the Buddha's enlightenment, it is said that the demon Māra didn't send his three daughters to tempt but instead they came willingly after Māra's setback in his endeavor to eliminate the Buddha's quest for enlightenment.
Mara's three daughters are identified as Taṇhā, Raga. For example, in the Samyutta Nikaya's Māra-saṃyutta, Mara's three daughters were stripping in front of Buddha; some stories refer to the existence of Five Daughters, who represent not only the Three Poisons of Attraction and Delusion, but include the daughters Pride, Fear. The story "Dying in Bangkok" by Dan Simmons, in his 1993 collection Lovedeath, features Mara and her demonic daughter as supernatural creatures who tempt men with the ultimate in sexual pleasures. Mara has been prominently featured in the Megami Tensei video game series as a demon. Within the series, Mara is portrayed as a large, phallic creature shown riding a golden chariot, his phallic body and innuendo-laden speech is based on a pun surrounding the word mara, a Japonic word for "penis", attested as early as 938 CE in the Wamyō Ruijushō, a Japanese dictionary of Chinese characters. According to the Sanseido dictionary, the word was used as a euphemism for "penis" among Buddhist monks, which makes it likely that it was meant as a direct reference to Mara the demon Mara appears in Roger Zelazny's novel Lord of Light as a God of Illusion.
Demiurge Eros Grīmekhalaṃ Kamadeva Mare Marzanna Mors Thanatos Anubis Izanami Hades Ah Puch Id, ego and super-ego The Temptation of St. Anthony Maravijaya Buddha Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Pubs. ISBN 0-86171-331-1. Saddhatissa, H.. The Sutta-Nipāta. London: RoutledgeCurzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-0181-8. Boyd, James W.. "Symbols of Evil in Buddhism". The Journal of Asian Studies. 31: 63–75. Doi:10.2307/2053052. JSTOR 2053052. – via JSTOR Guruge, Ananda W. P.. "The Buddha's encounters with Mara, the Tempter: their representation in Literature and Art". Indologica Taurinensia. 17–18: 183–208. Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Ling, Trevor O.. Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil: A Study in Theravada Buddhism. London: Allen and Unwin The Buddha's Encounters with Mara the Tempter: Their Representation in Literature and Art Taming the Mara Mara, the Evil One_99
Rama or Ram known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism. He is the seventh avatar of the god Vishnu, one of his most popular incarnations along with Krishna and Gautama Buddha. In Rama-centric traditions of Hinduism, he is considered the Supreme Being. Rama was born to Dasharatha in Ayodhya, the ruler of the Kingdom of Kosala, his siblings included Lakshmana and Shatrughna. He married Sita. Though born in a royal family, their life is described in the Hindu texts as one challenged by unexpected changes such as an exile into impoverished and difficult circumstances, ethical questions and moral dilemmas. Of all their travails, the most notable is the kidnapping of Sita by demon-king Ravana, followed by the determined and epic efforts of Rama and Lakshmana to gain her freedom and destroy the evil Ravana against great odds; the entire life story of Rama and their companions allegorically discusses duties and social responsibilities of an individual. It illustrates dharmic living through model characters.
Rama is important to Vaishnavism. He is the central figure of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, a text popular in the South Asian and Southeast Asian cultures, his ancient legends have attracted bhasya and extensive secondary literature and inspired performance arts. Two such texts, for example, are the Adhyatma Ramayana – a spiritual and theological treatise considered foundational by Ramanandi monasteries, the Ramcharitmanas – a popular treatise that inspires thousands of Ramlila festival performances during autumn every year in India. Rama legends are found in the texts of Jainism and Buddhism, though he is sometimes called Pauma or Padma in these texts, their details vary from the Hindu versions. Rāma is a Vedic Sanskrit word with two contextual meanings. In one context as found in Arthavaveda, states Monier Monier-Williams, it means "dark, dark-colored, black" and is related to the term ratri which means night. In another context as found in other Vedic texts, the word means "pleasing, charming, lovely".
The word is sometimes used as a suffix in different Indian languages and religions, such as Pali in Buddhist texts, where -rama adds the sense of "pleasing to the mind, lovely" to the composite word. Rama as a first name appears in the Vedic literature, associated with two patronymic names – Margaveya and Aupatasvini – representing different individuals. A third individual named Rama Jamadagnya is the purported author of hymn 10.110 of the Rigveda in the Hindu tradition. The word Rama appears in ancient literature in reverential terms for three individuals: Parashu-rama, as the sixth avatar of Vishnu, he is linked to the Rama Jamadagnya of the Rigveda fame. Rama-chandra, as the seventh avatar of Vishnu and of the ancient Ramayana fame. Bala-rama called Halayudha, as the elder brother of Krishna both of whom appear in the legends of Hinduism and Jainism; the name Rama appears in Hindu texts, for many different scholars and kings in mythical stories. The word appears in ancient Upanishads and Aranyakas layer of Vedic literature, as well as music and other post-Vedic literature, but in qualifying context of something or someone, "charming, lovely" or "darkness, night".
The Vishnu avatar named Rama is known by other names. He is called Raghava. Additional names of Rama include Ramavijaya, Phreah Ream, Phra Ram, Megat Seri Rama, Raja Bantugan, Ramar. In the Vishnu sahasranama, Rama is the 394th name of Vishnu. In some Advaita Vedanta inspired texts, Rama connotes the metaphysical concept of Supreme Brahman, the eternally blissful spiritual Self in whom yogis delight nondualistically; the root of the word Rama is ram- which means "stop, stand still, rejoice, be pleased". According to Douglas Adams, the Sanskrit word Rama is found in other Indo-European languages such as Tocharian ram, reme, *romo- where it means "support, make still", "witness, make evident"; the sense of "dark, soot" appears in other Indo European languages, such as *remos or Old English romig. This summary is a traditional legendary account, based on literary details from the Ramayana and other historic mythology-containing texts of Buddhism and Jainism. According to Sheldon Pollock, the figure of Rama incorporates more ancient "morphemes of Indian myths", such as the mythical legends of Bali and Namuci.
The ancient sage Valmiki used these morphemes in his Ramayana similes as in sections 3.27, 3.59, 3.73, 5.19 and 29.28. Rama was born on the ninth day of the lunar month Chaitra, a day celebrated across India as Ram Navami; this coincides with one of the four Navratri on the Hindu calendar, in the spring season, namely the Vasantha Navratri. The ancient epic Ramayana states in the Balakhanda that Rama and his brothers were born to Kaushalya and Dasharatha in Ayodhya, a city on the banks of Sarayu River; the Jain versions of the Ramayana, such as the Paumacariya by Vimalasuri mention the details of the early life of Rama. The Jain texts are dated variously, but pre-500 CE, most sometime within the first five centuries of the common era. Dasharatha was the king of Kosala, a part of the solar dynasty of Iksvakus, his mother's name Kaushalya implies that she was from Kosala. The kingdom of Kosala is mentioned in Buddhist and Jaina texts, as one of the sixteen Maha janapadas of ancient India, as an important center of pilgrimage for Jains and Buddhists.
However, there is a schola