The Edwards Plateau is a region of west-central Texas, bounded by the Balcones Fault to the south and east, the Llano Uplift and the Llano Estacado to the north, the Pecos River and Chihuahuan Desert to the west. San Angelo, San Antonio and Del Rio outline the area; the eastern portion of the plateau is known as the Texas Hill Country. According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, the following 41 counties comprise the Edwards Plateau: The bedrock consists of limestone, with elevations ranging between 100 and 3000 ft. Caves are numerous; the landscape of the plateau is savanna scattered with trees. It lacks deep soil suitable for farming, though the soil is fertile mollisols and some cotton, grain sorghum, oats are grown. For the most part, the thin soil and rough terrain areas are grazing regions, with cattle and Angora goats predominant. Several rivers cross the region, which flow to the south and east through the Texas Hill Country toward the Gulf of Mexico; the area is well drained.
Rainfall varies from 15 to 33 inches per year, on average, from northwest to southeast, the area has a moderate temperature and a reasonably long growing season. Trees of the savanna include juniper and oak species scattered over grasses, a vegetation type shaped by droughts and regular fires; some pecan trees are found near the rivers. The Balcones Fault is associated with the Edwards Plateau formation; this fault line is an ecological demarcation for the range definition of a number of species. Caves of the Edwards Plateau are important habitats for a great deal of wildlife; the area is home to some of the largest colonies of bats in the world, including millions of Mexican free-tailed bats. The largest colony of these inhabits Bracken Cave near San Antonio, while the Congress Avenue Bridge in Austin is the summer home for over half a million and is the largest bat colony anywhere in an urban area; the Edwards Plateau is home to at least 14 endemic freshwater fishes, including two subterranean species of catfish and 13 fish species considered to be spring-associated.
Mechanisms for spring association of fishes is not understood, but thought to mediated by water temperature. The large numbers of reptiles and birds include breeding populations of the Texan endemic golden-cheeked warbler. Nearly all the natural habitat of the plateau has been converted to ranchland, farmland, or urban areas, such as Austin and San Antonio, with only about 2% remaining in scattered fragments to the east of the plateau. Further alteration to the savanna has incurred though the encroachment of shrubs now that grassland fires are controlled. Small areas of intact habitat remain around Austin, where areas are protected, such as the Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge. Another important area for wildlife is Fort Hood military base. Earliest human settlement of this area was by Native Americans. First it was used and wandered about by Jumano and Coahuiltecan groups the Apacheria extended into the Southern Plains by the forerunners of the Lipan and Mescalero Apaches. After the expulsion of the Apachean groups from the Plains by the Comanche, this area was dominated by the Penateka band of the Southern Comanche.
Texas Hill Country Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge Colorado River Mount Bonnell List of ecoregions in the United States Johnson, E. H.. "Edwards Plateau". TSHA Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. "Plateaus and Canyonlands". Texas Beyond History. University of Texas at Austin. Texas counties map showing the ecoregion
A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord. Tenant farming is an agricultural production system in which landowners contribute their land and a measure of operating capital and management, while tenant farmers contribute their labor along with at times varying amounts of capital and management. Depending on the contract, tenants can make payments to the owner either of a fixed portion of the product, in cash or in a combination; the rights the tenant has over the land, the form, measure of the payment varies across systems. In some systems, the tenant could be evicted at whim. In most developed countries today, at least some restrictions are placed on the rights of landlords to evict tenants under normal circumstances. Rural society utilised a three tier structure of landowners, tenant farmers, farmworkers. Tenant farmers were known as peasants. Under Anglo-Norman law all tenants were bonded to the land, were therefore villeins, but after the labour shortage occasioned by the Black Death in the mid 14th century, the number of free tenants increased.
Many tenant farmers became affluent and well connected, employed a substantial number of labourers and managed more than one farm. Tenancy rotated by the owners. Cottiers held much less land; the 17th century to the early 19th century witnessed the growth of large estates, the opportunity for a farmer to hold land other than by tenancy was reduced, with the result that by the 19th century about 90% of agricultural land area and holdings were tenanted, although these figures declined markedly after World War II, to around 60% in 1950, only 35% of agricultural land area in 1994. High rates of inheritance taxes in the postwar period led to the breakup or reduction of many large estates, allowing many tenants to buy their holdings at favourable prices; the landmark 1948 Act was enacted at a time when war-time food rationing was still in force and sought to encourage long-term investment by tenants by granting them lifetime security of tenure. Under the Agriculture Act 1976 security was extended to spouses and relatives of tenants for two successions, providing that they had been earning the majority of their income from the holding for five years.
Succession rights were however withdrawn for new tenancies in 1984 and this was consolidated in the Agricultural Holdings Act 1986. These two statutes laid down rules for the determination of rents by the arbitration process; the 1986 statute covered tenancies over agricultural land where the land was used for a trade or business and the definition of "agriculture" in section 96 was wide enough to include various uses that in themselves were not agricultural but were deemed so if ancillary to agriculture. The essence of the code was to establish complex constraints on the landlord's ability to give the notice to quit, whilst converting fixed term tenancies into yearly tenancies at the conclusion of the fixed term. In addition, there was a uniform rent ascertainment scheme contained in section 12, it became difficult to obtain new tenancies as a result of landlords' reluctance to have a tenant protected by the 1986 Act and in 1995 the government of the day, with the support of industry organizations, enacted a new market-oriented code in the form of the Agricultural Tenancies Act 1995.
The protection of the 1986 Act remains in respect of tenancies created prior to the existence of the 1995 Act, for those tenancies falling within section 4 of the 1995 Act. For all other tenancies granted on or after 1 September 1995 their regulation is within the 1995 Act framework; that Act was altered with effect from 18 October 2006 by the Regulatory Reform Order 2006 SI 2006/2805, which contains changes to the 1986 Act. Tenancies granted after 18 October 2006 over agricultural land used for a trade or business will fall within the limited protection of the 1995 Act so as to enjoy a mandatory minimum twelve months written notice to quit, including in respect of fixed terms. There is for all tenancies within the scope of the Act a mandatory tenants' right to remove fixtures and buildings together with compensation for improvements; the rent review provisions in Part II may be the subject of choice to a much greater extent than previously. Disputes under the Act are by the terms of Part IV, the subject of statutory arbitration controlled by the framework of the Arbitration Act 1996.
The current regime under the 1995 Act for regulating tenancies known as Farm Business Tenancies, permits the creation of a and terminable interest, whether by a periodic tenancy or a fixed term. In the cycle of animal husbandry and land use and improvement, the long-term effect of the Farm Business Tenancy on the landscape of Britain is not yet proven, it was predicted by landowners and other industry spokesmen that the 1995 Act would create opportunities for new tenants by allowing large areas of new lettings but this has not happened in practice as most landowners have continued to favour share farming or management agreements over formal tenancies and the majority of new lettings under the Act have been to existing farmers owner-occupiers taking on extra land at higher rents than could be afforded by a traditional tenant. Tenant farming immigrants came to Canada not just from the British Isles but the Uni
A turkey trot is a fun run or footrace of the long-distance variety, held on or around Thanksgiving Day in the United States. Traditionally, turkey trots are held because Americans anticipate indulgent Thanksgiving feasts and run in turkey trots to burn off calories before the big meal. Turkey trots are held in the United Kingdom shortly before or after Christmas Day. In the United States, many courses used for these Thanksgiving events are run at major certified USA Track and Field road race distances between 5,000 and 42,195 meters; some organizations hold their turkey trots the week prior to Thanksgiving in order to provide festive holiday meals to homeless and low-income families in their community. Turkey trots range in size from just a few dozen runners to tens of thousands. Most turkey trots benefit local charities. First prize for winning turkey trots is an actual frozen turkey that the winner can use for his or her family's Thanksgiving feast; some turkey trots are prediction races - watches are not allowed, with prizes for finishing closest to your predicted time.
Some races have prizes for costumes. The Austin Turkey Trot is the largest 5 mile race in Texas, one of the largest Turkey Trots with over 20,000 racers; this event is now held on the second weekend of October. The Dallas Turkey Trot, with more than 25,000 racers annually; the Feaster Five Road Race in Andover, Massachusetts. The Plymouth Turkey Trot in Historic Plymouth, Massachusetts as part of America's Hometown Thanksgiving Celebration; the San Francisco Turkey Trot, takes place in Golden Gate Park on Thanksgiving Day. The Silicon Valley Turkey Trot is one of the largest Thanksgiving Day race with over 25,000 participants; the 5k race winds through the Saint James Wood neighborhood and attracts over two thousand participants. Many participants wear Michigan/Ohio State colors; the Tampa Bay Times Turkey Trot takes places every year in coordination with the city of Clearwater and the West Florida Y Runner's Club. Annual attendance for this event reaches over 17,000 registered racers; the Thanksgiving Day Half Marathon in Atlanta is the nation's largest half marathon run on Thanksgiving morning.
Between 1981 and 2009, the event coincided with the Atlanta Marathon, making it the longest distance for a turkey trot in the United States. The Troy Turkey Trot began in 1916 with six runners and has grown into one of the largest and oldest turkey trots in the U. S. Turkey trot
Benjamin McCulloch was a soldier in the Texas Revolution, a Texas Ranger, a major general in the Texas militia and thereafter a major in the United States Army during the Mexican–American War, a U. S. marshal, a brigadier general in the army of the Confederate States during the American Civil War. He was born November 11, 1811 in Rutherford County, one of twelve children and the fourth son of Alexander McCulloch and Frances Fisher LeNoir. Benjamin's father Alexander, a Yale University graduate, was a descendant of Captain Nicolas Martiau, the French Huguenot settler of Jamestown and ancestor of President George Washington. Alexander was an officer on Brig. Gen. John Coffee's staff during the Creek War of 1813 and 1814 in Alabama, his mother was a daughter of a prominent Virginian planter. The McCulloch family had been wealthy, politically influential, prominent in North Carolina before the American Revolution, but Alexander had wasted much of his inheritance and was unable to educate his sons.
One of Ben's younger brothers was Henry Eustace McCulloch a Confederate general officer. Another brother, served in the Texas Revolution and as a captain in Mexico; the McCulloch family, like many on the frontier, moved by choice or necessity. In the twenty years following their move from North Carolina and Ben's birth, they lived in eastern Tennessee and western Tennessee, they settled at Dyersburg, where one of their closest neighbors was David Crockett, a great influence on young Ben. In 1834, McCulloch headed west, he reached St. Louis just too late to join the fur trappers headed for the mountains for the season, he tried to join a freight company heading for Santa Fe as a muleskinner, but was told they had a full complement. He moved on to Wisconsin to investigate lead-mining, but found all the best claims staked by the large mining companies. In the fall of 1835, he returned to Tennessee to take up farming; when Crockett went to Texas in 1835, Ben McCulloch—tired of farming but seeking adventure—decided to accompany him, as did his brother Henry McCulloch.
They planned to meet Crockett's Tennessee Boys at Nacogdoches on Christmas Day. Crockett's arrival in Nacogdoches was delayed due to hunting between the Bois d'Arc Creek and Choctaw Bayou. By January 5, 1836, Crockett found his way to Nacogdoches. There, Ben McCulloch greeted him after having convinced his brother, Henry McCulloch to return to Tennessee. Ben subsequently was bedridden for several weeks. Crockett pressed on toward San Antonio. McCulloch's illness prevented him from arriving in San Antonio until after the Alamo had fallen. McCulloch joined the Texas army under Sam Houston in its retreat to east Texas. Assigned to Captain Isaac N. Moreland's artillery company at the Battle of San Jacinto, he commanded one of the "Twin Sisters"—two six-pounder cannon sent to aid the Texans by the citizens of Cincinnati. One of the twin sisters was named the other Elizabeth, it is believed he chose to command Elizabeth to honor his dear friend and mentor, David Crockett, whose widow was Elizabeth Crockett.
He made deadly use of his cannon against the Mexican positions and received a battlefield commission as first lieutenant. For his service, McCulloch was issued Texas Bounty Certificate No. 2473 for 320 acres. In 1839, he received Donation Certificate No. 776 for 640 acres, for his service at San Jacinto. McCulloch was attached to Captain William H. Smith's cavalry company, but returned to Tennessee to recruit a company of volunteers to return to Texas, he returned a few months with a company of thirty volunteers which he had placed under the command of his friend, Robert Crockett, David Crockett's son. By 1838, he had taken up the profession of surveying land for the Republic of Texas in and around the community of Seguin joining the Texas Rangers as lieutenant to Captain John Coffee "Jack" Hays, he acquired a reputation as an Indian fighter, favoring shotguns and Bowie knives to the regulation saber and carbine. On the strength of his new fame, he was elected to the Republic of Texas House of Representatives in 1839.
The campaign was contentious, McCulloch fought a rifle duel the next year against Colonel Reuben Ross, resulting in a wound that left his right arm crippled for life. Ben considered the matter closed, but it flared up again the following year, this time involving Henry McCulloch, who killed Ross with a pistol. In 1842, McCulloch went back to intermittent military service. At the Battle of Plum Creek, August 12, 1840, he served as a scout against the Comanches, commanded the right wing of the Texas army; when a Mexican raiding party under General Ráfael Vásquez invaded San Antonio in February 1842, McCulloch was prominent in the fighting that pushed the Mexicans back beyond the Rio Grande. A second Mexican raid led by General Adrian Woll in September of that year again captured San Antonio. McCulloch served as a scout for Captain Hays' Rangers, he and his brother, subsequently took part in the failed Somervell expedition and both escaped shortly before most of the Texans were captured at Ciudad Mier, Mexico in Tamaulipas, December 25, 1842.
Samuel Reid, a volunteer from Louisiana, described McCulloch and his ranger company as "men in groups with long beards and mustaches, dressed in every variety of garment, with one exception, the slouched hat, the unmistakabl
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is the seat of Santa Fe County; this area was occupied for at least several thousand years by indigenous peoples who built villages several hundred years ago, on the current site of the city. It was known by the Tewa inhabitants as Ogha Po'oge; the city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is the oldest state capital in the United States. Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012, it is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. Before European colonization of the Americas, the area Santa Fe occupied between 900 CE and the 1500s was known to the Tewa peoples as Oghá P'o'oge and by the Navajo people as Yootó. In 1610, Juan de Oñate established the area as Santa Fe de Nuevo México–a province of New Spain.
Formal Spanish settlements were developed leading the colonial governor Pedro de Peralta to rename the area La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The phrase "Santa Fe" is translated as "Holy Faith" in Spanish. Although more known as Santa Fe, the city's full, legal name remains to this day as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís; the standard Spanish variety pronounces it SAHN-tah-FAY as contextualized within the city's full, Spaniard name La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Aśis. However, due to the large amounts of tourism and immigration into Santa Fe, an English pronunciation of SAN-tuh-FAY is commonly used; the area of Santa Fe was occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west.
The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway; as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, which it has constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States. Discontent with the colonization practices led to the Pueblo Revolt, when groups of different Native Pueblo peoples were successful in driving the Spaniards out of the area now known as New Mexico, maintaining their independence from 1680 to 1692, when the territory was reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas.
Santa Fe was Spain's provincial seat at outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Missouri; when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis; the city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it attempted to claim Santa Fe and other parts of Nuevo México as part of the western portion of Texas along the Río Grande. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, intending to take control of the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico.
Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule; some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote: I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported; the country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy; the streets are narrow... A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime, they are the poorest looking people I saw. They subsist principally on mutton and red pepper. In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived, becoming bishop of New Mexico, Utah, C
San Saba River
The San Saba River is a river in the U. S. state of Texas. It is an scenic waterway located on the northern boundary of the Edwards Plateau; the river begins in two primary branches. The North Valley Prong runs east through Schleicher County for 37 miles, while the Middle Valley Prong runs 35 miles through the same county. Both merge near Fort McKavett to form the San Saba River, which flows another 140 miles east/northeast until it drains into the Colorado River east of the city of San Saba. A major tributary is Brady Creek, 90 miles long and parallels the path of the San Saba to the north; the river was named by the governor of Spanish Texas, Juan Antonio Bustillo y Ceballos, in 1732. He called it Río de San Sabá de las Nueces, because his troops and he had arrived on the feast day of St. Sabbas, a major figure of early Christian monastic life. Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission was established on the river in 1757; as of 2013, the San Saba River was an overappropriated stream with large stretches of the river dry, depriving downstream riparian users of water, while upstream flow was being diminished by pumping of aquifers hydrologically connected to the stream.
List of rivers of Texas U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Saba River