Richard Ferrand is a French politician serving as President of the National Assembly since 2018. He has been the member of the National Assembly for Finistère's 6th constituency since 2012. A longtime member of the Socialist Party, he was the General Secretary of La République En Marche! from October 2016 and became leader of the La République En Marche! group of the National Assembly in June 2017. Richard Ferrand was born on 1 July 1962 in France. Ferrand graduated high school in Bünde and studied German and Law at Toulouse 1 University Capitole and Université Paris-Descartes where he became a PS member at the age of 18. After leaving university, Ferrand worked as a journalist for multiple publications including Center Presse, Auto Moto, Vie publique, La Dépêche du Midi and Le Monde. In 1991, Ferrand became the communications advisor for Kofi Yamgnane, the then- secretary of state to the Minister of Social Affairs and Integration. Richard Ferrard joined the Socialist Party in 1980 and was elected as the councillor in the township of Carhaix-Plouguer in 1998 as his first elected office.
In the municipal elections in 2001 and 2008, Ferrand lost in both times, obtaining 31% of the vote in 2008. In the 2010 regional elections, he was one of the PS nominees for the Finistère department, he became councillor for the region on 21 March 2010 and has since chaired the socialist and related group. In 2007, Ferrand ran for Finistère's 6th constituency under the PS banner, he lost to Christian Ménard. In 2012, Ferrand ran in the same constituency for PS where he got 32.2% of the vote in the first round and 58.3% of the vote in the second round. In the National Assembly, Ferrand was a member of the SER group and sits on the Social Affairs Committee, he has never worked in the agricultural or agri-food sector, but is co-chairman of the agricultural and agro-food industries group. He involves himself in social issues and the use of cheaper labour than available. While on the Social Affairs Committee, Ferrand was an EU-appointed rapporteur on resolutions around workers and the use of cheaper European labor.
In his report, he stated that European workers feel detached due to the lack of social cohesion and the use of cheaper labour to replace them. He advocates measures to limit the replacement of workers. Despite Ferrand's opposition to the Bonnets Rouges movement against the eco-tax, started by the Fillon government and further expanded upon by the Ayrault government, he took a stand against the expansions, saying they underline the complexity of the tax system, he supports amendments to the eco-tax. After there was a postponement of the eco-tax and other Breton politicians asked Minister of Energy, Ségolène Royal to rethink the tax plan. On 3 October 2014, the Prime Minister Manuel Valls appointed him along with the minister of economy, Emmanuel Macron to work on a plan to reform regulations based around labour, he was tasked with looking at the "legal framework that restricts labour from developing" while paying attention to the different situations from many different regions. After consulting many trade unions and other associations, he submitted the report that stresses that reforming the regulated labor market is needed but "reform, don't break, this includes twenty-eight proposals that are aimed at promoting young people's access to the job market."This reform was put to the National Assembly where it was amended by the members of the assembly which resulted in the "Act for Growth and Equal Opportunity" or the Macron law, lobbied against by unions and other organizations.
Ferrand was appointed as the general rapporteur, one of the biggest reforms within the first five years of President Hollande's term with over 300 articles and sectors such as: transport, labor courts and qualified professions being reformed. More than one hundred and eleven hours went into debate in the National Assembly over the reform; the text was adopted including measures that were not there but added during parliamentary debate such as: Letting commercial stores open on Sundays, liberalization of transport services and encouraging qualified professions to allow young people into the profession. On 16 October 2016, Ferrand was appointed General Secretary of En Marche! by Emmanuel Macron, someone he worked with when he was the minister for Economy. The following month, Ferrand resigned from leading the PS group in the regional council for Finistère, confirmed that he quit the PS on 9 May 2017. On 24 June 2017, it was announced that Ferrand was elected leader of La République En Marche! group in the National Assembly with 306 votes and 2 abstentions.
Media related to Richard Ferrand at Wikimedia Commons
Second Philippe government
The second Philippe government is the forty-first government of the Fifth Republic of France. It is the second government formed by Édouard Philippe under President Emmanuel Macron, following the 2017 legislative elections and the dissolution of the first Philippe government on 19 June 2017; the second Philippe government was formed following scandal among ministers during the first Philippe government. La République En Marche! allies Democratic Movement were facing scandal following allegations that the party used EU funds to pay party workers. Defense minister Sylvie Goulard was the first to step down, resigning on 20 June, 2017; the following day, Minister of Justice Francois Bayrou and European Affairs minister, Marielle de Sarnez stepped down. Richard Ferrand, Minister of Territorial Cohesion, stepped down on 19 June 2017 following Le Canard Enchaîné publishing allegations of nepotism on 24 May 2017. Macron defended Ferrand despite the allegations and public polling showing that 70% of respondents wanted Ferrand to step down.
On 1 July 2017, a regional prosecutor announced that authorities had launched a preliminary investigation into Ferrand. Ferrand responded to the allegations saying everything was "legal and transparent". Ferrand was one of the founding members of La République En Marche and is serving as general secretary for the party. On 31 July 2018 government survived two motions of no confidence following the Benalla affair: the first one obtained 103 ayes, while the second obtained 63 votes. Both motions did not reach the quorum of 289 votes required in the National Assembly. Following the yellow vests movement a motion of no confidence was initiated by the Socialist Party, the French Communist Party and La France Insoumise on 13 December 2018 but the government survived the motion as there were 70 votes in favour, falling short of the required number of 289. Deputy Ministers Secretaries of State On 24 November 2017, Christophe Castaner was replaced as Government Spokesman by Benjamin Griveaux, replaced as Secretary of State to the Minister of Economy and Finance by Delphine Gény-Stephann, while Socialist Olivier Dussopt was appointed as Secretary of State to the Minister of Public Action and Accounts.
On 28 August 2018, Nicolas Hulot announced his resignation from the government during a live radio interview on France Inter. On 4 September, Laura Flessel announced her resignation from the government, with their respective replacements announced as Francois de Rugy and Roxana Mărăcineanu. On 1 October 2018, the Minister of the Interior Gérard Collomb brings his resignation to Presisent Marcon, who refuses it, he renews his intention a few days and Emmanuel Macron accepts the resignation. President Macron asks Prime Minister Édouard Philippe to act as interim. On 16 October 2018, Christophe Castaner is appointed Minister of the Interior, which puts an end to Édouard Philippe's tenure. Marc Fesneau replaces Christophe Castaner at Relations with Parliament. Franck Riester is appointed Minister of Culture to replace Françoise Nyssen. Didier Guillaume is appointed Minister of Food in replacement of Stéphane Travert. Jacqueline Gourault is appointed Minister of Territorial Cohesion to replace Jacques Mézard and her portfolio is extended to Relations with local authorities.
Delphine Gény-Stephann is not renewed. Are appointed Secretary of State Gabriel Attal to the National Education, Laurent Nuñez in the Interior, Christelle Dubos to Solidarity and Health, Agnès Pannier-Runacher to the Economy and Emmanuelle Wargon to Ecology. In addition, several members of the government have their powers expanded. On 25 January 2019, Adrien Taquet is appointed Secretary of State for the Protection of Childhood to the Minister of Health, Agnès Buzyn. On 27 March 2019, in view of the 2019 European elections and 2020 municipal election in Paris, Nathalie Loiseau, Benjamin Griveaux, as well as Mounir Mahjoubi leave their government responsabilities, with Le Drian temporarily assuming responsibility for Loiseau's ministerial portfolio. On 31 March 2019, Amélie de Montchalin is appointed Secretary of State for European Affairs, succeeding Nathalie Loiseau. Sibeth Ndiaye is appointed succeeding Benjamin Griveaux. Cédric O is appointed State Secretary for the Digital Economy. Official announcement
France–Americas relations started in the 16th century, soon after the discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus, have developed over a period of several centuries. In order to counterbalance the power of the Habsburg Empire under Charles V, its control of large parts of the New World through the Crown of Spain, Francis I endeavoured to develop contacts with the New World and Asia. In 1524, Francis I assisted the citizens of Lyon in financing the expedition of Giovanni da Verrazzano to North America. Verrazzano was an Italian in the service of the French crown; the objective was to find a passage to Cathay. Verrazzano was the first European since the Norse colonization of the Americas around AD 1000 to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between South and North Carolina and Newfoundland, including New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay in 1524: in between, John Cabot had explored Labrador to the North, the Spanish had settled parts of Florida. On this expedition, Verrazzano claimed Newfoundland for the French crown.
In 1531, Bertrand d'Ornesan, Baron de Saint-Blancard tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco, Brazil. In 1534, Francis sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec to find "certain islands and lands where it is said he should find great quantities of gold and other rich things". In 1541, Francis sent Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval to settle Canada and to provide for the spread of "the Holy Catholic faith." Soon, the Huguenots, whose Reformist religions was in conflict with the French crown, attempted to colonize the New World to find a new ground for their religion and to contest the Catholic presence there. Huguenot pirates such as François le Clerc attacked Catholic shipping raiding New World harbours; the Huguenots raided Hispaniola in 1553, fighting against the Spanish Catholic presence there, followed by raid on Cuba. La Havana was seized by Jacques de Sores in 1555; the first attempts at colonization were made under Jean de Léry. After the short-lived establishment of France Antarctique in Brazil from 1555 to 1567, they had to abandon, resolved to make a stand back in France, centering on the city of La Rochelle for the organization of resistance.
The first French expedition to Florida occurred in 1562, composed of Protestants, was led by Jean Ribault and permitted the short-lived establishment of Fort Caroline, named after the French king Charles IX. These first attempts at Huguenot colonization would be taken over by Catholics, following the Huguenot repression in the French wars of religion. Towards the end of his reign Henry IV of France started to look at the possibility of ventures abroad, with both America and the Levant being among the possibilities. In 1604, the French explorer Samuel Champlain initiated the first important French involvement in Northern America, founding Port Royal as the first permanent European settlement in North America north of Florida in 1605, founding the first permanent French establishment at Quebec in 1608. In 1632, Isaac de Razilly became involved, at the request of Cardinal Richelieu, in the colonization of Acadia, by taking possession of the Habitation at Port-Royal and developing it into a French colony.
The King gave Razilly the official title of lieutenant-general for New France. He took on military tasks such as ordering the taking of control of Fort Pentagouet at Majabigwaduce on the Penobscot Bay, given to France in an earlier Treaty, to inform the English they were to vacate all lands North of Pemaquid; this resulted in all the French interests in Acadia being restored. Robert de La Salle departed from La Rochelle, France, on July 24, 1684, with the objective of setting up a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi establishing Fort Saint Louis in Texas; the French colonial drive increased in the 17th century, the "conquest of the souls" being an integral part of the constitution of Nouvelle-France, leading to the development of the Jesuit missions in North America. The efforts of the Jesuits in North America were paralleled by the Jesuit China missions on the other side of the world. In France, the Huguenots were defeated by Royal forces in the Siege of La Rochelle: Cardinal Richelieu blockaded the city for 14 months, until the city surrendered and lost its mayor and its privileges.
The growing persecution of the Huguenots culminated with the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV in 1685. Many Huguenots emigrated, founding such cities as New Rochelle in the vicinity of today's New York in 1689. A colonizing party of 500 and a mission of four Franciscans were sent under a 1611 patent letter from the Regent Marie de Médicis; the colonial enterprise to found "France Équinoxiale" was led by Daniel de la Tousche, Sieur de la Ravardière, François de Razilly. The outpost would become the city of São Luís do Maranhão; the French arrived in the island in August 1612. One of the objectives of the mission was to establish trade in tobacco; when France and Spain became allied through the marriage of Louis XIII with Anne of Austria in 1615, support for the colony was discontinued and the colonists abandoned. The Portuguese soon managed to expel the French from the colony. In 1624, settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began; the French started to establish smaller but more profitable colonies in the West Indies.
A colony was founded on Saint Kitts in 1625, in sharing with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, when it was occupied in its entirety. The Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique founded colonies in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, a colony wa
Elections in France
France is a representative democracy. Public officials in the legislative and executive branches are either elected by the citizens or appointed by elected officials. Referendums may be called to consult the French citizenry directly on a particular question one which concerns amendment to the Constitution. France elects on its national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature; the president is elected for a five-year term, directly by the citizens. The Parliament has two chambers; the National Assembly has 577 members, elected for a five-year term in single seat-constituencies directly by the citizens. The Senate has 348 members, elected for six-year terms. 328 members are elected by an electoral college consisting of elected representatives from each of 96 departments in metropolitan France, 8 of which are elected from other dependencies, 12 of which are elected by the French Assembly of French Citizens Abroad which has replaced the High Council of French Citizens Abroad a 155-member assembly elected by citizens living abroad.
In addition, French citizens elect a variety of local governments. There are public elections for some non-political positions, such as those for the judges of courts administering labour law, elected by workers and employers, or those for judges administering cases of rural land leases. France does not have a fully-fledged two-party system; however French politics has ordinarily displayed some tendencies characterizing a two-party system in which power alternates between stable coalitions, each being led by a major party: on the left, the Socialist Party, on the right, Les Républicains and its predecessors. This pattern was upset in 2017, when neither of those parties' candidates reached the second round of the presidential election and the newly-formed party En Marche! gained both the presidency and a comfortable majority in the National Assembly. Elections are conducted according to rules set down in the Constitution of France, organisational laws, the electoral code. Voting is not compulsory.
Elections are held on Sundays. The campaigns end at midnight the Friday before the election; the voting stations open at 8 am and close at 6 pm in small towns or at 8 pm in cities, depending on prefectoral decisions. By law, publication of results or estimates is prohibited prior to that time; the first estimate of the results are thus known at 8 pm, Paris time. It has been alleged. For this reason, since the 2000s, elections in French possessions in the Americas, as well as embassies and consulates there, are held on Saturdays as a special exemption; the next election will take place in 2022. Current President Emmanuel Macron is eligible for re-election in that year. With the exception of senatorial election, for which there is an electoral college, the voters are French citizens over the age of 18 registered on the electoral rolls. People are automatically registered on reaching the age of 18. For municipal and European, but not national elections, citizens aged 18 or older of other European Union countries may vote in France.
Registration is not compulsory. Citizens may register either in their place of residence or in a place where they have been on the roll of taxpayers for local taxes for at least 5 years, but not in more than one place. Citizens living abroad may register at the consulate responsible for the region. Only citizens registered as voters can run for public office. There are exceptions to the above rules. Convicted criminals may be deprived of their civic rights, which include the right to vote, for a certain period of time depending on the crime. In particular, elected officials who have abused public funds may be deprived of the right to run for national public office for as long as 10 years; the application of such rules in the case of certain politicians has been controversial. Voting by proxy is possible when the citizen cannot attend the polling station The citizen designates a proxy, who must be a voter from the same commune; the designation of the proxy must be made before a capable witness: a judge, a judicial clerk, or an officier of judicial police, or, outside France, before an ambassador or consul.
In the case of handicapped or ill people, an officer of judicial police or delegate thereof can be sent to the home of the citizen to witness the designation. The procedure is meant to avoid pressures on voters. In all elections where there is a single official to be elected for a given area, including the two major national elections, two-round runoff voting is used. For elections to the European Parliament and some local elect
Municipal Police (France)
The Municipal Police are the local police of towns and cities in France outside the capital. There are 18,000 municipal police officers in 3,500 communities; the Municipal Police are one of the three components of French policing, alongside the National Police and the National Gendarmerie, with about 145,000 police and 98,000 soldiers respectively. Municipal policing in departments of Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne is the responsibility of Paris Police Prefecture, part of the National Police. However, Paris does have the "Direction de la Prévention, de la Sécurité et de la Protection" is composed of Agents with municipal police powerstitled inspecteurs de sécurité. Under Article 21 2 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, the duties of the municipal police include: security and public order the correct application of the bylaws. Monitoring and regulation of road traffic and the recording of traffic violations. Routine screening for alcohol offenses. Maintenance of law 78-6 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
Assistance to citizens of the town. The laws of urban planning. Reporting of crimes over which they have no jurisdiction; the municipal police may carry out arrests as part of the act and are required to deliver any perpetrator to an officer of the national police or the national gendarmerie. 18,000 municipal police officers provide about 13% of the total French law enforcement community. The municipal police may incorporate the duties of the forest rangers and game wardens in rural areas; the French municipal police are under the direct authority of the Mayor, charged with significant powers of police administration, according to the regulations in Article L. 2212-2 du Code général des collectivités territoriales with a responsibility to ensure good order, safety and public health, to provide an administrative function, known as the "police power of the mayor. "Although the word "police" refers to the maintenance of order, the function comprises the protection of citizens from disasters, the task of regulating traffic and parking.
To do so, municipalities are required to establish municipal police services, under the authority of the mayor for the task of enforcing local bylaws. To implement the mayor's responsibility, municipalities can create appropriate services and hire two types of agents: the municipal police, the functions and status are discussed in this article, Garde champêtre whose employment is created in rural areas; the general code regulating local authorities lays down the status of municipal police officers: "Without prejudice to the general jurisdiction of the national police force and national gendarmerie, within the limits of their powers, the municipal police officers carry out duties required by the town council for crime prevention, public order and public safety. Without prejudice to the powers accorded them by special laws, they issue traffic fines and penalties for offences listed in Book VI of the penal code established by the Council of State and under the conditions laid down in paragraph 2 of section 21 of the Criminal Procedure Code and penal laws.
They are vested with powers to oversee infringements of Article L. 126-3 of the Code of Construction and Housing. During the course of their duties they act under the authority of the mayor of the municipality. " Interventions of the municipal police are carried out in coordination with other police forces. With the exception of the static guarding of buildings and surveillance of ceremonies and other events, without this agreement, the tasks of local police can only be exercised between 6 am and 23 pm. Overall supervision and regulation of the municipal police is under the jurisdiction the Ministry of the Interior, empowered to carry out inspections by agencies such as the IGPN. Articles L 2212-5 and the L CGCT 2212-9, provide for inter-municipal police collaboration between municipalities or groups of municipalities; the police officers recruited through the municipal council are considered available to every mayor in his hometown for local policing. They may be required to be sworn in by the district judge to provide services to the national police of neighbouring districts or to the gendarmerie in rural areas.
The municipal police do not carry firearms. At the request of the mayor, the prefect of the department in which the commune or municipality is located may authorise municipal police officers to be armed in certain circumstances or for special night work. In some cities, all municipal police officers are permanently armed. Where French Municipal officers are equipped with firearms, many are equipped only with pepper spray and handcuffs, each Municipal Police agency may have different weapons, meaning that some Municipal Police may carry revolvers while others have more modern handguns. Municipal Police have rifles and shotguns as well for patrol needs. Municipal police officers, class C: Gardien-brigadier stagiaire Gardien-brigadier Brigadier Brigadier-chef principal Municipal police officers, class B: Chef de service Chef de service principal de 2e classe Chef de service principal de 1e classe Municipal police officers, class A: Directeur de police municipale or Directeur principal de police municipaleSource: National Gendarmerie National Police General: Municipal police 2.
↑ Note: Section 21 of the Criminal P
Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations. Since 1855, its headquarters has been located on the Quai d'Orsay, 37. "Quai d'Orsay" is used as a metonym for the ministry. Its cabinet minister, the Minister of Europe and Foreign Affairs is responsible for the foreign relations of France; the current minister, Jean-Yves Le Drian, was appointed in May 2017. In 1547, secretaries to the King became specialized, writing correspondence to foreign governments, negotiating peace treaties; the four French secretaries of state where foreign relations were divided by region, in 1589, became centralized with one becoming first secretary responsible for international relations. The Ancien Régime position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs became Foreign Minister around 1723, was renamed "Minister of Foreign Affairs" in 1791 after the French Revolution. All ministerial positions were abolished in 1794 by the National Convention and re-established with the Directory.
For a brief period in the 1980s, the office was retitled Minister for External Relations. As of 17 May 2017, the ministry is designated the Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs and led by Jean-Yves Le Drian. There are multiple services under its authority, along with that of some other ministers. Under the authority of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development, that of Cooperation and European Affairs, that of Foreign and European Affairs, there are numerous services directly related to the ministers. Here is a list of those services; the ministers' cabinet The office of cabinets, which gathers a personnel in charge of the administrative and logistics aspects of the three ministers' cabinets The budget control service General inspection of foreign affairs The prospective office The Protocole, upon which the President's protocole cell relies on The Crisis management Department 140 Ministries of Foreign Affairs on the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs website. Official site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Official treaty database of France Dictionnaire historique des institutions, mœurs et coutumes de la France, Adolphe Chéruel, L. Hachette et cie, 1855 "Ministries 1700–1870", Rulers.org
Gérard Philippe René André Larcher is a French politician serving as President of the Senate since 2014 holding the position from 2008 to 2011. A member of The Republicans, he was a Senator for the Yvelines department from 1986 to 2004 and has been again since 2007, he served as Minister of Labour from 2004 to 2007 under President Jacques Chirac. Gérard Larcher was born in Orne to a Roman Catholic family, he is the son of Philippe Larcher, director of a textile factory and former mayor of Saint-Michel-des-Andaines, a small town in the Orne. Upon his second marriage with Christine Weiss, a dentist, he converted to Protestantism. From this union were born three children: Aymeric, Dorothée and Charlotte. Graduated from the National Veterinary School of Lyon, Larcher worked from 1974 to 1979 in the France team of equestrian sports. In 1976, he joined, as a high school student, the movement of young Gaullists, because he admired Charles de Gaulle and supported the policy of the founder of the Fifth Republic.
In 1983, he was elected Mayor of Rambouillet, in Yvelines. Two years he was elected regional councilor of Ile-de-France. On 28 September 1986, for the first time, Gérard Larcher was elected to be Senator for Yvelines, under the banner of the Rally for the Republic. Aged 37, he was one of the youngest French Senators. Appointed Secretary of the Senate in 1989, he was re-elected as a Senator in 1995 and elected as Vice President of the Senate in 1997. In 2001, he was appointed as President of the Senate's Economic Affairs Commission. In March 2004, after the defeat of the right in regional elections, Gérard Larcher was appointed Delegate Minister to the Minister of Social Affairs in the cabinet of Jean-Pierre Raffarin, he retained his place in the government in June 2005, after the appointment of Dominique de Villepin as Prime Minister. In May 2007, the new President, Nicolas Sarkozy, suggested he enter the government of François Fillon as Minister of Agriculture, but Gérard Larcher declined and preferred to sit in the Senate.
In the following months, he prepared his candidacy for President of the Senate, to succeed Christian Poncelet. On 31 July 2008, he was declared a candidate for the UMP primary to elect the President of the Senate, against former Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin. On 24 September, he was elected as the UMP's candidate for the Presidency of the Senate with 78 votes, against 56 votes for Raffarin and 17 votes for Senator Philippe Marini. Gérard Larcher was elected as President of the Senate on 1 October 2008 receiving 173 votes against 134 votes for Socialist candidate Jean-Pierre Bel; the left won a Senate majority in the September 2011 Senate election, Jean-Pierre Bel was elected as President of the Senate on 1 October 2011. He received 179 votes against 134 votes for Larcher, the right's candidate. After the victory of the right in September 2014 Senate elections, Larcher was again nominated for the post of President of the Senate by members of the UMP group, he was elected as President of the Senate on 1 October 2014.
Governmental function Delegate Minister for Labor Relations: 2004-2005 Delegate Minister for Employment and for Employability of young: 2005-2007Senate mandates Senate of France Senator of Yvelines: 1986-2004 Vice President of the Senate: 1997-2001 Président of the Economic Affairs Commission in the Senate: 2001-2004 Senator of Yvelines: 2004 Senator of Yvelines: Since 2007 President of the Senate of France: 2008-2011 President of the Senate of France: Since 2014Regional Council Regional councillor of Île-de-France: 1985-1992Municipal Council Municipal councillor of Rambouillet: Since 1983 Mayor of Rambouillet: 1983-2004 Deputy Mayor of Rambouillet: 2004-2007 Mayor of Rambouillet: 2007-2014 Gérard Larcher’s official site Presidency of the Senate Gérard Larcher’s official Senate page