A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which passengers travel. At cruising altitudes of modern commercial aircraft, the surrounding atmosphere is too thin for passengers and crew to breathe without an oxygen mask, so cabins are pressurized at a higher pressure than ambient pressure at altitude. In commercial air travel in airliners, cabins may be divided into several parts; these can include travel class sections in medium and large aircraft, areas for flight attendants, the galley and storage for in-flight service. Seats are arranged in rows and alleys; the higher the travel class, the more space is provided. Cabins of the different travel classes are divided by curtains, sometimes called class dividers, but not on all airlines. Passengers are not allowed to visit higher travel class cabins in commercial flights; some aircraft cabins contain passenger entertainment systems. Short and medium haul cabins tend to have no or shared screens whereas long and ultra-long haul flights contain personal screens which allow passengers to choose what to watch on their personal screen.
Business class is replacing first class: 70% of 777s had first-class cabins before 2008 while 22% of new 777s and 787s had one in 2017. Full-flat seats in business-class rose from 65% of 777 deliveries in 2008 to nearly 100% of the 777s and 787s delivered in 2017, excepted for low-cost carriers having 10% premium cabin on their widebodies. First-class seats were halved over the past 5–10 years from eight to four. To differentiate from business class, high-end first class move to full-height enclosures like Singapore Airlines and Etihad. Business class became the equivalent of. In 2017, 80% of the 777s and 787s delivered had a separate premium economy with one or two fewer seats across than regular economy class. In economy class, 2 in slimmer seats with composite frames and thinner upholstery can add legroom or allow more seating. While ground or more satellite internet connection is available at lower cost due to competition, only 25–30% of carriers outside U. S. offer inflight connectivity. LED lighting can support different scenarios like boarding, food service, branding or chronobiology through simulated sunset or sunrise.
First- and business-class are refurbished every 5–7 years compared to 6–10 years for economy. A 337 seats cabin in a 787-10 for Singapore Airlines costs $17.5 million each. Emirates invested over $15 million each to refurbish its 777-200LR in a new two-class configuration in 55 days then 35 days. In the mid 2000s, Formation Design Group proposed using the taller wide-body cabins to layer the bed and seat arrangements for higher density. Revealed at Aircraft Interiors Expo 2012, Factorydesign devised a double-deck system of pods for 30% more density, between premium economy and business class. In 2015, Airbus filed a patent for a double-deck business class cabin, to monetize the vertical space. Cabin pressurization is the active pumping of compressed air into the cabin of an aircraft in order to ensure the safety and comfort of the occupants, it becomes necessary whenever the aircraft reaches a certain altitude, since the natural atmospheric pressure would be too low to supply sufficient oxygen to the passengers.
Without pressurization, one could suffer from altitude sickness including hypoxia. If a pressurized aircraft suffers a pressurization failure above 10,000 feet it could be deemed as an emergency. Should this situation occur, the aircraft should begin an emergency descent and oxygen masks should be activated for all occupants. In the majority of passenger aircraft, the passengers' oxygen masks are activated automatically if the cabin pressure falls below the atmospheric pressure equivalent of 14,000 feet; the first class section of an airplane is the class with the best service, it is the highest priced. The services offered are superior to those in business class, they are available on only a small number of long flights. First class is characterized by having a larger amount of space between seats, a personal TV set, high quality food and drink, personalized service and providing travelers with complimentary items. Passengers in this class have a separate check-in, access to the airline's first-class lounge, preferred boarding, or private transportation between the terminal and the plane.
Due to its high cost, there are few airlines. Business class is more expensive, but it offers more amenities to travelers than the classes below it; these may include better food, wider entertainment options, more comfortable seats with more room to recline and more legroom, among others. Premium Economy class is a travel class offered by some airlines in order to provide a better flying experience to the economy traveler, but for much less money than business class, it is limited to a few extras such as more legroom, as well as complimentary food and drinks. Onboard Air Canada, Premium Economy comes with wider seats, more recline, a fold-down foot rest, an amenity kit, premium food and drinks on long-haul international flights, much more legroom. Economy class is the airline travel class with the lowest ticket price, as the level of comfort is lower than that of the other classes; this class is characterized by the short distance between each seat, a smaller variety of food and entertainment.
Gaspers Shirt-sleeve environment Uncontrolled decompression Wide-body aircraft interiors Jon Hemmerdinger. "Opportunities open for sma
Air traffic control
Air traffic control is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions and expedite the flow of air traffic, provide information and other support for pilots. In some countries, ATC is operated by the military. To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. Many aircraft have collision avoidance systems, which provide additional safety by warning pilots when other aircraft get too close. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to obey, or advisories that pilots may, at their discretion, disregard; the pilot in command is the final authority for the safe operation of the aircraft and may, in an emergency, deviate from ATC instructions to the extent required to maintain safe operation of their aircraft.
Pursuant to requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ATC operations are conducted either in the English language or the language used by the station on the ground. In practice, the native language for a region is used. In 1920, Croydon Airport, London was the first airport in the world to introduce air traffic control. In the United States, air traffic control developed three divisions; the first of air mail radio stations was created in 1922 after World War I when the U. S. Post Office began using techniques developed by the Army to direct and track the movements of reconnaissance aircraft. Over time, the AMRS morphed into flight service stations. Today's flight service stations do not issue control instructions, but provide pilots with many other flight related informational services, they do relay control instructions from ATC in areas where flight service is the only facility with radio or phone coverage. The first airport traffic control tower, regulating arrivals and surface movement of aircraft at a specific airport, opened in Cleveland in 1930.
Approach/departure control facilities were created after adoption of radar in the 1950s to monitor and control the busy airspace around larger airports. The first air route traffic control center, which directs the movement of aircraft between departure and destination was opened in Newark, NJ in 1935, followed in 1936 by Chicago and Cleveland; the primary method of controlling the immediate airport environment is visual observation from the airport control tower. The tower is a windowed structure located on the airport grounds. Air traffic controllers are responsible for the separation and efficient movement of aircraft and vehicles operating on the taxiways and runways of the airport itself, aircraft in the air near the airport 5 to 10 nautical miles depending on the airport procedures. Surveillance displays are available to controllers at larger airports to assist with controlling air traffic. Controllers may use a radar system called secondary surveillance radar for airborne traffic approaching and departing.
These displays include a map of the area, the position of various aircraft, data tags that include aircraft identification, speed and other information described in local procedures. In adverse weather conditions the tower controllers may use surface movement radar, surface movement guidance and control systems or advanced SMGCS to control traffic on the manoeuvring area; the areas of responsibility for tower controllers fall into three general operational disciplines: local control or air control, ground control, flight data / clearance delivery—other categories, such as Apron control or ground movement planner, may exist at busy airports. While each tower may have unique airport-specific procedures, such as multiple teams of controllers at major or complex airports with multiple runways, the following provides a general concept of the delegation of responsibilities within the tower environment. Remote and virtual tower is a system based on air traffic controllers being located somewhere other than at the local airport tower and still able to provide air traffic control services.
Displays for the air traffic controllers may be live video, synthetic images based on surveillance sensor data, or both. Ground control is responsible for the airport "movement" areas, as well as areas not released to the airlines or other users; this includes all taxiways, inactive runways, holding areas, some transitional aprons or intersections where aircraft arrive, having vacated the runway or departure gate. Exact areas and control responsibilities are defined in local documents and agreements at each airport. Any aircraft, vehicle, or person walking or working in these areas is required to have clearance from ground control; this is done via VHF/UHF radio, but there may be special cases where other procedures are used. Aircraft or vehicles without radios must respond to ATC instructions via aviation light signals or else be led by vehicles with radios. People working on the airport surface have a communications link through which they can communicate with ground control either by handheld radio or cell phone.
Ground control is vital to the smooth operation of the airport, because this position impacts th
Aviation accidents and incidents
In aviation, an accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft, which takes place from the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until all such persons have disembarked, in which a) a person is fatally or injured, b) the aircraft sustains significant damage or structural failure, or c) the aircraft goes missing or becomes inaccessible. Annex 13 defines an incident as an occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or could affect the safety of operation. A hull loss occurs if an aircraft is destroyed, damaged beyond repair, lost, or becomes inaccessible; the first fatal aviation accident was the crash of a Rozière balloon near Wimereux, France, on June 15, 1785, killing the balloon's inventor, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, the other occupant, Pierre Romain. The first involving a powered aircraft was the crash of a Wright Model A aircraft at Fort Myer, Virginia, in the United States on September 17, 1908, injuring its co-inventor and pilot, Orville Wright, killing the passenger, Signal Corps Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge.
2,996: The deadliest aviation-related disaster of any kind, considering fatalities on both the aircraft and the ground, was the destruction of the World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001. On that morning, four commercial aircraft traveling on transcontinental flights from East Coast airports to California were hijacked after takeoff; the four hijacked aircraft were subsequently crashed in four separate suicide attacks against major American landmarks, by 19 Islamic terrorists affiliated with Al Qaeda. American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 were intentionally crashed into the North and South Towers of the World Trade Center, destroying both buildings in less than two hours; the World Trade Center crashes killed 2,753, the vast majority of fatalities being occupants of the World Trade Center towers or emergency personnel responding to the disaster. In addition, 184 were killed by American Airlines Flight 77. 40 passengers were killed when United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into a Somerset County Pennsylvania field after passengers fought back and prevented the hijackers from reaching their designated target.
This brought the total number of casualties of the September 11 attacks to 2,996. As deliberate terrorist acts, the 9/11 crashes were not classified as accidents, but as mass murder-suicide. 583: The Tenerife airport disaster, which occurred on March 27, 1977, remains the accident with the highest number of airliner passenger fatalities. 583 people died when a KLM Boeing 747 attempted to take off without flight clearance, collided with a taxiing Pan Am 747 at Los Rodeos Airport on the Canary Island of Tenerife, Spain. There were no survivors from the KLM aircraft and only 61 of the 396 passengers and crew on the Pan Am aircraft survived. Pilot error was the primary cause, as the KLM captain began his takeoff run without obtaining air traffic control clearance. A contributing factor was the dense fog; the KLM flight crew could not see the Pan Am aircraft on the runway until before the collision. The accident had a lasting influence on the industry in the area of communication. An increased emphasis was placed on using standardized phraseology in air traffic control communication by both controllers and pilots alike.
"Cockpit Resource Management" has been incorporated into flight crew training. The captain is no longer considered infallible, combined crew input is encouraged during aircraft operations. 520: The crash of Japan Airlines Flight 123 on August 12, 1985, is the single-aircraft disaster with the highest number of fatalities: 520 people died on board a Boeing 747. The aircraft suffered an explosive decompression from an incorrectly repaired aft pressure bulkhead, which failed in mid flight, destroying most of its vertical stabilizer and severing all of the hydraulic lines, making the 747 uncontrollable. Pilots were able to keep the plane flying for 32 minutes after the mechanical failure before crashing into a mountain. All 15 crew members and 505 of the 509 passengers on board died. Rescue operations were delayed until the following morning, which decreased the number of victims who would have survived the incident. Furthermore, Japanese personnel inaccurately assumed, during a helicopter flyover of the impact site, that there were no survivors.
Medical providers involved in rescue and analysis operations determined that several passengers survived the impact and would have survived the incident had rescue operations not been delayed. Four passengers survived the incident in its entirety. 349: On November 12, 1996, the world's deadliest mid-air collision was the Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision involving Saudia Flight 763 and Kazakhstan Airlines Flight 1907 over Charkhi Dadri, India. The collision was the result of the Kazakh pilot flying lower than the assigned clearance altitude. All 349 passengers and crew on board of both the aircraft died; the Ramesh Chandra Lahoti Commission, empowered to study the causes, recommended the creation of the "semi-circular rule", to prevent aircraft from flying in opposite directions at the same altitude. The Civil Aviation Authorities in India made it mandatory for all aircraft flying in and out of India to be equipped with a Traffic Collision Avoi
Pan Am Flight 103
Pan Am Flight 103 was a scheduled Pan Am transatlantic flight from Frankfurt to Detroit via London and New York. On 21 December 1988, N739PA, the aircraft operating the transatlantic leg of the route was destroyed by a bomb, killing all 243 passengers and 16 crew – a disaster known as the Lockerbie bombing. Large sections of the aircraft crashed onto residential areas of Lockerbie, killing 11 people on the ground. With a total of 270 people killed, it was the deadliest terror attack in the history of the United Kingdom. Following a three-year joint investigation by Dumfries and Galloway Constabulary and the US Federal Bureau of Investigation, arrest warrants were issued for two Libyan nationals in November 1991. In 1999, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi handed over the two men for trial at Camp Zeist, after protracted negotiations and UN sanctions. In 2001, Libyan intelligence officer Abdelbaset al-Megrahi was jailed for life after being found guilty of 270 counts of murder in connection with the bombing.
In August 2009, he was released by the Scottish Government on compassionate grounds after being diagnosed with prostate cancer. He died in May 2012 as the only person to be convicted for the attack. In 2003, Gaddafi accepted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing and paid compensation to the families of the victims, although he maintained that he had never given the order for the attack. Acceptance of responsibility was part of a series of requirements laid out by a UN resolution in order for sanctions against Libya to be lifted. Libya said it had to accept responsibility because a Libyan agent, Abdelbaset Ali Mohammed al-Megrahi, convicted in 2000 of planting the bomb, was a government employee. During the Libyan Civil War in 2011, former Minister of Justice Mustafa Abdul Jalil claimed that the Libyan leader had ordered the bombing, though this was denied. Investigators have long believed that Abdelbaset al-Megrahi did not act alone and have been reported as questioning retired Stasi agents about their possible role in the attack.
Some critics of Megrahi’s prosecution believe that the Lockerbie bombing was carried out by Palestinian terrorists on behalf of Iran, in retaliation for the US downing of an Iranian passenger jet in 1988. Some relatives of the dead, including the Lockerbie campaigner Dr Jim Swire, believe the bomb was planted at Heathrow airport and not sent via feeder flights from Malta, as the US and UK claim. A cell belonging to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine had been operating in West Germany in the months before the Pan Am bombing; the aircraft operating Pan Am Flight 103 was a Boeing 747–121, registered N739PA and named Clipper Maid of the Seas. It was the 15th 747 built, was delivered in February 1970, one month after the first 747 entered service with Pan Am. In 1978, as Clipper Morning Light, it had appeared in "Conquering the Atlantic", the fourth episode of the BBC Television documentary series Diamonds in the Sky, presented by Julian Pettifer; the Clipper Maid of the Seas operated the transatlantic leg of Flight 103, which had originated at Frankfurt Airport, West Germany, on a Boeing 727.
Both Pan Am and TWA changed the type of aircraft operating different legs of a flight. PA103 was bookable as a single Frankfurt-New York itinerary, though a scheduled change of aircraft took place in London. At London Heathrow Airport and their luggage on the feeder flight transferred directly onto the Boeing 747, along with unaccompanied interline luggage; the aircraft pushed back from the terminal at 18:04 and took off from runway 27R at 18:25, en route for New York JFK Airport and on to Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport. Contrary to many popular accounts of the disaster, the flight, which had a scheduled gate departure time of 18:00, left Heathrow airport on time. After the bombing, the flight number was changed, in accordance with standard practice among airlines after disasters. Within days, the Frankfurt-London-New York-Detroit route was being served by Pan Am Flight 3. At 18:58, the aircraft established two-way radio contact with Shanwick Oceanic Area Control in Prestwick on frequency 123.95 MHz.
The Clipper Maid of the Seas approached the corner of the Solway Firth at 19:01, crossed the coast at 19:02 UTC. On scope, the aircraft showed transponder code, or "squawk", 0357 and flight level 310. At this point, the Clipper Maid of the Seas was flying at 31,000 feet on a heading of 316 degrees magnetic, at a speed of 313 kn calibrated airspeed. Subsequent analysis of the radar returns by RSRE concluded that the aircraft was tracking 321° and travelling at a ground speed of 803 km/h. At 19:02:44, the clearance delivery officer at Shanwick transmitted its oceanic route clearance; the aircraft did not acknowledge this message. The Clipper Maid of the Seas' "squawk" flickered off. Air Traffic Control tried to make contact with the flight, with no response. At this time a loud sound was recorded on the cockpit voice recorder at 19:02:50. Five radar echoes fanning out appeared, instead of one. Comparison of the cockpit voice recorder to the radar returns showed that, eight seconds after the explosion, the wreckage had a 1-nautical-mile spread.
A British Airways pilot, flying the London–Glasgow shuttle near Carlisle, called Scottish authorities to report that he could see a huge fire on the ground. The explosion punched a 50-cm hole on the left side of the fuselage. Investigators from the US Federal Aviation Administration concluded that no emergency procedures had been started in the cockpit; the cockpit voice recorder, located in the tail section of the aircraft, was found
The Canadian dollar is the currency of Canada. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes Can$ or C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. Owing to the image of a loon on the one-dollar coin, the currency is sometimes referred to as the loonie by foreign exchange traders and analysts, as it is by Canadians in general, or huard in French. Accounting for 2% of all global reserves, the Canadian dollar is the fifth most held reserve currency in the world, behind the U. S. dollar, the euro, the yen and the pound sterling. The Canadian dollar is popular with central banks because of Canada's relative economic soundness, the Canadian government's strong sovereign position, the stability of the country's legal and political systems; the 1850s were a decade of wrangling over whether to adopt a sterling monetary system or a decimal monetary system based on the US dollar. The British North American provinces, for reasons of practicality in relation to the increasing trade with the neighbouring United States, had a desire to assimilate their currencies with the American unit, but the imperial authorities in London still preferred sterling as the sole currency throughout the British Empire.
The British North American provinces nonetheless adopted currencies tied to the American dollar. In 1841, the Province of Canada adopted a new system based on the Halifax rating; the new Canadian pound was equal to four US dollars, making one pound sterling equal to 1 pound, 4 shillings, 4 pence Canadian. Thus, the new Canadian pound was worth 5.3 pence sterling. In 1851, the Parliament of the Province of Canada passed an act for the purposes of introducing a pound sterling unit in conjunction with decimal fractional coinage; the idea was that the decimal coins would correspond to exact amounts in relation to the U. S. dollar fractional coinage. In response to British concerns, in 1853 an act of the Parliament of the Province of Canada introduced the gold standard into the colony, based on both the British gold sovereign and the American gold eagle coins; this gold standard was introduced with the gold sovereign being legal tender at £1 = US$4.86 2⁄3. No coinage was provided for under the 1853 act.
Sterling coinage was made legal tender and all other silver coins were demonetized. The British government in principle allowed for a decimal coinage but held out the hope that a sterling unit would be chosen under the name of "royal". However, in 1857, the decision was made to introduce a decimal coinage into the Province of Canada in conjunction with the U. S. dollar unit. Hence, when the new decimal coins were introduced in 1858, the colony's currency became aligned with the U. S. currency, although the British gold sovereign continued to remain legal tender at the rate of £1 = 4.86 2⁄3 right up until the 1990s. In 1859, Canadian colonial postage stamps were issued with decimal denominations for the first time. In 1861, Canadian postage stamps were issued with the denominations shown in cents. In 1860, the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed the Province of Canada in adopting a decimal system based on the U. S. dollar unit. Newfoundland went decimal in 1865, but unlike the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, it decided to adopt a unit based on the Spanish dollar rather than on the U.
S. dollar, there was a slight difference between these two units. The U. S. dollar was created in 1792 on the basis of the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. As such, the Spanish dollar was worth more than the U. S. dollar, the Newfoundland dollar, until 1895, was worth more than the Canadian dollar. The Colony of British Columbia adopted the British Columbia dollar as its currency in 1865, at par with the Canadian dollar; when British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871, the Canadian dollar replaced the British Columbia dollar. In 1871, Prince Edward Island went decimal within the U. S. dollar unit and introduced coins for 1¢. However, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards, when Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion of Canada in 1873. In 1867, the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia united in a federation named Canada and the three currencies were merged into the Canadian dollar; the Canadian Parliament passed the Uniform Currency Act in April 1871, tying up loose ends as to the currencies of the various provinces and replacing them with a common Canadian dollar.
The gold standard was temporarily abandoned during the First World War and definitively abolished on April 10, 1933. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the exchange rate to the U. S. dollar was fixed at C$1.10 = US$1.00. This was changed to parity in 1946. In 1949, sterling was devalued and Canada followed, returning to a peg of C$1.10 = US$1.00. However, Canada allowed its dollar to float in 1950, whereupon the currency rose to a slight premium over the U. S. dollar for the next decade. But the Canadian dollar fell after 1960 before it was again pegged in 1962 at C$1.00 = US$0.925. This was sometimes pejoratively referred to as the "Diefenbuck" or the "Diefendollar", after the Prime Minister, John Diefenbaker; this peg lasted until 1970. Canadian English, like American English, used the slang term "buck" for a former paper dollar; the Canadian origin of this term derives from a coin struck by the Hudson's Bay Company during the 17th century with a value equal to the pelt of a male beaver – a "buck".
Because of the appearance of the common loon on the back of the $1 coin that replaced the dollar bill in 1987, the word "loonie" was adopted in Canadian parla
The Gemini Awards were awards given by the Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television to recognize the achievements of Canada's television industry. The Gemini Awards are analogous to the Emmy Awards given in the United States and the BAFTA Television Awards in the United Kingdom. First held in 1986 to replace the ACTRA Award, the ceremony celebrated Canadian television productions with awards in 87 categories, along with other special awards such as lifetime achievement awards. In April 2012, the Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television announced that the Gemini Awards and the Genie Awards would be discontinued and replaced by a new award ceremony dedicated to all forms of Canadian media, including television and digital media; the first Canadian Screen Awards were held on 4 March 2013. The Geminis covered only English-language productions; the Academy organizes a separate awards show for French productions known as the Prix Gémeaux. Best Music Video Academy Achievement Award - general lifetime honour, inaugurated in 1996 Donald Brittain Award - for the best political or social documentary Canada Award - began in 1988 as the Multiculturalism Award, this is award "honours excellence in mainstream television programming that reflects the racial and cultural diversity of Canada."
Margaret Collier Award - lifetime writing honour John Drainie Award - broadcasting, not awarded every year Humanitarian Award - inaugurated in 2001, recipients to date: Donald Martin Wendy Crewson Max Keeping George R. Robertson Royal Canadian Air Farce Gordon Sinclair Award for Broadcast Journalism - for television journalists who make outstanding contributions Official website Townend, Paul. "Gemini Awards". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008. Retrieved 2007-10-21