20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the
The Exterminator is a 1980 American vigilante action film written and directed by James Glickenhaus. It stars Robert Ginty as the Vietnam War veteran John Eastland known as "The Exterminator"; when a group of thugs paralyze his friend, Eastland becomes a vigilante. The film stars Samantha Eggar, Christopher George and Steve James, it has gained a cult following since its release. During a firefight in Vietnam, U. S. soldiers John Eastland and his best friend, Michael Jefferson, are captured by the Viet Cong. They are tied to wooden stakes with several other men, tortured for information; when Eastland refuses to answer, the VC commander decapitates the soldier beside him with a machete. Jefferson escapes moments kills the remaining VC soldiers, unties Eastland. Eastland kills the VC commander; the film shifts to New York, where Eastland and Jefferson work in a warehouse. One day, Eastland catches a group of thugs, trying to steal beer, he is attacked. They defeat them. Eastland, after this incident and interrogates one of the gang members with a flamethrower.
He attacks the gang's base of operations with his rifle, shooting one gang member and leaving two others tied up in a basement, full of hungry rats. Eastland's vigilante justice doesn't end there; the warehouse where he works has been forced into paying protection money. Gino Pontivini, the mob boss behind the scheme, has taxed the workers paychecks. Eastland kidnaps Pontivini, chains him above an industrial meat grinder. Eastland demands information to get to Pontivini's safe, which Pontivini reluctantly gives. Eastland survives an attack by Pontivini's Doberman, so upon returning, he lowers Pontivini into the grinder for lying about the dog. Jefferson and his family are given Pontivini's money. Detective James Dalton begins investigating the attacks, while the press dub Eastland the "Exterminator". Meanwhile, Eastland kills the ring leader of a child prostitution ring, as well as a state senator from New Jersey who sexually abuses children, he kills three more members of the Ghetto Ghouls, after witnessing them rob an elderly woman.
Meanwhile, the CIA reaches an odd conclusion. Based on the current administration's promise to cut down crime rates, they believe the Exterminator is either an opposition party's stunt, or a foreign power's ruse to humiliate the current administration, they monitor Dalton's investigation of the Exterminator. And Dalton, working from a bootprint found at Pontivini's home, discovers the Exterminator wears hunting boots manufactured by a mail order firm in Maine. Asking them for a list of clients in New York, following the hunch that the Exterminator may be a Vietnam War veteran. Eastland visits Jefferson in the hospital, because he will never be able to walk again, Jefferson asks Eastland to kill him. Eastland does; when he learns about Jefferson's death, Dalton surmises that one of Jefferson's friends was the Exterminator, learns that one of his suspects, was Jefferson's closest friend. Eastland is aware that Dalton is staking out his apartment, so he arranges a private meeting with him, where he hopes to explain why he became a vigilante.
However, the CIA are aware of the rendezvous after bugging Eastland's phone. They ambush him at his meeting with Dalton, which results in Dalton being killed while helping Eastland escape. In some releases Eastland survived the CIA ambush. Samuel L. Jackson appears in an uncredited role as a movie extra. Rotten Tomatoes reports a rating of 36% based on 11 reviews, indicating negative reviews. At an advance screening, he called the film a "direct rip-off" of Death Wish. After researching the Death Wish franchise, author Paul Talbot concluded that Death Wish "inspired" a number of "sadistic vigilante-themed movies"; the New York Times, on the other hand, praised the acting, but felt the film was let down by the "screenplay and direction" of "beginner" James Glickenhaus. Contemporary critics have been more appreciative. Eoin Friel, of the Action Elite, awarded three and a half stars out of five. Though he found the opening scene quite "shocking", the acting a bit "ropey", the effects "dated", he admitted the film "grabs you from the start".
Den of Geek's Phil Beresford gave a mixed review. He stated that while Ginty is "not the greatest or most charismatic" of actors, "his essential ordinariness works within the confines" of the film. Due to its graphic violence, The Exterminator has been a controversial subject since its release. Dr. Sharon Packer and Jody Pennington spoke of this controversy and the film's "extreme justice" in their book A History of Evil in Popular Culture, they claimed the violence was a contributing factor to the film's "success," as the "audience loved it." A sequel, Exterminator 2, was released in 1984. Ginty and producer Mark Buntzman retur
Chick Vennera is an American actor known for his role as Joe Mondragon, in Robert Redford's The Milagro Beanfield War, among other movies. After serving in the US Army Signal Corps, Vennera embarked on a career as an dancer, he was a musician, playing several instruments. His first acting role of note was in the Broadway production of Grease, having toured with the musical for a year, he continued as a performer and appeared in the 1978 film Thank God It's Friday where he performed a dance routine on top of several cars. His acting career continued throughout the 1980s and 1990s, with him appearing in many films and television series. In 1989, he appeared in three episodes of The Golden Girls. Vennera ventured into voice acting in the 1980s with roles on Hanna-Barbera programs. However, his most notable role is Pesto on Warner Bros. Animation/Amblin Entertainment's hit animated series Animaniacs. Vennera now teaches acting. Vennera spent time in the U. S. Army signal corps, he spent time as a musician, playing in various nightclubs in Los Angeles.
Chick Vennera on IMDb
A box office or ticket office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertop, through a hole in a wall or window, or at a wicket. By extension, the term is used in the context of the film industry, as a synonym for the amount of business a particular production, such as a film or theatre show, receives. Box office business can be measured in the terms of the number of tickets sold or the amount of money raised by ticket sales; the projection and analysis of these earnings is important for the creative industries and a source of interest for fans. This is predominant in the Hollywood movie industry; the term is attested since 1786 from sales of boxes. The sense of "total sales" is attested from 1904. A folk etymology is that this derives from Elizabethan theatre, where theatre admission was collected in a box attached to a long stick, passed around the audience. However, first attestation is about 200 years making this unlikely.
There are numerous websites that monitor box-office receipts, such as BoxOffice, Box Office India, Box Office Mojo, ShowBIZ Data and The Numbers which provide detailed information for many movies but have less and incomplete data for older movies due to the history of how box office reporting evolved in the U. S. and the availability of this information prior to the introduction of the internet. Although other publications have published box office data over the years, the longevity and regular reporting of Variety makes it a significant source for older box office reporting for the US market and US films. During the 1920s, Variety reported box office grosses for films by theatre for certain U. S. cities. In 1946, they started to publish a weekly National Box Office survey on page 3 indicating the performance of the week's hits and flops based on the box office results of 25 key U. S. cities. During the 1930s, Variety published charts of the top performing films of the year and has maintained this tradition annually since.
In 1946, they published a list of All-Time Top Grossers with a list of films that had achieved or gave promise of earning $4,000,000 or more in domestic rentals. They would publish an updated all-time list annually for over 50 years in their anniversary edition each January; the anniversary edition would normally contain the list of the top performing films of the year. Some publications such as BoxOffice magazine published box office performance expressed as a percentage compared to regular films Some of the early annual reports from Variety used this format. From the 1930s, BoxOffice magazine published a Barometer issue in January giving the performance of movies for the year expressed as percentages; the first issue of The Motion Picture Almanac in 1929 used this format to rank money makers. In the late 1960s, Variety used an IBM 360 computer to collate the grosses from their weekly reports of 22 to 24 U. S. cities from January 1, 1968. The data came from up to 800 theatres which represented around 5% of the U.
S. cinema population at the time but around one-third of the total U. S. box office grosses. In 1969, they started to publish the computerized box office compilation of the top 50 grossing films of the week based on this data. "The Love Bug" was the number one in the first chart published for the week ending April 16, 1969. The chart was discontinued in 1990. In 1976, Marcy Polier, an employee of the Mann theater chain, set up Centralized Grosses to collate U. S. daily box office data on a centralized basis rather than each theater chain collating their own numbers from other theater chains. The company became National Gross Service Entertainment Data, Inc.. Except for disclosures by the studios on successful films, total domestic box office gross information for films was not available until National Gross Service started to collate this data around 1981; the collation of grosses led to wider reporting of domestic box office grosses for films. Arthur D. Murphy at Variety was one of the first to organize and chart that information and report it in a meaningful form.
During the 1980s, Daily Variety started to publish a weekly chart of the domestic box office grosses of films as compared to the Top 50 chart in Variety, based on a sample of key markets. The focus of a film's performance became its box office gross rather than the rentals that Variety continued to report annually. Prior to the tracking of these grosses, domestic or worldwide box office grosses is not available for many earlier films so the only domestic or worldwide data available is still the rental figures. In 1984, EDI started to report Canadian grosses as well and by 1985 was reporting data for 15,000 screens. In 1987, EDI set up a database of box office information which included data on certain films back to 1970. By 1991, all U. S. studios had agreed to share their complete data reports with EDI. In 1990, EDI opened an office in the UK, moved into Germany in 1993 and Spain in 1995 reporting box office data for those markets. EDI were acquired by ACNielsen Corporation in 1997 for $26 million and became Nielsen EDI.
In December 2009, with its acquisition of Nielsen EDI for $15 million, measurement company Rentrak became the sole provider of worldwide box office ticket sales revenue and attendance information, used by many of the websites noted above. For a list of films which are major box-office hits, see List of highest-grossing films. Films that are considered to have been unsuccessful at the box office are called box office bombs or box off
RiffTrax is an American company that produces scripted humorous audio commentary tracks intended to be played in unison with particular television programs and films, featuring comedians Michael J. Nelson, Kevin Murphy, Bill Corbett and others; the three comedians' improvised commentating style originated from their earlier television series, Mystery Science Theater 3000, in which they would mock films aloud while watching them. RiffTrax products are sold online and delivered by app, streaming video, DRM-free download, it is featured on Pluto TV and Twitch.tv The site was launched by Nelson and Legend Films in 2006 and is based in San Diego. In 2012, RiffTrax was purchased from Legend by Michael J. Nelson, Kevin Murphy, Bill Corbett and RiffTrax CEO David G. Martin; as of December 2014, RiffTrax had 13 employees. The movies chosen for Mystery Science Theater 3000 were predominantly low-budget B-movies because the show itself was low budget and producers could only afford films that had either its copyright expired or that had otherwise cheap licenses.
The idea of RiffTrax came about after Mystery Science Theater 3000 was canceled and Nelson had researched and consulted a lawyer about the possibility of directly releasing DVDs of films with the commentaries included. But Nelson realized this initial idea was not feasible since he would be "sued out of existence." Instead, the best way to distribute the commentaries would be to sell them independently of the films, to avoid having to obtain the rights to distribute the movies themselves. There would be no legal or monetary restrictions to prevent Nelson from producing them, though viewers would have to provide the movies themselves; the early RiffTrax were all solo efforts on Mike's part, but it soon became apparent that there was a strong demand for them, Nelson was able to recruit more riffers for the project. Most official RiffTrax have a stable cast of Mike and former Mystery Science Theater 3000 co-stars Kevin Murphy and Bill Corbett, a line-up, identical to that of The Film Crew and the last three seasons of MST3K.
That said, the guest slots vary often. Nelson has said; the enthusiasm of guest riffers for the project led to the establishment of RiffTrax Presents, a series of tracks hosted by guest riffers and sanctioned by Nelson. The success of the guest format is such that "Three Riffer Editions" of some films solo riffed by Mike have been produced for the VOD service, which feature new riffs by Mike in conjunction with Murphy and Corbett, Mike has ceased producing solo riffs since 2007. Most recent works created by Rifftrax are crafted by a small team of writers. Rifftrax continues to release audio track riffs that can be used to play over the owner's own copy of a film as well as making versions friendly for films offered on online streaming services like Netflix, they have since expanded to produce full length video-on-demand riffs for films that have entered the public domain or otherwise have been licensed cheaply, such as Night of the Living Dead and Santa Claus Conquers the Martians. Along with the feature length tracks, Corbett and Nelson have created riffs for a number of short films educational and safety films, similar to the shorts presented before features on Mystery Science Theater 3000.
These include films by the Jam Handy Organization, Alfred P. Higgins Productions, Coronet Films and ACI Films, amongst others; because these shorts are in the public domain, they can be downloaded with the commentary recorded onto them. Shorts are released at least once, twice, a week In 2008, RiffTrax launched iRiffs, which allows fans to upload commentaries to be sold on the website. IRiffs users are paid 50% of the net revenue generated by their products. IRiffs differentiates from normal RiffTrax in that both serious and humorous commentaries can be uploaded. In February 2009, a contest was held by RiffTrax, in which a winning iRiffs user would be given $1,000 and a chance to develop a RiffTrax Presents title, receiving instruction and critique from Nelson and Corbett; the winners of the contest were Doug Walker, Rob Walker and Brian Heinz of That Guy with the Glasses, who contributed an iRiff of The Lion King. The RiffTrax commentary they produced was for Batman Forever. In October 2015, Rifftrax negotiated the rights to release available Mystery Science Theater 3000 episodes through Vimeo via an all-access subscription plan, with a new re-release uploaded each Monday.
The RiffTrax.com releases contain a newly recorded introduction on each episode by either Michael J. Nelson, Bill Corbett, Kevin Murphy, or Bridget Nelson and Mary Jo Pehl. A substantial percentage from the episode sales on the RiffTrax website goes to the cast members of MST3K. On July 20, 2018, RiffTrax celebrated its twelfth anniversary; as part of SF Sketchfest in San Francisco, Nelson and Corbett have appeared several times performing live riffs alongside a screening of a film. As of 2008, they have appeared three times, having riffed Daredevil and
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of working-class life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Bart and Maggie; the show is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American culture and society and the human condition. The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a solicitation for a series of animated shorts with producer James L. Brooks. Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after his own family members, substituting Bart for his own name; the shorts became a part of The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After three seasons, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show and became Fox's first series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season. Since its debut on December 17, 1989, 659 episodes of The Simpsons have been broadcast, it is the longest-running American sitcom, the longest-running American scripted primetime television series in terms of seasons and number of episodes.
The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film, was released in theaters worldwide on July 27, 2007, grossed over $527 million. On October 30, 2007, a video game was released; the Simpsons is on its thirtieth season, which began airing September 30, 2018. The Simpsons was renewed for a thirty-first and thirty-second season on February 6, 2019, in which the latter will contain the 700th episode; the Simpsons received acclaim throughout its first nine or ten seasons, which are considered its "Golden Age". Time named it the 20th century's best television series, Erik Adams of The A. V. Club named it "television's crowning achievement regardless of format". On January 14, 2000, the Simpson family was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it has won dozens of awards since it debuted as a series, including 31 Primetime Emmy Awards, 30 Annie Awards, a Peabody Award. Homer's exclamatory catchphrase "D'oh!" has been adopted into the English language, while The Simpsons has influenced many other adult-oriented animated sitcoms.
However, it has been criticized for a perceived decline in quality over the years. The Simpsons is known for its wide ensemble of supporting characters; the main characters are the Simpson family, who live in a fictional "Middle America" town of Springfield. Homer, the father, works as a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, a position at odds with his careless, buffoonish personality, he is married to a stereotypical American housewife and mother. They have three children: a ten-year-old troublemaker and prankster. Although the family is dysfunctional, many episodes examine their relationships and bonds with each other and they are shown to care about one another. Homer's dad Grampa Simpson lives in the Springfield Retirement Home after Homer forced his dad to sell his house so that his family could buy theirs. Grampa Simpson has had starring roles in several episodes; the family owns a dog, Santa's Little Helper, a cat, Snowball V, renamed Snowball II in "I, -Bot". Both pets have had starring roles in several episodes.
The show includes an array of quirky supporting characters, which include Homer's co-workers Lenny Leonard and Carl Carlson, the school principal Seymour Skinner and teachers Edna Krabappel and Elizabeth Hoover, neighbor Ned Flanders, friends Barney Gumble, Apu Nahasapeemapetilon, Moe Szyslak, Milhouse Van Houten, Nelson Muntz, extended relatives Patty and Selma Bouvier, townspeople such as Mayor Quimby, Chief Clancy Wiggum, tycoon Charles Montgomery Burns and his executive assistant Waylon Smithers, local celebrities Krusty the Clown and news reporter Kent Brockman. The creators intended many of these characters as one-time jokes or for fulfilling needed functions in the town. A number of them subsequently starred in their own episodes. According to Matt Groening, the show adopted the concept of a large supporting cast from the comedy show SCTV. Despite the depiction of yearly milestones such as holidays or birthdays passing, the characters do not age between episodes, appear just as they did when the series began.
The series uses a floating timeline in which episodes take place in the year the episode is produced though the characters do not age. Flashbacks and flashforwards do depict the characters at other points in their lives, with the timeline of these depictions generally floating relative to the year the episode is produced. For example, in the 1991 episode "I Married Marge", Bart appears to be born in 1980 or 1981, but in the 1995 episode "And Maggie Makes Three", Maggie appears to be born in 1993 or 1994. A canon of the show does exist, although Treehouse of Horror episodes and any fictional story told within the series are non-canon. However, continuity is limited in The Simpsons. For example, Krusty the Clown may be able to read in one episode, but may not be able to read in another. Lessons learned by the family in one episode may be forgotten in the next; some examples of limited continuity include Sideshow Bob's appearances where Bart and Lisa flashback at all the crimes he committed in Springfield or when the characters try to remember things that happened in previous episodes.
The Simpsons takes place in the fictional American town of Springfield in an unknown and impossible-to-determine U. S. state. The show is intentionally e
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A state, ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship; the word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency. Like the term "tyrant", to a lesser degree "autocrat", "dictator" came to be used exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive abusive rule. Thus, in modern usage, the term "dictator" is used to describe a leader who holds or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power. Dictatorships are characterised by some of the following: suspension of elections and civil liberties. Dictatorships are one-party or dominant-party states. A wide variety of leaders coming to power in different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas, one-party states, dominant-party states, civilian governments under a personal rule, have been described as dictators, they may be apolitical. An emergency legal appointment in the Roman Republic, the term "Dictator" did not have the negative meaning it has now.
A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. At the end of the term, the Dictator's power was returned to normal Consular rule whereupon a dictator provided accountability, though not all dictators accepted a return to power sharing; the term started to get its modern negative meaning with Cornelius Sulla's ascension to the dictatorship following Sulla's second civil war, making himself the first Dictator in Rome in more than a century as well as de facto eliminating the time limit and need of senatorial acclamation. He avoided a major constitutional crisis by resigning the office after about one year, dying a few years later. Julius Caesar followed Sulla's example in 49 BC and in February 44 BC was proclaimed Dictator perpetuo, "Dictator in perpetuity" doing away with any limitations on his power, which he kept until his assassination the following month. Following Julius' assassination, his heir Augustus was offered the title of dictator, but he declined it. Successors declined the title of dictator, usage of the title soon diminished among Roman rulers.
As late as the second half of the 19th century, the term dictator had occasional positive implications. For example, when creating a provisional executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi assumed the title of "Dictator". Shortly afterwards, during the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, "Dictator" was the official title of four leaders, the first being Ludwik Mierosławski. Past that time, the term dictator assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, a dictatorship is associated with brutality and oppression; as a result, it is also used as a term of abuse against political opponents. The term has come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality around themselves and they have come to grant themselves grandiloquent titles and honours. For instance, Idi Amin Dada, a British army lieutenant prior to Uganda's independence from Britain in October 1962, subsequently styled himself "His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin Dada, VC, DSO, MC, Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular".
In the movie The Great Dictator, Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Adolf Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself. A benevolent dictatorship refers to a government in which an authoritarian leader exercises absolute political power over the state but is perceived to do so with regard for benefit of the population as a whole, standing in contrast to the decidedly malevolent stereotype of a dictator. A benevolent dictator may allow for some economic liberalization or democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referenda or elected representatives with limited power, makes preparations for a transition to genuine democracy during or after their term, it might be seen as a republican form of enlightened despotism. The label has been applied to leaders such as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey, Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore,The association between a dictator and the military is a common one. In some cases, this is legitimate. In other cases, the association is mere pretense.
Some dictators have been masters such as Mussolini and Hitler. Others were more prosaic speakers, such as Franco; the dictator's people seize control of all media, censor or destroy the opposition, give strong doses of propaganda daily built around a cult of personality. Because of its negative and pejorative connotations, modern authoritarian leaders rarely use the term dictator in their formal titles, instead they most simply have title of president. In the 19th century, its official usage was more common: Hungary Artúr Görgei was styled Dictator from 11 August – 13 August 1849, during the last days of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Italy In the former city-state of Venice, while it was a r