Falls of the Ohio National Wildlife Conservation Area
The Falls of the Ohio National Wildlife Conservation Area is a national, bi-state area on the Ohio River near Louisville, Kentucky in the United States, administered by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Federal status was awarded in 1981; the falls were designated a National Natural Landmark in 1966. The area is located at the Falls of the Ohio, the only navigational barrier on the river in earlier times; the falls were a series of rapids formed by the recent erosion of the Ohio River operating on 386-million-year-old Devonian hard limestone rock shelves. Louisville and the associated Indiana communities—Jeffersonville and New Albany—all owe their existence as communities to the falls, as the navigational obstacles the falls presented meant that late-18th-century and early- to late-19th-century river traffic could benefit from local expertise in navigating the 26-foot drop made by the river over a distance of two miles. In its original form, the falls could be characterized more as rapids extending over a length of the river, than as a point-like discontinuity in a river such as Niagara Falls.
Still, the falls provided a singular and daunting obstacle to navigation on this important inland waterway. The first locks on the river, the Louisville and Portland Canal completed in 1830, were built within a bypass canal constructed to provide year-round navigation of the river; the falls were largely covered by the McAlpine Locks and Dam, built by the Army Corps of Engineers. The taming of the Ohio River at the falls, with the attendant reduction in local flow velocity has of late led to the covering over of the fossil beds by large and increasing quantities of low-velocity effluvia: although an impediment to viewing of the fossils, this action serves to protect the portions of the falls covered over by sediment and therefore temporarily immune to direct weathering. However, a significant area of the fossil-rich Devonian limestone rock is still left exposed, is accessible to visitors today; the best time for visitation is during the low water season of the Ohio River between August and October.
Removal of fossils is prohibited. The shallowness of the falls provided a favored crossing point for bison in pre-settlement times and an easy crossing for Native Americans. In 1990, a section of the area in Indiana became the Falls of the Ohio State Park. An interpretive center is open throughout the year. Prior to modification, for industrial and navigational purposes, the Falls of the Ohio spanned the entire width of the Ohio River. Native Americans and early European explorers heard the crisp roar of the Ohio River crashing down the cascade falls more than 10 miles away; the rock unit in which the falls are formed is referred to as the Jeffersonville limestone. The limestone formed 387 to 380 million years ago during the Emsian Age and the Eifelian Age; the exposure is unique—large and diverse tabulate corals and rugose corals are exposed in lifelike positions. Brachiopods and bryozoans are present, as are gastropods. During the Devonian Period, the region lay at the bottom of a shallow inland sea about ten degrees north of the equator in the supercontinent of Euramerica.
Geography of Louisville, Kentucky History of Louisville, Kentucky List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area Falls of the Ohio State Park Falls of the Ohio Archaeological Society Falls of the Ohio. Retrieved 29 April 2017 Jeffery. "The Falls of the Ohio". UrbanOhio.com. Retrieved 28 April 2017. Hendricks, R. Todd. Silurian and Devonian Geology and Paleontology at the Falls of the Ohio, Kentucky/Indiana. Lexington, Kentucky: Kentucky Section of the American Institute of Professional Geologists. Retrieved 28 April 2017. Greb, Stephen F.. Fossil Beds of the Falls of the Ohio. Lexington, Kentucky: Kentucky Geological Survey. Retrieved 28 April 2017. Plat of the Falls of the Ohio at extreme low water Cram, T. J.. "A copy of the report of Captain T. J. Cram, on the best mode of improving the navigation of the Ohio river at the falls at Louisville". Congressional Serial Set. 434. Retrieved 29 April 2017. Johnson, Leland R.. Triumph at the Falls: The Louisville and Portland Canal. Louisville, Kentucky: Louisville District, U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 28 April 2017
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Gregory E. Fischer is an American businessman and entrepreneur, the 50th Mayor of Louisville, Kentucky, he is a graduate of Louisville's Trinity High Vanderbilt University. Fischer ran in the Kentucky Democratic primary for the United States Senate in 2008, where he finished second and received over 209,000 votes among seven candidates. In November 2010 he was elected Mayor of Louisville in a tight race against city councilman Hal Heiner, he succeeded Mayor Jerry Abramson. Fischer was born in Louisville to Mary Lee and George Fischer, graduates of Loretto High School and Flaget High School in Louisville and has four siblings. Fischer's father was the CEO of MetriData Computing Inc. and Secretary of the Cabinet of Kentucky under Governor John Y. Brown Jr. Fischer attended Trinity High School in Louisville and graduated in 1976, he has since been inducted as a member of the school's hall of fame. After high school, Fischer attended Vanderbilt University, where he majored in Economics, graduating in 1980.
To help pay for his education, Fischer worked summers as a crane operator on the fishing docks of Kodiak, Alaska unloading salmon boats.citation needed After his graduation, Fischer traveled solo around the world for a year, spending the bulk of his trip in Asia, before returning to Louisville. He is married to Alexandra Gerassimides. At 25, Fischer co-invented the SerVend automated ice/beverage dispenser, used to this day in convenience stores and restaurants. To help sell the product, Fischer co-founded and ran the company "SerVend International." Over the course of Fischer's involvement with the Louisville-based company, it transformed into a global manufacturing business employing over 300 people. In October 1998, SerVend was one of three U. S. small business companies to be honored with a site visit by the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award examiners. In November 1998, Flomatic International, SerVend's valve manufacturing division, received the Oregon Quality Award; the Rochester Institute of Technology and USA Today recognized SerVend's achievements by awarding it the Quality Cup Award in the small business category in 1999.
The Manitowoc Company purchased SerVend in late 1997. In 1990, along with his father and brother, was named a winner of an award sponsored by Inc. magazine, Ernst & Young, Merrill Lynch and Business First. As Kentucky and Southern Indiana's Regional Entrepreneurs of the Year in the manufacturing division for their work with SerVend, they were among the finalists for Inc. magazine's U. S. Entrepreneur of the Year award. In 2000, Fischer co-founded bCatalyst, a business accelerator that evolved into a mergers and acquisitions advisory firm. In early 2010, bCatalyst was acquired by Louisville-based Hilliard Lyons. Fischer was an board member with MedVenture Technology. MedVenture, located in Jeffersonville, Indiana, is an engineering outsourcer and early stage manufacturer on non-invasive medical devices for companies such as Johnson & Johnson, Boston Scientific, Medtronic, he is an investor and past board member of Vogt Ice, a manufacturer of commercial and industrial ice machines. He is an investor and serves on the board of Stonestreet One, a Louisville-based software company specializing in Bluetooth technology.
Fischer was part owner until 2011 of Dant Clayton Corporation, a sports stadium design and construction company with prominent sports-related projects around the United States. In addition to his other ventures, Fischer serves as founder and chairman of Iceberg Ventures, a private investment firm in Louisville. Fischer held chapter offices, including chapter chair, in the Young Presidents' Organization Bluegrass chapter in 1997 and 1998. There, he led the YPO-funded construction of a Habitat for Humanity home and created a community partnership with Louisville's Center for Interfaith Relations in 2003, resulting in bringing talent such as Robert McNamara to Louisville for community learning. In 2007, Fischer was awarded the first-ever Bluegrass YPO "Best of the Best" award for community contribution in 2007 for lifelong community service; as past chairman of the Kentucky Science Center in 2001 and 2002, Fischer helped raise over $20 million to modernize the museum and create interactive children's programs.
He has endowed scholarships at Trinity High School and the University of Louisville. Fischer serves on the U of L's Board of Overseers, as well as on the boards of Jewish Hospital HealthCare Services, Inc. the Waterfront Development Corporation, the Metro Parks Foundation. In 2006, Fischer received the Catholic Schools Distinguished Alumni Award from the Archdiocese of Louisville. Fischer has been a guest lecturer at MIT and the University of Louisville, was an executive in residence at Indiana University Southeast in 1999 and 2000, he has served as a past board member of Crane House, an Asian cultural institute in Louisville, Greater Louisville Inc. Fischer was one of seven candidates in the 2008 Democratic primary for the U. S. Senate in Kentucky, he finished second with 34 percent of the vote. Primary winner Bruce Lunsford went on to lose the general election to Republican incumbent Mitch McConnell. Fischer announced his candidacy for Mayor of Louisville Metro in July 2009. On November 4, 2009, he became the first to file his letter of intent for the primary election on May 18, 2010.
A television advertisement for Fischer released in late March 2010 cites four priorities under his would-be administration: creating jobs, investing in clean energy, making metro government more transparent and building two new bridges over the Ohio River. Fischer won the Democratic primary on May 2010 with 45 percent of the vote. In the November 2 general el
History of Louisville, Kentucky
The history of Louisville, Kentucky spans a bit over two centuries since the latter part of the 18th century. Prior to arrival of Europeans, the region was depopulated from the Beaver Wars of the 17th century, no permanent Native American settlements existed in the area, it was used as hunting grounds by northern Shawnee and southern Cherokee. The area's geography and location on the Ohio River attracted people from the earliest times; the city is located at the Falls of the Ohio River a part of Kentucky County, Virginia. The rapids created a barrier to river travel, settlements grew up at this portage point; the earliest European settlements were during the latter stages of the American Revolutionary War by Virginian soldiers under George Rogers Clark, first at Corn Island in 1778 Fort-on-Shore and Fort Nelson on the mainland. The town was named Louisville in honor of King Louis XVI of France; that year it received an influx of 300 settlers. In 2003, the city of Louisville merged with Jefferson County to become Louisville-Jefferson Metro.
As of the 2010 census, it is the largest city in the state of Kentucky, the second largest on the Ohio River, 29th largest city in the nation. Notable residents of the city have included inventor Thomas Edison, U. S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis, boxing legend Muhammad Ali, newscaster Diane Sawyer, actors Victor Mature, Ned Beatty and Tom Cruise, actresses Sean Young and Jennifer Lawrence, singer Nicole Scherzinger, the Speed family, the Bingham family, industrialist/politician James Guthrie, U. S. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, contemporary writers Hunter S. Thompson and Sue Grafton. Notable events occurring in the city include the largest exhibition installation to date and first large space lighted by Edison's light bulb, the first library in the South made accessible to African Americans. Medical advances included the 1999 first human hand transplant in the United States and the first self-contained artificial heart transplant in 2001. There was a continuous indigenous human occupation of the area that became Louisville from at least 1,000 BCE until 1650 CE, when the Beaver Wars resulted in depopulation of much of the Ohio River region.
The Iroquois maintained this area as a hunting ground by conquest. Archeologists have identified several late and one early Archaic sites in Jefferson County's wetlands. One of the most extensive finds was at McNeeley Lake Cave. People of the Adena culture and the Hopewell tradition that followed it lived in the area, with hunting villages along Mill Creek and a large village near what became Zorn Avenue, on bluffs overlooking the Ohio River. Archeologists have found 30 Jefferson County sites associated with the Fort Ancient and Mississippian cultures, which were active from 1,000 AD until about 1650; the Louisville area was on the eastern border of the Mississippian culture, which extended through the Mississippi Valley and its tributaries. Regional chiefdoms built dense villages and cities characterized by extensive earthwork mounds arranged around central plazas; when European and English explorers and settlers began entering Kentucky in the mid-18th century, there were no permanent Native American settlements in the region.
The country was used as hunting grounds by Shawnee from Cherokee from the south. The account of the first European to visit the area, the French explorer, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in 1669, is disputed and not supported by facts. La Salle travelled along the St. Lawrence River to Lake Ontario to Lake Erie; the two priests traveling with his party departed the group at that point, the written documentation of the expedition ceased. Reports of what occurred differ, including abandonment of the journey due to illness, or traveling onward but not to the Ohio River. La Salle travel to the falls; the "discovery" of the Louisville area in 1669 is thus better assigned to myth or legend. Subsequently, La Salle explored areas of the Mississippi river valley and lower Great Lakes region from the Gulf of Mexico up to modern-day Canada, claiming much of this land for France. In 1751, the English colonist Christopher Gist explored areas along the Ohio River. Following the defeat of France in the French and Indian War, it ceded control of its territory east of the Mississippi River to Britain.
In 1769, British colonist Daniel Boone created a trail from North Carolina to Tennessee. He spent the next two years exploring Kentucky. In 1773, Captain Thomas Bullitt led the first exploring party into Jefferson County, surveying land on behalf of Virginians, awarded land grants for service in the French and Indian War. In 1774, James Harrod began constructing Fort Harrod in Kentucky. However, battles with the Native American tribes established in the area forced these new settlers to retreat, they returned the following year, as Boone built the Wilderness Road and established Fort Boonesborough at a site near Boonesborough, Kentucky. The Native Americans allocated a tract of land between the Ohio River and the Cumberland River for the Transylvania Land Company. In 1776, the colony of Virginia declared the Transylvania Land Company illegal and created the county of Kentucky in Virginia from the land involved. Col. George Rogers Clark made the first Anglo-American settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville in 1778, during the American Revolutionary War.
He was conducting a campaign against the British in areas north of the Ohio River called the Illinois Co
A hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat. The hull may open at the top, or it may be or covered with a deck. Atop the deck may be a deckhouse and other superstructures, such as a funnel, derrick, or mast; the line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline. There is a wide variety of hull types that are chosen for suitability for different usages, the hull shape being dependent upon the needs of the design. Shapes range from a nearly perfect box in the case of scow barges, to a needle-sharp surface of revolution in the case of a racing multihull sailboat; the shape is chosen to strike a balance between cost, hydrostatic considerations and special considerations for the ship's role, such as the rounded bow of an icebreaker or the flat bottom of a landing craft. In a typical modern steel ship, the hull will have watertight decks, major transverse members called bulkheads. There may be intermediate members such as girders and webs, minor members called ordinary transverse frames, frames, or longitudinals, depending on the structural arrangement.
The uppermost continuous deck may be called the "upper deck", "weather deck", "spar deck", "main deck", or "deck". The particular name given depends on the context—the type of ship or boat, the arrangement, or where it sails. In a typical wooden sailboat, the hull is constructed of wooden planking, supported by transverse frames and bulkheads, which are further tied together by longitudinal stringers or ceiling, but not always there is a centerline longitudinal member called a keel. In fiberglass or composite hulls, the structure may resemble wooden or steel vessels to some extent, or be of a monocoque arrangement. In many cases, composite hulls are built by sandwiching thin fiber-reinforced skins over a lightweight but reasonably rigid core of foam, balsa wood, impregnated paper honeycomb or other material; the earliest proper hulls were built by the Ancient Egyptians, who by 3000 BC knew how to assemble wooden planks into ahull. See also: Hull Hulls come in many varieties and can have composite shape, but are grouped as follows: Chined and Hard-chined.
Examples are the flat-bottom, v-bottom, multi-bottom hull. These types have at least one pronounced knuckle throughout most of their length. Moulded, round soft-chined; these hull shapes all have smooth curves. Examples are the round bilge, semi-round bilge, s-bottom hull. Displacement hull: here the hull is supported or predominantly by buoyancy. Vessels that have this type of hull travel through the water at a limited rate, defined by the waterline length, they are though not always, heavier than planing types. Planing hull: here, the planing hull form is configured to develop positive dynamic pressure so that its draft decreases with increasing speed; the dynamic lift reduces the wetted surface and therefore the drag. They are sometimes flat-bottomed, sometimes V-bottomed and more round-bilged; the most common form is to have at least one chine, which makes for more efficient planing and can throw spray down. Planing hulls are more efficient at higher speeds, although they still require more energy to achieve these speeds.
An effective planing hull must be as light as possible with flat surfaces that are consistent with good sea keeping. Sail boats that plane must sail efficiently in displacement mode in light winds. Semi-displacement, or semi-planing: here the hull form is capable of developing a moderate amount of dynamic lift. At present, the most used form is the round bilge hull. In the inverted bell shape of the hull, with a smaller payload the waterline cross-section is less, hence the resistance is less and the speed is higher. With a higher payload the outward bend provides smoother performance in waves; as such, the inverted bell shape is a popular form used with planing hulls. A chined hull consists of straight, tall, long, or short plates, timbers or sheets of ply, which are set at an angle to each other when viewed in transverse section; the traditional chined hull is a simple hull shape because it works with only straight planks bent into a curve. These boards are bent lengthwise. Plywood chined boats made of 8' x 4' sheets have most bend along the long axis of the sheet.
Only thin ply 3–6 mm can be shaped into a compound bend. Most home-made constructed boats are chined hull boats. Mass-produced chine powerboats are made of sprayed chop strand fibreglass over a wooden mold; the Cajun "pirogue" is an example of a craft with hard chines. Benefits of this type of hull is the low production cost and the flat bottom, making the boat faster at planing. Sail boats with chined hull make use of a dagger keel. Chined hulls may have one of three shapes: Flat-bottom chined hulls Multi-chined hulls V-bottom chined hulls. Sometimes called hard chine; each of these chine hulls use. The flat bottom hull has high initial stability but high drag. To counter the high drag hull forms are narrow and sometimes tapered at bow and stern; this leads to poor stability. This is countered by using heavy interior ballast on sailing versions, they are best suited to sheltered inshore waters. Early racing power boats were flat aft; this produced maximum lift and a smooth,fast ride in flat water but this hull form is unsettled in waves.
The multi chine h
Cityscape of Louisville, Kentucky
Louisville, Kentucky is home to numerous structures that are noteworthy due to their architectural characteristics or historic associations, the most noteworthy being the Old Louisville neighborhood, the third largest historic preservation district in the United States. The city boasts the postmodern Humana Building and an expanding Waterfront Park which has served to remove the former industrial appearance of the riverfront; the downtown business district of Louisville is located south of the Ohio River, southeast of the Falls of the Ohio. The airport is located 6.5 miles south of the downtown area, connected to most parts of the city by three Interstate Highways, maximizing its accessibility. The largest industrial sections of town are located to the south and west of the airport, while most of the residential areas of the city are located to the southwest and east of downtown. Another major business district is located in the more suburban area east of the city on Hurstbourne Parkway; this area is considered Louisville's key edge city—a new concentration of business and entertainment outside a traditional urban area.
Louisville boasts a large number of parks, with 122 parks covering more than 14,000 acres. As of September 2016, there are four road bridges crossing the Ohio River to Indiana: the Sherman Minton Bridge in the city's West End, the John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge, the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge or Second Street Bridge, the newly opened Abraham Lincoln Bridge that lies just east of the Kennedy bridge in Downtown Louisville. One more bridge is planned to be opened as part of the Ohio River Bridges Project by late 2016; this bridge will extend the Indiana and Kentucky segments of I-265 to connect Utica, Indiana with Louisville's East End. Roads in southern Indiana branch out from the city originating from these bridges. I-71 branches out to the northeast from downtown Louisville toward Oldham Cincinnati. Major roads extend outwards like the spokes of a wheel. Many of these, such as Bardstown Road, are former owned turnpikes, which were made free roads by the city in 1901. Thus, as is typical of cities built on property organized by the Metes and bounds system, the old spoke roads extend erratically from the city center, with turns and curves based on old geography and now-forgotten property ownership.
In areas such as downtown, Old Louisville, the West End, old turnpikes and roads were rebuilt to fit the grid, but in other areas, the spoke roads remained as the old farms they once served were developed. Where the spoke roads remained unaltered, smaller roads were built in between them as the farms were developed, either in a gridiron style in older sections, or in curvilinear styles with many cul-de-sacs, in newer areas; the city's architecture contains a blend of new. The Old Louisville neighborhood is the largest historic preservation district featuring Victorian homes and buildings in the United States; the Butchertown and Portland neighborhoods are known for their shotgun houses. The Louisville City Hall follows earlier architectural styles French Empire; the nearby Jefferson County Courthouse is an example of Greek Revival architecture. Many of the buildings downtown follow either the Greek Revival, Italian Renaissance or French Renaissance; these mix well with several of the city's postmodern skyscrapers.
The buildings of the West Main District in downtown Louisville boast the largest collection of cast iron facades of anywhere outside of New York's SoHo district. Louisville has traditionally been divided up into three sides of town: the West End, the South End, the East End. In 2003, Bill Dakan, a University of Louisville geography professor, said that the West End, west of 7th Street and north of Algonquin Parkway, is "a euphemism for the African-American part of town" although he points out that this belief is not true, most African Americans no longer live in areas where more than 80% of residents are black, he says the perception is still strong. According to the Greater Louisville Association of Realtors, the lowest median home values are west of Interstate 65 in the West and South Ends, the middle range of home values are between Interstates 64 and 65 in the South and East Ends, the highest median home values are north of Interstate 64 in the East End. Immigrants from Southeast Asia tend to settle in the South End, while immigrants from Eastern Europe settle in the East End.
The most affluent residential areas are to the east of downtown Louisville. The nine richest locations by per capita income in Kentucky, 19 of the top 20 such locations, are found in this East End, which trace their origins to several 19th century summer colonies for wealthy Louisvillians; the nearest to downtown, as well as the wealthiest in terms of average income, is Mockingbird Valley, the two most prominent and oldest Eastern Jefferson County cities are Anchorage and Glenview. There are two areas which are sometimes considered to be their own side of town; the area east of I-65, south of Eastern Parkway, west of Bardstown Road is economically and topographically a buffer zone between the East and South sides, is claimed by both residents and outsiders as belonging to either side. The interior areas of the city's east and south ends are sometimes considered by some to be their own side of town, sometimes called the "Inner East side"; the area from Old Louisville, along Eastern Parkway to The Highlands, to the Butchertown and Clifton areas have seen an i
Transit Authority of River City
The Transit Authority of River City is the major public transportation provider for the Louisville, United States metro area, which includes parts of Southern Indiana. This includes the Kentucky suburbs of Oldham County, Bullitt County, Clark County, Floyd County in southern Indiana. TARC is publicly funded and absorbed various earlier private mass transit companies in Louisville, the largest of, the Louisville Transit Company. TARC operates a fleet including numerous hybrids. Starting in 2004, TARC purchased hybrids, by 2008 started purchasing clean diesel buses for a cleaner, greener fleet. By late Winter 2013, TARC added 16 more clean diesels. By mid-Summer 2013, 11 hybrids were added, bringing TARC's hybrid total to 32. By Fall 2013, TARC added 21 clean diesel commuter buses as of Fall 2014 TARC added 12 more clean diesels. TARC has put 12 additional updated buses on the road with 13 more due to arrive by late 2016; this brings their clean diesel total to 82. There will be 96. All-electric buses have been circulating downtown Louisville since early 2015, eight more will be hitting the road on one local route serving the Iroquois neighborhood, Iroquois Park.
These buses will not be fare-free, will have a 42-passenger capacity, will share the 8th Street charging station with one of the trolley routes. According to The Courier-Journal. There are two charging stations in downtown Louisville, one at 3rd and York, the other at 8th and Market; these buses will have a 30-passenger seating capacity, be able to operate for up to two hours on a single charge. These buses, like the old trolleys, will be fare-free. TARC provides service 365 days a year, it operates many specialized routes providing transportation to major local employers, educational institutions and recreational events. It began bus operations in 1974. TARC has explored other forms of public transit, including light rail, but as of 2009 provides only bus service; the transit authority was created in 1971 after 1970 legislation authorized city and county governments to operate mass-transit systems using local funding. At the time, public transit was still being provided in Louisville by the private Louisville Transit Company.
The Louisville Transit Company had long operated mass transit lines in Louisville, converted from electric trolleys to diesel buses in the late 1940s, changing its name from the Louisville Railway Company in 1947. Following a trend seen in cities across America, the company had seen annual ridership decline from 84 million in 1920 to 14 million in 1970; the ridership was no longer enough for to cover operating expenses and in 1971 it posted its first-ever loss. In 1972 the company announced it would cease operations on September 1, 1974; the local government began subsidizing fares in July 1973, but this was not enough to make Louisville Transit Company profitable. At about the same time, Bridge Transit Co. which provided mass transit between Louisville and Jeffersonville, ceased operations due to lack of revenue setting the stage for a metropolitan area without any private mass transit companies. In 1974, voters approved a controversial referendum allowing for an increased occupational tax to fund mass transit, pushed for by then-mayor Harvey Sloane.
Combined with a federal grant, this was enough for TARC to purchase the Louisville Transit Company, buy new buses, reduce fares, extend new service lines. TARC bought up the remaining mass transit companies in the area. In 1993, TARC experimented with a "water taxi" service connecting the Belle of Louisville wharf and Towboat Annie's Restaurant in Jeffersonville. During the 1990s and early 2000s, TARC advocated extensive funding to build and operate light rail system in the Louisville area, but despite wide press coverage, the plans never went past planning stages. In February 1994, an audit committee headed by future political candidate Bruce Lunsford revealed TARC had been mismanaging funds and was on pace to deplete its once-large trust fund due to skyrocketting expenses such as door-to-door services for the disabled as well as rates of spending on personal services and fringe benefits for administrators, much higher than in transit companies for similar sized cities. In the fallout of the audit, TARC's executive director resigned and fares were nearly doubled before year's end.
In August 2011, TARC's new $4.5 million, 17,700 square-foot and Training building received Gold LEED Certification. TARC purchased Louisville's Union Station for $2 million in 1977, the year after the former train station had ceased rail operations; the trainyard was replaced with a large maintenance facility for TARC buses and the former train station is now TARC's administrative headquarters. In 2003, TARC did a major remodeling of Union Station for the first time since it purchased the facility; the renovation cost $2.1 million. TARC is administered by an eight-member board. TARC had a budget of $67.8 million for the 2008–09 fiscal year. Fares only cover about 12% of TARC's operating expenses; the occupational tax is 0.20%, it makes up about two-thirds of TARC's operating expenses in any given year. The actual total varies due to availability of federal fares collected. In 2002, TARC had 710 employees; some funding comes from a transportation trust fund kept by TARC. In 1992, the fund contained $28 million, which a local alderman claime