click links in text for more info

Mayor of the Palace

Under the Merovingian dynasty, the mayor of the palace or majordomo was the manager of the household of the Frankish king. The office existed from the sixth century, during the seventh it evolved into the "power behind the throne" in the northeastern kingdom of Austrasia. In 751, the mayor of the palace, Pepin the Short, orchestrated the deposition of the king, Childeric III, was crowned in his place; the mayor of the palace held and wielded the real and effective power to make decisions affecting the kingdom, while the kings had been reduced to performing ceremonial functions, which made them little more than figureheads. The office may be compared to that of the peshwa, shōgun or prime minister, all of which have been the real powers behind some ceremonial monarchs. In Austrasia, the mayoral office became hereditary in the family of the Pippinids. In 687, after victory over the western kingdom of Neustria, the Austrasian mayor, Pippin of Herstal, took the title Duke of the Franks to signify his augmented rule.

His son and successor, Charles Martel, ceased bothering with the façade of a king, the last four years of his reign were an interregnum, after which the Pippinids assumed the title and power of a king themselves. See Royal Administration of Merovingian and Carolingian Dynasties. Parthemius Gogo, during the minority of Childebert II Wandalenus, during the minority of Childebert II Gundulf, under Theudebert II Landric also in Neustria Warnachar in Burgundy Hugh, successor of previous Pepin of Landen, under Dagobert I Adalgisel Pepin of Landen, again Otto Grimoald I, died 657 Wulfoald in Neustria Pepin of Herstal, took the title Duke and Prince of the Franks after his conquest of Neustria in 687 Theudoald in Neustria. Illegitimate son of Grimoald II, designated heir of his grandfather Pepin, opposed by the nobility, who acclaimed Charles Martel Charles Martel, illegitimate son of Pippin of Herstal in Neustria Carloman, died 754 or 755 Drogo, son of Carloman Landric, under Clotaire II also in Austrasia Gundoland Aega in Burgundy Erchinoald Ebroin, deposed Wulfoald in Austrasia Leudesius, chosen after previous deposed Ebroin, again Waratton, deposed by his son Gistemar Gistemar, son of previous, died 683 or 684 Waratton, again Berthar, son-in-law of previous, lost Battle of Tertry to Pepin the Short in 687, murdered in 688 or 689 Pippin of Herstal, represented in court by his follower Nordebert Grimoald II, son of Pippin of Herstal Theudoald in Austrasia.

Illegitimate son of Grimoald II, driven out of Neustria by the nobility, surrendered claim in 716. Ragenfrid, took power in Neustria in 714 or 715, but defeated by Charles Martel in 717 and definitively in 718 and fled, died 731 Charles Martel, illegitimate son of Pippin of Herstal in Austrasia Pepin the Short, became king of the Franks in 751 Warnachar I Berthoald Protadius Claudius Rado Warnachar II in Austrasia Godinus Brodulf Aega in Neustria Flaochad Radobertus Hereafter the office was united with that of Neustria, though Burgundy remained a separate realm under the King of Neustria and Burgundy; the administration of Burgundy was separate under: Drogo, son of Pepin the Middle duke of Champagne and duke of Burgundy from Nordebert's death in 697 Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages, 476–918. London: Rivingtons, 1914


Piracetam is a drug marketed as a treatment for myoclonus and cognitive enhancer. Evidence to support its use is unclear, with some studies showing modest benefits in specific populations and others showing minimal or no benefit. Piracetam is sold as a medication in many European countries. In the United States, piracetam is sold as a dietary supplement, despite being prohibited by the FDA. Piracetam is with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide, it is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA and shares the same 2-oxo-pyrrolidone base structure with pyroglutamic acid. Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA. Related drugs include the anticonvulsants levetiracetam and brivaracetam, the putative nootropics aniracetam and phenylpiracetam. A 2001 Cochrane review concluded that there was not enough evidence to support piracetam for dementia or cognitive problems. A 2005 review found some evidence of benefit in older subjects with cognitive impairment. In 2008, a working group of the British Academy of Medical Sciences noted that many of the trials of piracetam for dementia were flawed.

There is no good evidence. Some sources suggest that piracetam's overall effect on lowering depression and anxiety is higher than on improving memory. However, depression is reported to be an occasional adverse effect of piracetam. Piracetam may facilitate the deformability of erythrocytes in capillary. Peripheral vascular effects of piracetam have suggested its use potential for vertigo, Raynaud's phenomenon and sickle cell anemia. There is no evidence to support piracetam's use in sickle cell crisis prevention or for fetal distress during childbirth. There is no evidence for benefit of piracetam with acute ischemic stroke, though there is debate as to its utility during stroke rehabilitation. Piracetam has been found to diminish erythrocyte adhesion to vascular wall endothelium, making any vasospasm in the capillary less severe; this contributes to its efficacy including to the brain and kidneys. Piracetam has been found to have few side effects, those it has are "few and transient." A large-scale, 12-week trial of high-dose piracetam found no adverse effects occurred in the group taking piracetam as compared to the placebo group.

Many other studies have found piracetam to be well tolerated. Symptoms of general excitability, including anxiety, irritability, agitation, nervousness and hyperkinesia, are reported. Other reported side effects include somnolence, weight gain, clinical depression, increased libido, hypersexuality. According to a 2005 review, piracetam has been observed to have the following side effects: hyperkinesia, weight gain, somnolence and asthenia. Piracetam reduces platelet aggregation as well as fibrinogen concentration, thus is contraindicated to patients suffering from cerebral hemorrhage. Piracetam does not appear to be acutely toxic at the doses used in human studies; the LD50 for oral consumption in humans has not been determined. The LD50 is 5.6 g/kg for rats and 20 g/kg for mice, indicating low acute toxicity. For comparison, in rats the LD50 of vitamin C is 12 g/kg and the LD50 of table salt is 3 g/kg. Piracetam's mechanism of action, as with racetams in general, is not understood; the drug influences neuronal and vascular functions and influences cognitive function without acting as a sedative or stimulant.

Piracetam is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor, although this action is weak and its clinical effects may not be mediated by this action. It is hypothesized to act on ion channels or ion carriers, thus leading to increased neuron excitability. GABA brain metabolism and GABA receptors are not affected by piracetamPiracetam improves the function of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine via muscarinic cholinergic receptors, which are implicated in memory processes. Furthermore, piracetam may have an effect on NMDA glutamate receptors, which are involved with learning and memory processes. Piracetam is thought to increase cell membrane permeability. Piracetam may exert its global effect on brain neurotransmission via modulation of ion channels, it has been found to increase oxygen consumption in the brain in connection to ATP metabolism, increases the activity of adenylate kinase in rat brains. Piracetam, while in the brain, appears to increase the synthesis of cytochrome b5, a part of the electron transport mechanism in mitochondria.

But in the brain, it increases the permeability of some intermediates of the Krebs cycle through the mitochondrial outer membrane. Piracetam was first made some time between the 1964 by Corneliu E. Giurgea. There are reports of it being used for epilepsy in the 1950s. In 2009 piracetam was popular as a cognitive enhancement drug among students. Piracetam is an uncontrolled substance in the United States meaning it is legal to possess without a license or prescription. In the United States, piracetam is not approved by the Drug Administration. Piracetam is not permitted in dietary supplements in the United States, it is available in a number of dietary supplements. In the United Kingdom, piracetam is approved as a prescription drug Prescription Only Medicine number is PL 20636/2524 for adult with myoclonus of cortical origin, irrespective of cause, should be used in combination with other anti-myoclonic therapies. In Japan piracetam is approved as a prescription drug. Piracetam has no DIN in Canada, thus cannot be sold but can be imported for personal use in Canada.

AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator A

Teratoscincus roborowskii

Teratoscincus roborowskii is a small species of gecko, a lizard in the family Sphaerodactylidae. The species is endemic to northwestern China; the specific name, roborowskii, is in honor of Russian explorer Vladimir Ivanovich Roborovski. T. roborowskii is found in China. The natural habitats of T. roborowskii are desert and shrubland, at altitudes from 100 m below sea level to 400 m above sea level. T. roborowskii is oviparous. Bedriaga J von. "Verzeichnis der von der Central-Asiatischen Expedition unter Stabs-Kapitän W. Roborowski in den Jahren 1893–1895 gesammelten Reptilien ". Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 10: 159-200... Leptien, Rolf. "Ein Gecko von der alten Seidenstraße im Nordwesten Chinas, Teratoscincus roborowskii Von Bedriaga, 1906 ". Sauria 19: 3-6.. Rösler, Herbert. "Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa ". Gekkota 2: 28-153

Enterprise Oil

Enterprise Oil was a major UK independent exploration and production company based in Europe, with core areas of activity in the United Kingdom and Ireland, mainland Europe and the Gulf of Mexico. The Company was acquired by Royal Dutch Shell. Enterprise Oil was formed in 1983 to exploit the North Sea oil production assets of the state-owned British Gas plc: it was privatised and its shares first listed on the London Stock Exchange in February 1984. In 1994 the Company was involved in a unsuccessful bid to acquire Lasmo; the Corrib gas field was discovered off the coast of Ireland by Enterprise Oil in 1996, has proved troublesome for Shell. In the last few years of the Company's existence it was investing significant sums in its Brazilian oil interests; the Most Reverend Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury and former Bishop of Durham, served as Group Treasurer from 1984 to 1987. The Company was purchased by Royal Dutch Shell for £3.5bn in 2002. The Company had interests in some 41 fields in the North Sea.

It was based in London but whilst keeping its head office there, in 1998 it moved its UK operations to its office in Aberdeen


Huitzilatzin was the first tlatoani of the pre-Columbian altepetl of Huitzilopochco in the Valley of Mexico. Huitzilatzin was the second son of Huehue Zaca, who held the title of tlacateccatl and, a son of Huitzilihuitl, the second Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan. According to the Crónica mexicáyotl, Huitzilatzin was "quite sickly", he was installed as ruler of Huitzilopochco by the Aztec ruler Axayacatl. Like other towns in the region, it is not recorded when Huitzilopochco came under Aztec control, it is that Tenochtitlan inherited them from the defeated Tepanec empire of Azcapotzalco. The inhabitants of Huitzilopochco are said to have been cannibals prior to the imposition of Aztec government. Huitzilatzin had two children in Huitzilopochco: a son, who succeeded him as tlatoani. Huitzilatzin was killed in the year Seven Reed, as he was held responsible for flooding that had occurred in Tenochtitlan due to an aqueduct which tapped springs near Huitzilopochco. Berdan, Frances F.. The Essential Codex Mendoza.

Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20454-9. Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin, Domingo Francisco de San Antón Muñón. Codex Chimalpahin: society and politics in Mexico Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and other Nahua altepetl in central Mexico: the Nahuatl and Spanish annals and accounts collected and recorded by don Domingo de San Antón Muñón Chimalpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin; the Civilization of the American Indian Series. Edited and translated by Arthur J. O. Anderson and Susan Schroeder. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2921-2. Isaac, Barry L.. "Aztec Cannibalism: Nahua versus Spanish and mestizo accounts in the Valley of Mexico". Ancient Mesoamerica. 16: 1–10. Doi:10.1017/S0956536105050030

Utami Kinard

Utami Dewi Kinard is a former world-class badminton player, considered Indonesia's #1 Women's Singles player in the 1970s, became the United States' #1 player in 1981 after marrying former 6 time U. S. Men's Chris Kinard, she is the sister of 8 time All-England Singles Champion, Rudy Hartono. Born in Surabaya, Indonesia in 1951, Utami Dewi was the #1 Indonesian Ladies Singles player from 1971 to 1975, she played singles for the Indonesian Uber Cup teams of 1969, 1972, 1975. The 1975 team was Indonesia's first to win the Women's World Team Championship; as Mrs. Utami Kinard she ended her career as the #1 U. S. Women's Singles player in 1981 representing the U. S. as the #1 player on the 1981 U. S. Uber Cup team. Along with her Indonesian and U. S. titles, Utami Dewi won the Asian Badminton Singles Championship in 1971, the Australian Open Singles Championship in 1975, the Mexican Open Mixed Doubles Championship in 1979, the South African Singles Championship in 1980. 1972 - Munich Olympics - Won the Silver medal in badminton women's singles.1975 - All-England Badminton Championship -Reached the semi-finals of the women's singles.

Represented either Indonesia, or the U. S. or both internationally in the following countries: Australia, Denmark, Germany, Hong Kong, Mexico, New Zealand, Scotland, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand In 1981, she was in Sports Illustrated's "Faces in the Crowd" Women's singles