Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Austrian National Library
The Austrian National Library is the largest library in Austria, with more than 12 million items in its various collections. The library is located in the Neue Burg Wing of the Hofburg in center of Vienna. Since 2005, some of the collections have been relocated within the baroque structure of the Palais Mollard-Clary. Founded by the Habsburgs, the library was called the Imperial Court Library; the library complex includes four museums, as well as archives. The institution has its origin in the imperial library of the Middle Ages. During the Medieval period, the Austrian Duke Albert III moved the books of the Viennese vaults into a library. Albert arranged for important works from Latin to be translated into German. In the Hofburg, the treasure of Archduke Albert III had been kept in sacristies inside the south tower of the imperial chapel; the Archduke was a connoisseur of art. The oldest book on record at the library, the 1368 golden Holy Gospels, was owned by Albert III. On scenes depicting the lives of the four Evangelists, four coats of arms show the House of Austria, Tirol and Carinthia, the lands which Archduke Albrecht III had ruled at the time.
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, had the goal of consolidating the art treasures among the Habsburg possessions. Among other things, he brought some valuable books into the Vienna, among them the Prager Wenzelsbibel and the document of the golden bull. Through his marriage with Mary of Burgundy, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor came into possession of important books from Burgundy and north France, brought these to Wiener Neustadt. With a value at that time estimated at 100,000 guldens, these books represented about an eighth of Mary's dowry. Maximilian's second wife, Bianca Maria Sforza, brought into the marriage books from Italian workshops as part of her dowry. At that time the books of the library were kept in Wiener Neustadt in Vienna, in Innsbruck. After the death of Maximilian, the books were sent to the palace at Innsbruck. In addition to the valuable books from the public treasury, the Bibliotheca Regia, which collected and categorized scientific works, was developed in Vienna during the 16th century.
Besides books, that library contained globes and atlases. Over time the library expanded thanks to donations from the personal libraries of individual scholars; the first head librarian, Hugo Blotius, was appointed in 1575 by Emperor Maximilian II. His most important task was drawing up the inventory of the library, which had grown to 9,000 books; as a consequence, new works were added systematically, other libraries were incorporated. On 26 August, 1624, delivery of copies was regulated by order of Ferdinand II; the Imperial Library increased by purchases. In particular, the library of Philipp Eduard Fugger led to a major expansion; the library has about 17,000 sheets of one of the first periodic printing elements, the Fugger newspapers, from the Fugger library. In 1722, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor authorized the construction of a permanent home for the library in the Hofburg palace, after the plans of Leopold I; the wing was begun by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and started accommodating the library in the 18th century.
The most valuable addition at that time was the extensive collection of Prince Eugene of Savoy, whose 15,000 volumes included valuable books from France and Italy. The State Hall of the library housed about 200,000 books at this point. During the reorganization there was for the first time criticism regarding the fact that the library served as representation rather than the search for knowledge. Doctor Gerard van Swieten, physician to Maria Theresia, his son Gottfried van Swieten supplemented the collection with numerous scientific works. Gottfried van Swieten successfully introduced the card index; this facilitated the continuous updating of the inventory. After the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Napoleon and the Austrian Empire proclaimed in its place, the library was again reorganized. Under custodian Paul Strattmann, the library received a program for the first time which described its order; the collection politics of the Imperial Library separated at the beginning the 19th century appreciably due to the requirements of the representation and its attention to scientific works.
The multinational condition of the Austrian Empire brought with itself that, not only German-language books were collected, but books of the Slavic and Hungarian linguistic area. Substantial parts of the Hungarian collection moved to Budapest, after reconciliation with Hungary. During the March revolution of 1848, the Imperial Library was in extreme danger, when after the bombardment of Vienna caused the burning of the Hofburg, in which the Imperial Library was located. An important addition to the Imperial Library is the papyrus collection, which goes back to the acquisitions of the Viennese of antique dealer Theodor Graf. After the proclamation of the Republic of Austria, the Imperial Library was rena
Alland is a market town in the district of Baden in the Austrian state of Lower Austria. It is located in the Industrieviertel region of Lower Austria, about 20 km southwest of the Austrian capital Vienna. Alland is situated in a valley of the Vienna Woods mountain recreation area; the municipal area comprises the village of Mayerling with its hunting lodge, today a Carmelite monastery. The present-day municipality was formed in 1972 by the merger of Alland and Raisenmarkt comprising the cadastral communities of Alland, Glashütten, Innerer Kaltenbergerforst and Äußerer Kaltenbergerforst, Mayerling, Pöllerhof, Rohrbach, Schwechatbach and Windhaag, it is the largest municipality in Baden District by area. Archaeological excavations of Linear Pottery artifacts indicate that the valley had been settled since the Neolithic era. A first church in Alland was erected in the 8th century. In 1002 King Henry II of Germany enfeoffed large estates around Alland up to the Triesting River to the Babenberg margrave Henry I of Austria.
The Sts George and Margareta parish church was first mentioned in 1123. In 1133 Margrave Leopold III founded nearby Heiligenkreuz Abbey. Alland remained a possession of the Babenberg rulers after their march was elevated to the Duchy of Austria and the place where the last male heir Frederick I of Austria, son of Gertrude of Babenberg, was born in 1249. Frederick however was not able to assert his claims; the Babenberg hereditary lands were taken over by King Ottokar II of Bohemia and seized by the Habsburg king Rudolf I of Germany in 1276. The parish was incorporated into Heiligenkreuz Abbey at the behest of Pope Urban VI in 1386. Held by the Lords of Kottingbrunn from 1507, the lands were devastated by Ottoman forces during the 1529 Siege of Vienna and again in the course of the Battle of Vienna in 1683; the Mayerling hunting lodge, a Heiligenkreuz possession since 1550, was acquired by Archduke Rudolf of Austria, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian crown, in 1886. Three years it saw the Mayerling Incident occur, when Rudolf and his beloved killed themselves here.
Afterwards Rudolf's father Emperor Franz Joseph ordered the conversion of the hunting lodge into a monastery which he committed to Carmelite nuns to pray for his son's salvation. Since the fin de siècle, Alland has been converted to a tourist resort and a spa town, a favorite of the nearby Vienna residents. After the Anschluss annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, the Mayerling monastery was dissolved, the nuns expelled, the premises turned into a forced labour camp in connection with the construction of the nearby Reichsautobahn. In the late days of World War II the Alland area saw heavy fighting between the I SS Panzer Corps under the command of General Josef Dietrich and Red Army forces of the 6th Guards Tank Army under Marshal Fyodor Tolbukhin from 4 to 22 April 1945. After the war, the demolished Mayerling monastery was restored to the Carmelites and the destroyed buildings were reconstructed. In the 1950s and 60s Alland regained its status as a popular destination for daytrippers and commuters from and to Vienna.
The municipality was elevated to a market town in 2002. Seats in the municipal assembly as of 2010 elections: Austrian People's Party: 13 Social Democratic Party of Austria: 6 Freedom Party of Austria: 1 ALL: 1 Leopold von Schrötter and laryngologist, opened the Alland lung clinic in 1898
The Mayerling incident is the series of events surrounding the apparent murder–suicide of Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria and his lover, Baroness Mary Vetsera. Rudolf, married to Princess Stéphanie of Belgium, was the only son of Emperor Franz Joseph and Empress Elisabeth, heir apparent to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Rudolf's mistress was the daughter of a diplomat at the Austrian court; the bodies of the 30-year-old Archduke and the 17-year-old baroness were discovered in the Imperial hunting lodge at Mayerling in the Vienna Woods, 26.6 kilometres southwest of the capital, on the morning of 30 January 1889. The death of the crown prince had momentous consequences for the course of history in the nineteenth century, it had a devastating effect on the compromised marriage of the Imperial couple and interrupted the security inherent in the immediate line of Habsburg dynastic succession. As Rudolf had no son, the succession would pass to Franz Joseph's brother, Archduke Karl Ludwig, his eldest son, Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
This destabilization endangered the growing reconciliation between the Austrian and Hungarian factions of the empire, which became a catalyst of the developments that led to the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie by Gavrilo Princip, a Yugoslav nationalist and ethnic Serb, at Sarajevo in June 1914, the subsequent drift into the First World War. By 1889, many people at the court, including Rudolf's parents and his wife, knew that Rudolf and Mary were having an affair, his marriage to Stephanie was not a happy one and had resulted in the birth of only one daughter, known as Erzsi. On 29 January 1889, Franz Joseph and Elisabeth gave a family dinner party prior to leaving for Buda, in Hungary, on 31 January, he had arranged for a day's shooting at Mayerling hunting lodge early on the morning of the 30th, but when his valet Loschek went to call him, there was no answer. Count Joseph Hoyos, the Archduke's hunting companion, joined with no response, they tried to force the door. Loschek smashed in a panel with an axe to find the room shuttered and half-dark.
Rudolf was found sitting motionless by the side of the bed, leaning forward and bleeding from the mouth. Before him on the bedside table stood a glass and a mirror. Without closer examination in the poor light, Loschek assumed that the crown prince had drunk poison from the glass, since he knew strychnine caused bleeding. On the bed lay the body of Mary Vetsera; the mistaken impression that poison was involved, that the baroness had poisoned the crown prince and killed herself, would persist for some time. Hoyos did not look any closer, but took a special train to Vienna, he hurried to the Emperor's Adjutant General, Count Paar, requested him to break the appalling news to the Emperor. The stifling protocol that characterized every movement in the Hofburg swung ponderously into action. Baron Nopcsa, Controller of the Empress's Household, was sent for, he in turn sent for Countess Ida Ferenczy, Empress Elisabeth's favorite Hungarian lady-in-waiting, to determine how Her Majesty should be informed.
Elisabeth was at her Greek lesson, was impatient at the interruption. White to the lips, Ferenczy announced. Elisabeth replied that he must come back later; the countess insisted that he must be received finally being forced to add that there was grave news about the Crown Prince. This account comes from Ferenczy herself and Archduchess Marie Valerie, to whom Elisabeth dictated her memory of the incident, in addition to the description in her diary; the countess entered the room again to find Elisabeth weeping uncontrollably. At this point, the Emperor appeared outside her apartments, was forced to wait there with Nopcsa, controlling himself only with great effort; the Empress broke the news to her husband in private. The Minister for Police was summoned and the national security services sealed off the hunting lodge and the surrounding area; the body of Mary Vetsera was interred as soon without judicial inquiry and in secret. On behalf of the Emperor, Prime Minister Count Eduard Taaffe issued a statement at noon that Rudolf had died "due to a rupture of an aneurism of the heart".
The Imperial family and court were still under the impression that he had been poisoned and it appears that Mary's mother, Baroness Helene Vetsera believed this. It was only when the court medical commission headed by Dr. Widerhofer arrived in Mayerling that afternoon that a more accurate cause of death was established, not until 6 a.m. the following morning, when Widerhofer made his report to the Emperor, that the true state of affairs became known. The official gazette of Vienna still reported the original story that day: "His Royal and Imperial Highness, Crown Prince Archduke Rudolf, died yesterday at his hunting lodge of Mayerling, near Baden, from the rupture of an aneurism of the heart."Foreign correspondents descended on Mayerling and soon learned that Rudolf's mistress was implicated in his death. This first official version of a heart attack was dropped. At that stage, the "heart failure" version was amended, it was announced that the Archduke had first shot the baroness in a suicide pact and sat by her body for several hours before shooting himself.
Rudolf and the Emper
Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria
Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria was the only son and third child of Emperor Franz Joseph I and Elisabeth of Bavaria. He was heir apparent to the throne of Austria-Hungary from birth. In 1889, he died in a suicide pact with his mistress, Baroness Mary Vetsera, at the Mayerling hunting lodge; the ensuing scandal made international headlines. He was named after the first Habsburg King of Germany, Rudolf I, who assumed the throne in 1273. Rudolf was born at Schloss Laxenburg, a castle near Vienna, as the son of Emperor Franz Joseph I and Empress Elisabeth. Influenced by his tutor Ferdinand von Hochstetter, Rudolf became interested in natural sciences, starting a mineral collection at an early age. After his death, large portions of his mineral collection came into the possession of the University for Agriculture in Vienna. In 1877 the Count of Bombelles was master of the young prince. Bombelles was the former custodian of his aunt Empress Charlotte of Mexico. Rudolf was raised together with his older sister Gisela and the two were close.
At the age of six, Rudolf was separated from his sister as he began his education to become a future emperor. This did not change their relationship and Gisela remained close to him until she left Vienna upon her marriage to Prince Leopold of Bavaria. In contrast with his conservative father, Rudolf held liberal views, that were closer to those of his mother, his relationship with her was, at times, strained. In Vienna, on 10 May 1881, Rudolf married Princess Stéphanie of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold II of the Belgians, at the Augustinian's Church in Vienna. Although their marriage was a happy one, by the time their only child, the Archduchess Elisabeth, was born on 2 September 1883, the couple had drifted apart, he found solace in drink and other female companionship. Rudolf started having many affairs, wanted to write to Pope Leo XIII about the possibility of annulling his marriage to Stéphanie, but the Emperor forbade it. Stephanie was unable to have other children due to being infected with syphilis.
In 1886, Rudolf bought Mayerling. In late 1888, the 30-year-old crown prince met the 17-year-old Baroness Marie Vetsera, known by the more fashionable Anglophile name Mary, began an affair with her. On 30 January 1889, he and Vetsera were discovered dead in the lodge as a result of an apparent murder–suicide; as suicide would prevent him from being given a church burial, Rudolf was declared to have been in a state of "mental unbalance", he was buried in the Imperial Crypt of the Capuchin Church in Vienna. Mary's body was smuggled out of Mayerling in the middle of the night and secretly buried in the village cemetery at Heiligenkreuz; the Emperor had Mayerling converted into a penitential convent of Carmelite nuns and endowed a chantry. Prayers are still said daily by the nuns for the repose of Rudolf's soul; the current Archduke Rudolf, son of Archduke Carl Ludwig of Austria, has disputed this version of events, asserting that Rudolf was in fact assassinated by Freemasons. However, Vetsera's private letters were discovered in a safe deposit box in an Austrian bank in 2015, they revealed that she was preparing to commit suicide alongside Rudolf, out of "love".
Rudolf's death plunged his mother into despair. She wore black or pearl grey, the colours of mourning, for the rest of her life and spent more and more time away from the imperial court in Vienna. Empress Elisabeth was murdered while abroad in Geneva, Switzerland in 1898 by an Italian anarchist, Luigi Lucheni. Politically, Rudolf's death left Franz Joseph without a direct male heir. Franz-Joseph's younger brother, Archduke Karl Ludwig, was next in line to the Austro-Hungarian throne, though it was falsely reported that he had renounced his succession rights. In any case, his death in 1896 from typhoid made his eldest son, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the new heir presumptive. In 1914, Franz Ferdinand's assassination precipitated World War I. Emperor Franz-Joseph was succeeded by his grandnephew, Karl; the demands of American President Wilson forced Emperor Karl to renounce involvement in state affairs in Vienna in early November 1918. As a result, the empire ceased to exist and a republic came into being without revolution.
Karl and his family went into exile in Switzerland after spending a short time at Castle Eckarstau. Mayerling, a film directed by Anatole Litvak, with Charles Boyer and Danielle Darrieux, based on a novel by Claude Anet. Sarajevo, a film directed; the musical Marinka, with book by George Marion Jr. and Karl Farkas, lyrics by George Marion, Jr. music by Emmerich Kalman. Rudolf appears in the Austrian film Der Engel mit der Posaune and in the British remake of that film, The Angel with the Trumpet. Mayerling, a 1968 film, starring Omar Sharif as Crown Prince Rudolf, Catherine Deneuve as Mary with James Mason as Kaiser Franz Josef and Ava Gardner as Empress Elisabeth. Japanese Takarazuka Revue's "Utakata no Koi"/"Ephemeral Love", based on the 1968 film. Requiem for a Crown Prince, one-hour episode of the British documentary/drama series Fall of Eagles, directed by James Furman and written by David Turner, tracks in detail the events of 30 January 1889 and the following few days at Mayerling. Miklós Jancsó's 1975 film Vizi Privati, Publiche Virtù, a reinterpretation in which the lovers and their friends are murdered by imperial authorities for treason and immorality.
Kenneth MacMillan's Mayerling. Rudolf appears as a character in the musical Elisabeth Rudolf appears as a character
Heiligenkreuz Abbey is a Cistercian monastery in the village of Heiligenkreuz in the southern part of the Vienna woods, c. 13 km north-west of Baden in Lower Austria. It is the oldest continuously occupied Cistercian monastery in the world; the monastery was founded in 1133 by Margrave St. Leopold III of Austria, at the request of his son Otto, soon to be abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Morimond in Burgundy and afterwards Bishop of Freising, its first twelve monks together with their abbot, came from Morimond at the request of Leopold III. The date of consecration was 11 September 1133, they called their abbey Heiligenkreuz as a sign of their devotion to redemption by the Cross. On 31 May 1188 Leopold V of Austria presented the abbey with a relic of the True Cross, still to be seen and since 1983 is exhibited in the chapel of the Holy Cross; this relic was a present from Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, King of Jerusalem to duke Leopold V in 1182. Heiligenkreuz was richly endowed by the founder's family, the Babenberg dynasty, was active in the foundation of many daughter-houses.
The following Cistercian monasteries were founded by Heiligenkreuz: Zwettl Abbey in Lower Austria in 1138. More in 1988, Heiligenkreuz founded Stiepel Priory at Bochum-Stiepel in the Ruhrgebiet. Furthermore, in the 1990s the monastery gave substantial support for re-founding Vyšší Brod Monastery in the Czech Republic. During the 15th and 16th centuries the abbey was endangered by epidemics and fires, it suffered during the Turkish wars of 1529 and 1683. In the latter, the Turkish hordes burnt down much of the abbey precinct, rebuilt on a larger scale in the Baroque style under Abbot Klemens Schäfer. Heiligenkreuz abbots were noted for their piety and learning. In 1734 the Abbey of St. Gotthard in Hungary was ceded to Heiligenkreuz by Emperor Charles VI. In the late 1800s, it was united with the Hungarian Zirc Abbey; the monastery of Neukloster at Wiener-Neustadt was joined to Heiligenkreuz in 1881. Heiligenkreuz was spared dissolution under Emperor Joseph II. Although the National Socialists planned its dissolution in the Third Reich, this plan was not carried out.
Abbot Karl Braunstorfer of Heiligenkreuz was a Council Father at the Second Vatican Council. The abbey has been an important Austrian centre for music for more than 800 years. Many manuscripts have been found at this monastery, most notably those of Alberich Mazak. Today it is popularly known for a 2008 recording of Gregorian chant: "Chant: Music For Paradise". Other recordings followed. Entrance to the abbey is through a large inner court in the centre of which stands a Baroque Holy Trinity Column, designed by Giovanni Giuliani and completed in 1739; the façade, as in most Cistercian churches, shows three simple windows as a symbol for the Trinity. Cistercian, the church lacked a bell-tower, but one was added during the Baroque era on the north side of the church; the abbey church of Heiligenkreuz combines two styles of architecture. The façade and the transept are Romanesque, while the choir is Gothic; the austere nave is a rare, famous, example of Romanesque architecture in Austria. The 13th century window paintings in the choir are some of the most beautiful remnants of medieval art.
The chapter house in the cloisters contains the graves of thirteen members of the House of Babenberg, some of them being: Blessed Otto of Freising Duke Leopold V the Virtuous Duke Frederick I the Catholic Henry I, Duke of Mödling Duke Frederick II the QuarrelsomeThe remains of Blessed Otto of Freising are kept under the altar of the Blessed Sacrament at the east end of the presbytery. The Baroness Mary Vetsera, victim of an unsolved murder in nearby Mayerling in which Crown Prince Rudolf von Habsburg died is buried in the village cemetery near Heiligenkreuz. In 1802 an institute for philosophical and theological studies was established, which became a Hochschule in 1976; the Benedict XVI Philosophical-Theological University is now one of the largest faculties for the education of priests in the German-speaking world. In January 2007, Pope Benedict XVI raised the Hochschule to the status of Pontifical Athenaeum, which means the institution may now grant degrees according to Roman university privileges, instead of in the name of other Austrian universities.
Presently, over 90 monks belong to the monastic community, the focus of, the liturgy and Gregorian chant in Latin. Some of the monks have pastoral duties in the 17 parishes for which the abbey is responsible or serve as professors at the Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule. Others serve in caring for the upkeep of the historic abbey. Heiligenkreuz is home to the Priesterseminar Leopoldinum, a theological college for men in preparation for the priesthood. Stift Heiligenkreuz is known today as one of the most vibrant monasteries in central Europe. Many other monasteries send their junior monks to Heiligenkreuz for theological and monastic training, it was one of the first abbeys to realize the value of the internet apostolate, maintaining a updated homepage and several groups
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012