Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Pierre Eugène Jean Pflimlin was a French Christian democratic politician who served as the Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic for a few weeks in 1958, before being replaced by Charles de Gaulle during the crisis of that year. Pflimlin was born in Roubaix in the Nord department. A lawyer and a member of the Christian democratic Popular Republican Movement, he was elected deputy of département Bas Rhin in 1945. With his personal roots in Alsace, Pflimlin numbered among his MRP party colleagues the Luxembourg-born Robert Schuman, he held some governmental offices during the Fourth Republic, notably as Minister of Agriculture and as Minister of Economy and Finance. On 13 May 1958, the French National Assembly approved his nomination as Prime Minister, but the same day, riots took place in Algiers. The French generals in Algeria feared he would arrange for a negotiated solution with the Algerian nationalists giving them control of Algeria, they refused to recognize his cabinet. At this point the leading politicians deserted him, including Guy Mollet, Vincent Auriol, Antoine Pinay.
The crisis brought Charles de Gaulle as Prime Minister on 1 June. Pflimlin was Minister of State until 1959; as Minister of Cooperation in 1962, he resigned with the other MRP ministers in order to protest against the euro-scepticism of de Gaulle. Pflimlin served as the first Catholic mayor of Strasbourg from 1959 to 1983, he was the President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe from 1963 to 1966 and President of the European Parliament from 1984 to 1987. The Pierre Pflimlin bridge over the Rhine south of Strasbourg, connecting France to Germany, is named after him and was opened in 2002. Pierre Pflimlin – President of the Council Guy Mollet – Vice President of the Council René Pleven – Minister of Foreign Affairs Maurice Faure – Minister of the Interior Pierre de Chevigné – Minister of Armed Forces Edgar Faure – Minister of Finance, Economic Affairs, Planning Paul Ribeyre – Minister of Commerce and Industry Paul Bacon – Minister of Labour and Social Security Robert Lecourt – Minister of Justice Jacques Bordeneuve – Minister of National Education Vincent Badie – Minister of Veterans and War Victims Roland Boscary-Monsservin – Minister of Agriculture André Colin – Minister of Overseas France Édouard Bonnefous – Minister of Public Works and Tourism André Maroselli – Minister of Public Health and Population Pierre Garet – Minister of Reconstruction and Housing Édouard Corniglion-Molinier – Minister for the Sahara Félix Houphouët-Boigny – Minister of StateChanges: 17 May 1958 – Maurice Faure becomes Minister of European Institutions.
Jules Moch succeeds Faure as Minister of the Interior. Albert Gazier enters the ministry as Minister of Information. Max Lejeune succeeds Houphouët-Boigny as Minister of State. "The Little Plum" Time June 10, 1957 Cook, Bernard A.. Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. Pp. 975–76. Morris, Peter. "Homo politicus. Modern & Contemporary France 1.1: 42-44
Catherine Trautmann is a French politician for the French Socialist Party. She served as Minister of Culture of France in the Lionel Jospin cabinet 1997–2000 and was a Member of the European Parliament 1989–1997 and 2004–2014, she studied in Strasbourg, obtaining a master's degree in Protestant theology at the Protestant theology faculty of the University of Strasbourg. She is a specialist on Coptic language and literature, she was elected as the first female mayor of Strasbourg in 1989, re-elected in 1995 defeated in 2001. In the EP she sat on the Committee on Industry and Energy and was a substitute for the Committee on Culture and Education and a member of the Delegation for relations with Canada, she was elected from the constituency of East France. Master's degree in Protestant theology Member of the Socialist Party national council Member of the Socialist Party national bureau Member of the national bureau of the National Federation of Socialist and Republican Elected Representatives Member of Strasbourg Municipal Council Mayor of Strasbourg and Chairwoman of the Strasbourg Urban Community Council Member of Strasbourg City Council and Member of the Strasbourg Urban Community Council Member of the National Assembly State Secretary for the Elderly and Disabled Minister for Culture and Communications Member of the European Parliament Council of Europe Chairwoman of the Interdepartmental Task Force on Drug addiction Commissioner-General for the Expo International 2004 Trautmann has been criticised for homophobia after refusing to shake the hand of gay Holocaust survivor Pierre Seel at a commemorative event.
European Parliament biography
Charles Hueber was an Alsatian politician. He was the mayor of Strasbourg between 1929 and 1935, a member of the French National Assembly twice. Hueber became involved in political struggles at a young age. In 1900 he founded the Alsatian section of the Metal Workers Trade Union. In 1910 he became the secretary of the Social Democratic Party branch in Alsace-Lorraine, he fought in the German Army during World War I, became a sergeant. During the revolutionary upsurge of 1918, Hueber acted as the chairman of the Strasbourg Soldiers CouncilAt the end of the war, Hueber argued in favour of the creation of an independent, neutral Alsatian state. During the December 1920 Congress of Tours, Hueber and a several other Alsatian delegates supported the call to form a French Communist Party. A month he founded the communist newspaper Die Neue Welt. Hueber became the most prominent figure of the Communist Party in Alsace, he became the editor of the Alsatian edition of l'Humanité. In 1923 Hueber took part in an international communist meeting in Essen, organized to protest the French occupation of the Ruhr.
He was arrested by French authorities for his participation in the event, a fact that elevated his standing within the Communist Party. He was imprisoned at La Santé Prison; the fame he achieved from being arrested helped him to get elected to the French National Assembly the following year. Hueber was elected from the 1st constituency of Bas-Rhin. Hueber was elected mayor of Strasbourg in 1929 by the Volksfront. Hueber claimed, he was expelled from the Communist Party in the autumn of 1929. He became one of the main leaders of the Opposition Communist Party of Alsace-Lorraine. During the period of 1933 and 1936 Hueber and his followers moved towards pro-Nazi positions. However, he publicly denied to being antisemitic. In 1935 the Volksfront fell apart as the Republican People's Union deserted it. Hueber lost his seat as Mayor to Charles Frey as the coalition, he was re-elected to the National Assembly in 1936. During both of Hueber's National Assembly tenures, he formed part of the committee on Alsace-Lorraine.
Hueber addressed the Assembly in Alsatian language. On December 8, 1927 Hueber held a speech in Alsatian in the National Assembly, the content of which were so shocking for the Assembly that large chunks were stricken from the official protocol. Hueber had attacked the status of the French language in Alsace-Lorraine, stating that France was oppressing the Alsatian working class and that Alsace was under French colonial rule. Hueber escaped arrest in the 1939 crackdown on Alsatian autonomist leaders, due to his deteriorating health. Hueber did not take part in the 1940 Congress of Vichy vote. In 1941, Hueber became a functionary of the NSDAP. On February 14, 1942 Hueber was appointed municipal councilor of Strasbourg by the German authorities
Jean Frederick Turckheim
Jean Frederick Turckheim, conducted a thwarted campaign for deputy, 27 February 1824, in the 4th electoral district of Bas-Rhin against Georges Humann, the banker and financier, he was elected in the Grand college in the same department. He was one of four sons of Bernard Turckheim and Lili Schönenmann: Jean-Frédéric, Jean-Charles, Frédéric-Guillaume and Henri, his mother, had been engaged to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1775, but married Bernard Turckheim on 25 August 1778
Roland Ries is a French politician from Alsace holding several posts on local and national level since 1997. A member of the Socialist Party and mayor of Strasbourg since 2008 Ries serves as the first President of the Strasbourg-Ortenau Eurodistrict's Council since 2010. Ries had been the mayor of Strasbourg between June 1997 and January 2000, filling in for Catherine Trautmann after she had become Minister of Culture and Communication in the government of Lionel Jospin. Ries has furthermore been a Member of the Senate of France for the Bas-Rhin department between September and November 2004 and is again a Member since February 2005. Since 24 September 2008, Roland Ries is the president of the Association TGV Est-Européen. and was elected a member of the board of directors of the SNCF for a period of five years starting on 8 March 2013. Additionally, he served as the chairman of the Groupement des autorités responsables de transport from September 2008 until September 2014 and was elected president of the network of French cities Cités unies France in July 2014, for a duration of two years.
Member of the French Economic and Social Council: 2001-2003. Electoral mandates Senate of France Senator of Bas-Rhin: Since 2004. Elected in 2004. Regional council Regional councillor of Alsace: 1996-2004. Reelected in 1998, 2004. Urban Community council President of the Urban Community of Strasbourg: 1997-2001. 1st vice-président of the Urban Community of Strasbourg: Since 2008. Vice-président of the Urban Community of Strasbourg: 1989-1997. Reelected in 1995. Member of the Urban Community of Strasbourg: Since 1989. Reelected in 1995, 2001, 2008. Municipal council Mayor of Strasbourg: 1997-2000 / Since 2008. Reelected in 2008, 2014. 1st deputy-mayor of Strasbourg: 1989-1997. Reelected in 1995. Municipal councillor of Strasbourg: Since 1983. Reelected in 1989, 1995, 2001, 2008. Eurodistrict council President of the Strasbourg-Ortenau Eurodistrict: since 2010
Jacques Peirotes was a French and German politician, mayor of Strasbourg from 1919 to 1929. The young Jacques Peirotes, son of a carpenter working at the locomotives factory of Graffenstaden, learned the job of typographer while entering into politics. Since 1900, he was editor of the Freie Presse, an organ of the Strasbourg branch of the Social Democratic Party which he joined in 1895. In 1902, he became its political manager. In 1913, the newspaper was printed in 9,500 units, he came into the town council of Strasbourg in 1902 and was elected councilor of the southern canton of the Kreis Straßburg in 1903. He was deputy in the second chamber of the Landtag of the Reichsland Elsass-Lothringen from 1911 to 1918 and deputy of Colmar in the Reichstag in 1912; when the First World War broke out, he was exiled by German authorities to Hanover and designated as Banned from Alsace. He published his political manifesto Neutral oder Französisch; when he came back at the end of the war, he had the skill to neutralize the soldiers and workers councils.
He sat as president of the Municipal Commission of Strasbourg from November 10–29, 1918. On November 10, 1918 he proclaimed the forfeiture of the German Empire and the advent of the French Republic, he asked to the French authorities to hasten the troops arrival which ended the Socialist revolution taking place. Elected mayor of Strasbourg in 1919 and reelected in 1925, he created a'municipal office for cheap accommodations' which built 3,000 social apartments in ten years, he was beaten in the 1929 election by a coalition of communists and autonomists that led Charles Hueber to the town hall. A street was named after him in the Swiss quarter of Strasbourg. Jean-Claude Richez, Léon Strauss, François Igersheim, Stéphane Jonas, 1869-1935, Jacques Peirotes et le socialisme en Alsace, BF Éditions, Strasbourg, 1989, 220 p. read online: Danièle Voldman, Vingtième Siècle – Revue d'histoire, 1990, Nr 1, p. 135. This article is a translation of the similar article in the French Wikipedia