The term muckraker was used in the Progressive Era to characterize reform-minded American journalists who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt. They had large audiences in some popular magazines. In the US, the modern term is investigative journalism—it has different and more pejorative connotations in British English—and investigative journalists in the US today are informally called "muckrakers"; the muckrakers played a visible role during the Progressive Era period, 1890s–1920s. Muckraking magazines—notably McClure's of the publisher S. S. McClure—took on corporate monopolies and political machines while trying to raise public awareness and anger at urban poverty, unsafe working conditions and child labor. Most of the muckrakers wrote nonfiction, but fictional exposes had a major impact as well, such as those by Upton Sinclair. In contemporary American use, the term describes either a journalist who writes in the adversarial or alternative tradition, or a non-journalist whose purpose in publication is to advocate reform and change.
Investigative journalists view the muckrakers as early influences and a continuation of watchdog journalism. In British English the term muckraker is more to mean a journalist who specialises in scandal and malicious gossip about celebrities or well-known personalities and is used in a derogatory sense; the term is a reference to a character in John Bunyan's classic Pilgrim's Progress, "the Man with the Muck-rake", who rejected salvation to focus on filth. It became popular. While a literature of reform had appeared by the mid-19th century, the kind of reporting that would come to be called "muckraking" began to appear around 1900. By the 1900s, magazines such as Collier's Weekly, Munsey's Magazine and McClure's Magazine were in wide circulation and read avidly by the growing middle class; the January 1903 issue of McClure's is considered to be the official beginning of muckraking journalism, although the muckrakers would get their label later. Ida M. Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens and Ray Stannard Baker published famous works in that single issue.
Claude H. Wetmore and Lincoln Steffens' previous article "Tweed Days in St. Louis" in McClure's October 1902 issue was called the first muckraking article; the muckrakers would become known for their investigative journalism, evolving from the eras of "personal journalism"—a term historians Emery and Emery used in The Press and America to describe the 19th century newspapers that were steered by strong leaders with an editorial voice —and yellow journalism. One of the biggest urban scandals of the post-Civil War era was the corruption and bribery case of Tammany boss William M. Tweed in 1871, uncovered by newspapers. In his first muckraking article "Tweed Days in St. Louis", Lincoln Steffens exposed the graft, a system of political corruption, ingrained in St. Louis. While some muckrakers had worked for reform newspapers of the personal journalism variety, such as Steffens, a reporter for the New York Evening Post under Edwin Lawrence Godkin, other muckrakers had worked for yellow journals before moving on to magazines around 1900, such as Charles Edward Russell, a journalist and editor of Joseph Pulitzer's New York World.
Publishers of yellow journals, such as Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, were more intent on increasing circulation through scandal, crime and sensationalism. Just as the muckrakers became well known for their crusades, journalists from the eras of "personal journalism" and "yellow journalism" had gained fame through their investigative articles, including articles that exposed wrongdoing. Note that in yellow journalism, the idea was to stir up the public with sensationalism, thus sell more papers. If, in the process, a social wrong was exposed that the average man could get indignant about, fine, but it was not the intent as it was with true investigative journalists and muckrakers. Julius Chambers of the New York Tribune, could be considered to be the original muckraker. Chambers undertook a journalistic investigation of Bloomingdale Asylum in 1872, having himself committed with the help of some of his friends and his newspaper's city editor, his intent was to obtain information about alleged abuse of inmates.
When articles and accounts of the experience were published in the Tribune, it led to the release of twelve patients who were not mentally ill, a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution and to a change in the lunacy laws. This led to the publication of the book A Mad World and Its Inhabitants. From this time onward, Chambers was invited to speak on the rights of the mentally ill and the need for proper facilities for their accommodation and treatment. Nellie Bly, another yellow journalist, used the undercover technique of investigation in reporting Ten Days in a Mad-House, her 1887 exposé on patient abuse at Bellevue Mental Hospital, first published as a series of articles in The World newspaper and as a book. Nellie would go on to write more articles on corrupt politicians, sweat-shop working conditions and other societal injustices. Helen Hunt Jackson –A Century of Dishonor, U. S. policy regarding Native Americans. Henry Demarest Lloyd – Wealth Against Commonwealth, exposed the corruption within the Standard
Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson was a Scottish novelist and travel writer, most noted for Treasure Island, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, A Child's Garden of Verses. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Stevenson suffered from serious bronchial trouble for much of his life, but continued to write prolifically and travel in defiance of his poor health; as a young man, he mixed in London literary circles, receiving encouragement from Andrew Lang, Edmund Gosse, Leslie Stephen and W. E. Henley, the last of whom may have provided the model for Long John Silver in Treasure Island, his travels took him to France and Australia, before he settled in Samoa, where he died. A celebrity in his lifetime, Stevenson attracted a more negative critical response for much of the 20th century, though his reputation has been restored, he is ranked as the 26th most translated author in the world. Stevenson was born at 8 Howard Place, Scotland on 13 November 1850 to Thomas Stevenson, a leading lighthouse engineer, his wife Margaret Isabella.
He was christened Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson. At about age 18, he changed the spelling of "Lewis" to "Louis", he dropped "Balfour" in 1873. Lighthouse design was the family's profession. Thomas's maternal grandfather Thomas Smith had been in the same profession. However, Robert's mother's family were gentry, tracing their lineage back to Alexander Balfour who had held the lands of Inchyra in Fife in the fifteenth century, his mother's father Lewis Balfour was a minister of the Church of Scotland at nearby Colinton, her siblings included physician George William Balfour and marine engineer James Balfour. Stevenson spent the greater part of his boyhood holidays in his maternal grandfather's house. "Now I wonder what I inherited from this old minister," Stevenson wrote. "I must suppose, that he was fond of preaching sermons, so am I, though I never heard it maintained that either of us loved to hear them."Lewis Balfour and his daughter both had weak chests, so they needed to stay in warmer climates for their health.
Stevenson inherited a tendency to coughs and fevers, exacerbated when the family moved to a damp, chilly house at 1 Inverleith Terrace in 1851. The family moved again to the sunnier 17 Heriot Row when Stevenson was six years old, but the tendency to extreme sickness in winter remained with him until he was 11. Illness left him extraordinarily thin. Contemporaneous views were that he had tuberculosis, but more recent views are that it was bronchiectasis or sarcoidosis. Stevenson's parents were both devout Presbyterians, but the household was not strict in its adherence to Calvinist principles, his nurse Alison Cunningham was more fervently religious. Her mix of Calvinism and folk beliefs were an early source of nightmares for the child, he showed a precocious concern for religion, but she cared for him tenderly in illness, reading to him from John Bunyan and the Bible as he lay sick in bed and telling tales of the Covenanters. Stevenson recalled this time of sickness in "The Land of Counterpane" in A Child's Garden of Verses, dedicating the book to his nurse.
Stevenson was an only child, both strange-looking and eccentric, he found it hard to fit in when he was sent to a nearby school at age 6, a problem repeated at age 11 when he went on to the Edinburgh Academy. His frequent illnesses kept him away from his first school, so he was taught for long stretches by private tutors, he was a late reader, learning at age 7 or 8, but before this he dictated stories to his mother and nurse, he compulsively wrote stories throughout his childhood. His father was proud of this interest, he paid for the printing of Robert's first publication at 16, entitled The Pentland Rising: A Page of History, 1666. It was an account of the Covenanters' rebellion, published in 1866, the 200th anniversary of the event. In September 1857, Stevenson went to Mr Henderson's School in India Street, but because of poor health stayed only a few weeks and did not return until October 1859. During his many absences he was taught by private tutors. In October 1861, he went to Edinburgh Academy, an independent school for boys, stayed there sporadically for about fifteen months.
In the autumn of 1863, he spent one term at an English boarding school at Spring Grove in Isleworth in Middlesex. In October 1864, following an improvement to his health, he was sent to Robert Thomson's private school in Frederick Street, where he remained until he went to university. In November 1867, Stevenson entered the University of Edinburgh to study engineering, he showed from the start devoted much energy to avoiding lectures. This time was more important for the friendships he made with other students in the Speculative Society with Charles Baxter, who would become Stevenson's financial agent, with a professor, Fleeming Jenkin, whose house staged amateur drama in which Stevenson took part, whose biography he would write. Most important at this point in his life was a cousin, Robert Alan Mowbray Stevenson, a lively and light-hearted young man who, instead of the family profession, had
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Benjamin Franklin "Frank" Norris Jr. was an American journalist and novelist during the Progressive Era, whose fiction was predominantly in the naturalist genre. His notable works include McTeague, The Octopus: A Story of California, The Pit. Norris was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1870, his father, was a self-made Chicago businessman and his mother, Gertrude Glorvina Doggett, had a stage career. In 1884 the family moved to San Francisco. In 1887, after the death of his brother and a brief stay in London, young Norris went to Académie Julian in Paris where he studied painting for two years and was exposed to the naturalist novels of Émile Zola. Between 1890 and 1894 he attended the University of California, where he became acquainted with the ideas of human evolution of Darwin and Spencer that are reflected in his writings, his stories appeared in the undergraduate magazine in the San Francisco Wave. After his parents' divorce he went east and spent a year in the English Department of Harvard University.
There he met Lewis E. Gates, he worked as a news correspondent in South Africa for the San Francisco Chronicle, as editorial assistant for the San Francisco Wave. He worked for McClure's Magazine as a war correspondent in Cuba during the Spanish–American War in 1898, he joined the New York City publishing firm of Doubleday & Page in 1899. During his time at the University of California, Norris was a brother in the Fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta and was an originator of the Skull & Keys society; because of his involvement with a prank during the Class Day Exercises in 1893, the annual alumni dinner held by each Phi Gamma Delta chapter still bears his name. In 1900 Frank Norris married Jeanette Black, they had a child in 1901. Norris died on October 1902, of peritonitis from a ruptured appendix in San Francisco; this left The Epic of the Wheat trilogy unfinished. He was only 32, he is buried in Mountain View Cemetery in California. Charles Gilman Norris, the author's younger brother, became editor. C. G. Norris was the husband of the prolific novelist Kathleen Norris.
The Bancroft Library of the University of California, houses the archives of all three writers. Frank Norris's work includes depictions of suffering caused by corrupt and greedy turn-of-the-century corporate monopolies. In The Octopus: A California Story, the Pacific and Southwest Railroad is implicated in the suffering and deaths of a number of ranchers in Southern California. At the end of the novel, after a bloody shootout between farmers and railroad agents at one of the ranches, readers are encouraged to take a "larger view" that sees that "through the welter of blood at the irrigating ditch... the great harvest of Los Muertos rolled like a flood from the Sierras to the Himalayas to feed thousands of starving scarecrows on the barren plains of India". Though free-wheeling market capitalism causes the deaths of many of the characters in the novel, this "larger view always... discovers the Truth that will, in the end and all things inevitably, resistlessly work together for good". The novel Vandover and the Brute, written in the 1890s, but not published until after his death, is about three college friends preparing to become successful, the ruin of one due to a degenerate lifestyle.
In addition to Zola's, Norris's writing has been compared to that of Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Edith Wharton. Norris's work has not fared well with critics in the late early 21st century; as Donald Pizer writes, "Frank Norris's racism, which included the most vicious anti-Semitic portrayals in any major work of American literature, has long been an embarrassment to admirers of the vigor and intensity of his best fiction and has contributed to the decline of his reputation during the past several generations." Other scholars have confirmed Norris's antisemitism. Norris's work is seen as influenced by the scientific racism of the late 19th century, such as that espoused by his professor at the University of California, Joseph LeConte. Along with his contemporary Jack London, Norris is seen as "reconstructing American identity as a biological category of Anglo-Saxon masculinity." In Norris's work, critics have seen evidence of racism and contempt for immigrants and the working poor, all of whom are seen the losers in a Social-Darwinist struggle for existence.
Additionally, his "exaggeratedly muscular novels" seem to posit women as biologically subordinate to men. Norris's novel. Produced by William A. Brady, the play premiered at New York's Lyric Theatre on February 10, 1904. A film adaptation of The Pit was produced in 1917, by William A. Brady's Picture Plays Inc. Norris's short story "A Deal in Wheat" and the novel The Pit were the basis for the 1909 D. W. Griffith film A Corner in Wheat. Norris's Moran of the Lady Letty was adapted by Monte M. Katterjohn in 1922. Directed by George Melford, the film starred Dorothy Dalton. Norris's McTeague has been filmed twice; the best known version is the 1924 film entitled Greed directed by Erich von Stroheim. An earlier adaptation, Life's Whirlpool, was produced in 1915 by the World Film Corporation, starring Fania Marinoff and Holbrook Blinn. An opera by William Bolcom, based loosely on his 1899 novel, McTeague, was premiered by Chicago's Lyric Opera in 1992; the work is with libretto by Arnold Weinstein and Robert Altman.
The Lyric Opera's presentation featured Ben Heppner in the title role and Catherine Malfitano
Willa Sibert Cather was an American writer who achieved recognition for her novels of frontier life on the Great Plains, including O Pioneers!, The Song of the Lark, My Ántonia. In 1923 she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for One of Ours, a novel set during World War I. Cather graduated from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, she lived and worked in Pittsburgh for ten years, supporting herself as a magazine editor and high school English teacher. At the age of 33 she moved to New York City, her primary home for the rest of her life, though she traveled and spent considerable time at her summer residence on Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick. Cather was born Wilella Sibert Cather in 1873 on her maternal grandmother's farm in the Back Creek Valley near Winchester, Virginia, her father was Charles Fectigue Cather, whose family had lived on land in the valley for six generations. Cather's family originated in Wales, the family name deriving from Cadair Idris, a mountain in Gwynedd.:13 Her mother was Mary Virginia Boak, a former school teacher.
Within a year of Cather's birth, the family moved to Willow Shade, a Greek Revival-style home on 130 acres given to them by her paternal grandparents. At the urging of Charles Cather's parents, the family moved to Nebraska in 1883 when Willa was nine years old; the rich, flat farmland appealed to Charles' father, the family wished to escape the tuberculosis outbreaks that were rampant in Virginia. Willa's father tried his hand at farming for eighteen months. Cather's time in the western state, still on the frontier, was a formative experience for her, she was intensely moved by the dramatic environment and weather, the vastness of the Nebraska prairie, the various cultures of the European-American and Native American families in the area. Like Jim Burden in My Antonia, the young Willa Cather saw the Nebraska frontier as a "place where there was nothing but land: not a country at all, but the materials out of which countries were made... Between that earth and that sky I felt erased, blotted out".
Mary Cather had six more children after Willa: Roscoe, Jessica, James and Elsie.:5–7 Cather was closer to her brothers than to her sisters whom, according to biographer Hermione Lee, she "seems not to have liked much.":36 Cather read having made friends with a Jewish couple, the Weiners, who offered her free access to their extensive library. She made house calls with the local physician, Dr. Robert Damerell, decided to become a doctor. After Cather's essay on Thomas Carlyle was published in the Nebraska State Journal during her freshman year at the University of Nebraska,:72–3 she became a regular contributor to the Journal. In addition to her work with the local paper, Cather served as the managing editor of The Hesperian, the University of Nebraska's student newspaper, associated at the Lincoln Courier, she changed her plans to major in science and become a physician, instead graduating with a B. A. in English in 1894. In 1896, Cather moved to Pittsburgh after being hired to write for the Home Monthly, a women's magazine patterned after the successful Ladies' Home Journal.:114 A year she became a telegraph editor and drama critic for the Pittsburgh Leader and contributed poetry and short fiction to The Library, another local publication.
In Pittsburgh, she taught Latin and English composition:150 at Central High School for one year. During her first year in Pittsburgh, Cather wrote a number of short stories, including "Tommy, the Unsentimental," about a Nebraskan girl with a boy's name, who looks like a boy and saves her father's bank business. Janis P. Stout calls this story one of several Cather works that "demonstrate the speciousness of rigid gender roles and give favorable treatment to characters who undermine conventions." Cather's first collection of short stories, The Troll Garden, was published in 1905 by McClure and Company. It contains several of Cather's best-known stories—"A Wagner Matinee," "The Sculptor's Funeral," and "Paul's Case." In 1906 Cather moved to New York City after being offered a position on the editorial staff of McClure's Magazine, a periodical connected with the publisher of The Troll Garden the year before. During her first year at McClure's, she wrote a critical biography of Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, although Georgine Milmine, a freelance researcher, was named as the sole author.
Milmine had performed copious amounts of research, but she did not have the resources to produce a manuscript on her own.:194 "Mary Baker G. Eddy: The Story of Her Life and the History of Christian Science" was published in McClure's in fourteen installments over the next eighteen months, in book form as The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science. McClure's serialized Cather's first novel, Alexander's Bridge. Most reviews were favorable; the New York Times praised "the dramatic situations and the clever conversations,":225 and The Atlantic called the writing "deft and skillful."Cather followed Alexander's Bridge with her Prairie Trilogy: O Pioneers!, The Song of the Lark, My Ántonia. These works became both popular and critical successes. Cather was celebrated by national critics such as H. L. Mencken for writing in plainspoken language about ordinary people. Si
The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science
The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science was published in November 1909 in New York by Doubleday, Page & Company. Ghostwritten by the novelist Willa Cather, the book is a critical account of the life of Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, the early history of the Christian Science church in 19th-century New England; the first major examination of Eddy's life and work, published when she was 85 years old, the material first appeared in McClure's magazine, in 14 installments, between January 1907 and June 1908. The articles were preceded in December 1906 by a six-page editorial announcing the series as "probably as near absolute accuracy as history gets"; the eyewitness accounts and affidavits became key primary sources for all independent accounts of the church's early history. The magazine's publisher and editor-in-chief, S. S. McClure, assigned five writers to work on the articles: Willa Cather, winner of the 1923 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, who had joined McClure's as an editor in 1906.
The original byline on the book and articles was Milmine's, but it emerged that Cather was the principal author. The New York Times wrote at the time that the book's evidence against "Eddyism" was "unanswerable and conclusive". Christian Scientists reacted to it; the Christian Science church purchased the manuscript, soon the book was out of print. It was republished by Baker Book House in 1971 after its copyright had expired, again in 1993 by the University of Nebraska Press, this time naming both Cather and Milmine as authors. David Stouck, in his introduction to the University of Nebraska Press edition, wrote that Cather's portrayal of Eddy "contains some of the finest portrait sketches and reflections on human nature that Willa Cather would write". Eddy and 26 followers founded the Christian Science church in 1879 in Boston, following the publication of Eddy's book Science and Health. In the book Eddy argued that disease is a mental error rather than a physical disorder, that it should be treated not by medicine, but by a form of silent prayer that corrects the mistaken beliefs.
Her ideas were not new, she said. At a time when medical practice was in its infancy, patients fared better if left alone, the Christian Science message was a welcome one. In 1882 Eddy set up the Massachusetts Metaphysical College in Boston, for $300 for a 12-lesson course and her students taught women how to become Christian Science practitioners, licensed to offer Christian Science prayer to the sick; the college made Eddy a wealthy woman. Christian Science became the fastest growing religion in the United States; the church had 27 members in 1879. In 1890 there were just seven Christian Science churches in the U. S.. Construction of the mother church, The First Church of Christ, was completed in Boston in December 1894, in 1906 the Mother Church Extension, rising 224 ft and accommodating nearly 5,000, was built at a cost of $2 million. Art historian Paul Ivey writes that, for many, the building "visibly declared that Christian Science had, arrived as a major force in American religious life".
The McClure's articles were published in 14 installments between January 1907 and June 1908, under Georgine Milmine's byline, as "Mary Baker G. Eddy: The Story of Her Life and the History of Christian Science"; the series was preceded by a seven-page editorial in December 1906, outlining the difficulties of the investigation and explaining why it was being published. Referring to Christian Science as a cult based on a "hazy and obscure" book, the editorial continued: "A church which has doubled its membership in five years, which draws its believers from the rich and respectable... and which has just paid for the most costly church building in New England—to the worldly, this is no longer a joke": In 1875 no one living outside of two or three back streets of Lynn had heard of Christian Science. Now, the name is a catch phrase. In those early days the leader and teacher paid out half of her ten dollars a week to hire a hall, patching out the rest of her living with precarious fees as an instructor in mental healing.
She is more than that—she is the most powerful American woman. The series got off to an unfortunate start by reproducing a photograph on page two of the editorial that purported to be of Eddy, but was in fact of someone else; the book's criticism of Eddy is considerable. She is portrayed as greedy and deceitful, someone who revised her life story and was interested only in making money; the authors produce witness statements from Eddy's childhood alleging that she engaged in repeated fainting spells to gain attention or avoid punishment from her father, that, as an adult, she developed a habit of appearing to be ill only to recover quickly. Eddy was widowed when she was 22 years old and pregnant, after which she returned to live in her father's home, her son was raised there for the first few years of his life, looked after by domestic staff because of Eddy's poor health. The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy alleges that
Collier's was an American magazine, founded in 1888 by Peter Fenelon Collier. It was launched as Collier's Once a Week changed in 1895 to Collier's Weekly: An Illustrated Journal, shortened in 1905 to Collier's; the magazine ceased publication with the issue dated for the week ending January 4, 1957, though a brief, failed attempt was made to revive the Collier's name with a new magazine in 2012. As a result of Peter Collier's pioneering investigative journalism, Collier's established a reputation as a proponent of social reform; when attempts by various companies to sue Collier ended in failure, other magazines became involved in what Theodore Roosevelt described as "muckraking journalism." Peter F. Collier left Ireland for the U. S. at age 17. Although he went to a seminary to become a priest, he instead started work as a salesman for P. J. Kenedy, publisher of books for the Roman Catholic market; when Collier wanted to boost sales by offering books on a subscription plan, it led to a disagreement with Kenedy, so Collier left to start his own subscription service.
P. F. Collier & Son began in 1875, expanding into the largest subscription house in America with sales of 30 million books during the 1900–1910 decade. With the issued dated April 28, 1888, Collier's Once a Week was launched as a magazine of "fiction, sensation, humor, news", it was sold with the biweekly Collier's Library of novels and popular books at bargain rates and as a stand-alone priced at seven cents. By 1892, with a circulation climbing past the 250,000 mark, Collier's Once a Week was one of the largest selling magazines in the United States; the name was changed to Collier's Weekly: An Illustrated Journal in 1895. With an emphasis on news, the magazine became a leading exponent of the halftone news picture. To exploit the new technology, Collier recruited James H. Hare, one of the pioneers of photojournalism. Collier's only son, Robert J. Collier, became a full partner in 1898. By 1904, the magazine was known as Collier's: The National Weekly. Peter Collier died in 1909; when Robert Collier died in 1918, he left a will that turned the magazine over to three of his friends, Samuel Dunn, Harry Payne Whitney and Francis Patrick Garvan.
Robert J. Collier won a lawsuit against Postum Cereal Company and awarded a $50,000 in damages, but in 1912 an appeals court handed down a majority decision that Postum deserved a new trial; the Postum Company believed that Collier's weekly used magazine coverage to attack their company's products in retaliation for not advertising in Collier's after Collier's wrote against a Grape-Nuts's claim that it was an "A Food for Brain and Nerves." Postum bought advertising pages in major newspapers in retaliation. The magazine was sold in 1919 to the Crowell Publishing Company, which in 1939 was renamed as Crowell-Collier Publishing Company. In 1924 Crowell moved the printing operations from New York to Springfield, Ohio but kept the editorial and business departments in New York. Reasons given for moving print operations included conditions imposed by unions in the printing trade, expansion of the Gansevoort Market into the property occupied by the Collier plant and "excessive postage involved in mailing from a seaboard city under wartime postal rates.
After 1924, printing of the magazine was done at the Crowell-Collier printing plant on West Main Street in Springfield, Ohio. The factory complex, much of, no longer standing, was built between 1899 and 1946, incorporates seven buildings that together have more than 846,000 square feet —20 acres —of floor space. Collier's popularized the short-short story, planned to fit on a single page. Knox Burger was Collier's fiction editor from 1948 to 1951 when he left to edit books for Dell and Fawcett Publications; the numerous authors who contributed fiction to Collier's included Ray Bradbury, Eleanor Hoyt Brainerd, Willa Cather, Roald Dahl, Jack Finney, Erle Stanley Gardner, Zane Grey, Ring Lardner, Sinclair Lewis, E. Phillips Oppenheim, J. D. Salinger, Kurt Vonnegut, Albert Payson Terhune and Walter Tevis. Humor writers included H. Allen Smith. Serializing novels during the late 1920s, Collier's sometimes ran two ten-part novels, non-fiction was serialized. Between 1913 and 1949, Sax Rohmer's Fu Manchu serials, illustrated by Joseph Clement Coll and others, were hugely popular.
The first three Fu Manchu novels by Rohmer were compilations of 29 short stories that Rohmer wrote for Collier’s. The Mask of Fu Manchu, adapted into a 1932 film and a 1951 Wally Wood comic book, was first published as a 12-part Collier's serial, running from May 7 to July 23, 1932; the May 7 issue displayed a memorable cover illustration by famed maskmaker Władysław T. Benda, his mask design for that cover was repeated by many other illustrators in subsequent adaptations and reprints. A 1951 condensed version of the book Day of the Triffids by John Wyndham appeared. Leading illustrators contributed to the covers of Collier's, they included C. C. Beall, W. T. Benda, Chesley Bonestell, Charles R. Chickering, Howard Chandler Christy, Arthur Crouch, Harrison Fisher, James Montgomery Flagg, Alan Foster, Charles Dana Gibson, Vernon Grant, Earl Oliver Hurst, Percy Leason, Frank X. Leyendecker, J. C. Leyendecker, Paul Martin, John Alan Maxwell, Ronald McLeod, John Cullen Murphy, Maxfield Parrish, Edward Penfield, Robert O. Reed, Frederic Remington, Anthony Saris, John Sloan, Jessie Willcox Smith, Frederic Dorr Steele, Jon Whitcomb and Lawson Wood.
Other top illustrators contributed prolifically to their short stories. They included Harold Mathews Brett, Richard V. Culter, Robert Fawcett, Denver Gillen and Quentin Reynolds. In 1903, Gibson signed a $100,00