Birmingham is a city located in the north central region of the U. S. state of Alabama. With an estimated 2017 population of 210,710, it is the most populous city in Alabama. Birmingham is the seat of Alabama's most populous and fifth largest county; as of 2017, the Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 1,149,807, making it the most populous in Alabama and 49th-most populous in the United States. Birmingham serves as an important regional hub and is associated with the Deep South and Appalachian regions of the nation. Birmingham was founded in 1871, during the post-Civil War Reconstruction era, through the merger of three pre-existing farm towns, most notably Elyton; the new city was named for Birmingham, the UK's second largest city and, at the time, a major industrial city. The Alabama city annexed smaller neighbors and developed as an industrial center, based on mining, the new iron and steel industry, rail transport. Most of the original settlers who founded Birmingham were of English ancestry.
The city was developed as a place where cheap, non-unionized immigrant labor, along with African-American labor from rural Alabama, could be employed in the city's steel mills and blast furnaces, giving it a competitive advantage over unionized industrial cities in the Midwest and Northeast. From its founding through the end of the 1960s, Birmingham was a primary industrial center of the southern United States, its growth from 1881 through 1920 earned it nicknames such as "The Magic City" and "The Pittsburgh of the South". Its major industries were steel production. Major components of the railroad industry and railroad cars, were manufactured in Birmingham. Since the 1860s, the two primary hubs of railroading in the "Deep South" have been Birmingham and Atlanta; the economy diversified in the latter half of the 20th century. Banking, telecommunications, electrical power transmission, medical care, college education, insurance have become major economic activities. Birmingham ranks as one of the largest banking centers in the U.
S. Also, it is among the most important business centers in the Southeast. In higher education, Birmingham has been the location of the University of Alabama School of Medicine and the University of Alabama School of Dentistry since 1947. In 1969 it gained the University of Alabama at Birmingham, one of three main campuses of the University of Alabama System, it is home to three private institutions: Samford University, Birmingham-Southern College, Miles College. The Birmingham area has major colleges of medicine, optometry, physical therapy, law and nursing; the city has three of the state's five law schools: Cumberland School of Law, Birmingham School of Law, Miles Law School. Birmingham is the headquarters of the Southwestern Athletic Conference and the Southeastern Conference, one of the major U. S. collegiate athletic conferences. Birmingham was founded on June 1, 1871, by the Elyton Land Company, whose investors included cotton planters and railroad entrepreneurs, it sold lots near the planned crossing of the Alabama & Chattanooga and South & North Alabama railroads, including land, a part of the Benjamin P. Worthington plantation.
The first business at that crossroads was the trading post and country store operated by Marre and Allen. The site of the railroad crossing was notable for its proximity to nearby deposits of iron ore and limestone – the three main raw materials used in making steel. Birmingham is the only place where significant amounts of all three minerals can be found in close proximity. From the start the new city was planned as a center of industry; the city's founders, organized as the Elyton Land Company, named it in honor of Birmingham, one of the world's premier industrial cities, to emphasize that point. The growth of the planned city was impeded by an outbreak of cholera and a Wall Street crash in 1873. Soon afterward, however, it began to develop at an explosive rate; the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company became the leading steel producer in the South by 1892. In 1907 U. S. Steel became the most important political and economic force in Birmingham, it resisted new industry, however. In 1911, the town of Elyton and several other surrounding towns were absorbed into Birmingham.
From the early 20th century, the city grew so it earned the sobriquet "The Magic City". The downtown was redeveloped from a low-rise commercial and residential district into a busy grid of neoclassical mid- and high-rise buildings crisscrossed by streetcar lines. Between 1902 and 1912, four large office buildings were constructed at the intersection of 20th Street, the central north-south spine of the city, 1st Avenue North, which connected the warehouses and industrial facilities along the east-west railroad corridor; this early group of skyscrapers was nicknamed the "Heaviest Corner on Earth". Birmingham was hit by the 1916 Irondale earthquake. A few buildings in the area were damaged; the earthquake was felt as far as Atlanta and neighboring states. While excluded from the best-paying industrial jobs, African Americans joined the migration of residents from rural areas to the city, drawn by economic opportunity; the Great Depression of the 1930s struck Birmingham hard, as the sources of capital fueling the city's growth dried up at the same time farm laborers, driven off the land, made their way to the city in search of work.
Hundreds poured into many riding in empty boxcars. "Hobo jungles" were established in Boyles, the Twenty-fourth Street Viaduct, G
Irondale is a city in Jefferson County, United States. It is a suburb of Birmingham, northeast of Mountain Brook. At the 2010 census the population was 12,349; the setting of the book Fried Green Tomatoes, by Irondale native Fannie Flagg, is loosely based on the town and the landmark Irondale Cafe, known as The Whistle-Stop Cafe in the book & film. Irondale is the location of Catholic radio/television broadcaster EWTN; the city's annual Whistle-Stop Festival attracts thousands to its eclectic mix of art and music. On October 5, 1887, the people of Irondale petitioned for incorporation; the town incorporated as Irondale on October 19, 1887 following a vote on October 17, 1887. The 1916 Irondale earthquake, magnitude 5.1, caused some damage in the area, was felt in neighboring states. In 1981, Mother Angelica founded the Eternal Word Television Network, after starting from a garage. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.0 square miles, of which 9.0 square miles is land and 0.11% is water.
According to the 2010 census results, the population of the area was 12,349 people. From 2000 to 2010, Irondale’s population growth percentage was 25.8%. 23.1% of the Irondale city residents were under 18 years of age. Census 2010 race data for Irondale city include the racial breakdown percentages of 56.33% white, 35.38% black, 1.43% Asian and 7.78% Hispanic. There were 5,495 housing units in Irondale city, 92.5% of which were occupied housing units. Irondale is served by Jefferson County Board of Education and is home to Shades Valley High School, Grantswood Community School, Irondale Community School, Irondale Middle School, Shades Valley Theatre Academy, Jefferson Christian Academy, the Jefferson County International Baccalaureate School. Marion Hobby, defensive line coach for the Jacksonville Jaguars football team http://censusviewer.com/city/AL/Irondale City of Irondale Irondale Public Library IrondaleToday.com
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Jefferson County, Alabama
Jefferson County is the most populous county in the United States state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, its population was 658,466, its county seat is the most populous city in the state. Its rapid growth as an industrial city in the 20th century, based on heavy manufacturing in steel and iron, established its dominance. Jefferson County is the central county of AL Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2011, Jefferson County declared bankruptcy; the financial problems were related to costs of a huge sewer project. Corruption was found among six county commissioners; this was the largest Chapter 9 bankruptcy in the United States, until it was surpassed by that of Detroit, Michigan in 2013. Jefferson County emerged from bankruptcy in December 2013, following the approval of a bankruptcy plan by the United States bankruptcy court for the Northern District of Alabama, writing off more than $1.4 billion of the debt. Jefferson County was established on December 1819 by the Alabama Legislature, it was named in honor of former President Thomas Jefferson.
The county is located in the north-central portion of the state, on the southernmost edge of the Appalachian Mountains. It is in the center of the iron and limestone mining belt of the Southern United States. Jefferson County has a land area of about 1,119 square miles. Early county seats were established first at Carrollsville Elyton. Founded around 1871, Birmingham was named for the industrial English city of the same name in Warwickshire; that city had long been a center of steel production in Great Britain. Birmingham was formed by the merger including Elyton, it has continued to grow by annexing neighboring villages, including North Birmingham. As Birmingham industrialized, its growth accelerated after 1890, it attracted numerous rural migrants, both white, for its new jobs. It attracted European immigrants. Despite the city's rapid growth, for decades it was underrepresented in the legislature. Legislators from rural counties kept control the legislature and, to avoid losing power, for decades refused to reapportion the seats or redistrict congressional districts.
Birmingham could not get its urban needs addressed by the legislature. Nearby Bessemer, located 16 miles by car to the southwest grew based on industrialization, it attracted many workers. By the early decades of the 20th century, it had a majority-black population, but whites dominated politically and economically. Racial tensions increased in the cities and state in the late 19th century as whites worked to maintain white supremacy; the white-dominated legislature passed a new constitution in 1901 that disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, excluding them from the political system. While they were nominally still eligible in the mid-20th century for jury duty, they were overwhelmingly excluded by white administrators from juries into the 1950s. Economic competition among the new workers in the city raised tensions, it was a rough environment of mill and mine workers in Birmingham and Bessemer, the Ku Klux Klan was active in the 20th century with many police being members into the 1950s and 1960s.
In a study of lynchings in the South from 1877 to 1950, Jefferson County is documented as having the highest number of lynchings of any county in Alabama. White mobs committed 29 lynchings in the county, most around the turn of the century at a time of widespread political suppression of blacks in the state. After 1950, racial violence of whites against blacks continued. In the 1950s KKK chapters bombed black-owned houses in Birmingham to discourage residents moving into new middle-class areas. In that period, the city was referred to as "Bombingham."In 1963 African Americans led a movement in the city seeking civil rights, including integration of public facilities. The Birmingham campaign was known for the violence the city police used against non-violent protesters. In the late summer and business officials agreed in 1963 to integrate public facilities and hire more African Americans; this followed the civil rights campaign, based at the 16th Street Baptist Church, an economic boycott of white stores that refused to hire blacks.
Whites struck again: on a Sunday in September 1963, KKK members bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church, killing four young black girls and injuring many persons. The African-American community rebuilt the damaged church, they entered politics in the city and state after the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed. In the 1990s, the county authorized and financed a massive overhaul of the county-owned sewer system, beginning in 1996. Sewerage and water rates had increased more than 300% in the 15 years before 2011, causing severe problems for the poor in Birmingham and the county. Costs for the project increased due to problems in the financial area. In addition, county officials, encouraged by bribes by financial services companies, made a series of risky bond-swap agreements. Two controversial undertakings by county officials in the 2000s resulted in the county having debt of $4 billion; the county declared bankruptcy in 2011. It was the largest municipal bankruptcy in United States history at that time.
Both the sewer project and its financing were scrutinized by federal prosecutors. By 2011, "six of Jefferson County's former commissioners had been found guilty of corruption for accepting the bribes, along with 15 other officials."The controversial interest rate swaps, initiated in 2002 and 2003 by former Commission President Larry Langford, were intended to lower inte
Hoover is a city in Jefferson and Shelby counties in north central Alabama, United States. The largest suburb near Birmingham, the city had a population of 84,848 as of the 2015 US Census estimate. Hoover is part of the Birmingham-Hoover, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Birmingham-Hoover-Talladega, AL Combined Statistical Area. Hoover's territory is along the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Hoover is home to the Riverchase Galleria, one of the largest shopping centers in the Southeast and one of the largest mixed-use centers in the U. S, it includes retail and office space. The Birmingham Barons Minor League Baseball team, which traces its history to 1885, played its home games at the 10,800-seat Hoover Metropolitan Stadium until 2013, when it moved to Birmingham; this suburban area near the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains had been known as the Green Valley community since the 1930s. The City of Hoover was incorporated in 1967, named for William H. Hoover, a local insurance company owner and co-founder of the American States' Rights Association, which promoted white supremacy and neo-Nazism in its publications..
The city's small City Hall included space for the police department. On September 8, 1980, the city annexed the Riverchase business and residential community, gaining large office buildings and workers to increase the city's tax base; when Interstate I-459 was opened, a major interchange with Interstate I-65 was constructed within the borders of Hoover, improving access. In 1986 the Riverchase Galleria multi-use complex opened, it has attracted new residents and businesses to the area. The city has grown fast, aided by its annexations of territory as well as new developments; the city has expanded its facilities, now operates a Municipal Center and Public Safety Center. The city expects to continue to increase in population, which has risen since 2008, it numbered 81,619 as of the 2010 Census. Hoover is located at 33°23′11″N 86°48′18″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 43.65 square miles, of which 43.13 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water. The municipal government has operated under the Mayor-Council form of government since incorporation.
The Mayor and City Council are elected on a non-partisan basis to concurrent four-year terms of office, which begin on October 1 of election year. Policy-making and legislative authority is vested in the City Council, which consists of seven "at-large" elected members The city council is responsible for considering local resolutions and ordinances, adopting an annual budget, appointing members to local boards and committees; the Mayor is responsible for enforcing the city's policies and ordinances. The Riverchase Galleria shopping-hotel-office complex generates tax revenues for the city; the Riverchase Office Park, other office parks and buildings throughout Hoover, house many large corporations. Major shopping centers in the city include Riverchase Galleria on US 31, Patton Creek on SR 150, Village at Lee Branch on US 280; the Central Business District is intersected by US 31, SR 150, US 280. I-65 and I-459 intersect in the city. Hoover 2015 annual financial report, ranking by largest sales and use taxpayers: Costco Wal-Mart Sam's Club Belk Target Regions Bank Publix Home Depot Best Buy Macy's Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama - 3,000 Hoover Board of Education - 1,773 Regions Financial - 1,765 AT&T Inc. - 1,143 City of Hoover - 745 Walmart - 650 T-Mobile 500 BE&K - 302 Hoover Fire Department is a full-time career department operating from ten fire stations throughout the city.
The city has one battalion. There are eight engine companies, two quints, one ladder trucks, three ALS rescue/ambulances, two battalion chief cars. All engine companies are staffed with a minimum of three, with at least two being firefighter/paramedics. All engines are classified ALS; the department operates one heavy rescue truck, one hazmat unit. Hoover Fire Department holds a Class 1 ISO rating. In 2016, the department responded to over 10,000 calls. Hoover's first chief of police was Oscar Davis. In 2006, the police force of the city of Hoover purchased 104 Chevrolet police Tahoes to support sustainability; the Hoover Police Department now has the largest law enforcement fleet in the nation to run on E85, a fuel, 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. President George W. Bush visited the city in September 2006 to see the fleet and fueling facility. Hoover operates its own enhanced 911 emergency call center, which has 24 operator positions, 2 communication supervisors, 1 department manager and is staffed 24/7.
Hoover provides traffic, severe weather, disaster information, details on special events on low-power AM radio. As of the census of 2000, there were 62,742 people, 25,191 households, 17,406 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,454.6 people per square mile. There were 27,150 housing units at an average density of 629.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.66% White, 6.77% Black, 0.16% Native American, 2.89% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.40% from ot
Clay is a city in northeastern Jefferson County, United States. It is part of the Birmingham–Hoover–Cullman Combined Statistical Area in the north-central part of the state. Local government is run by a city council. Before incorporation on June 6, 2000, it was a census-designated place; the population nearly doubled in the next decade, reaching 9,708 at the 2010 census, as it has attracted commuters to jobs in the urban areas. The oldest church in Jefferson County, Mount Calvary Presbyterian Church, is located in Clay; the congregation has been meeting continually since 1806, when it was established by early Scots-American settlers. On January 23, 2012, a total of 231 homes and businesses were either damaged or destroyed when an EF3 tornado passed through several subdivisions. Damage was heavy in downtown Center Point; some of the homes were flattened. Trees were snapped and uprooted along the path and the Center Point Elementary School was damaged. A sixteen-year-old student from Jefferson County International Baccalaureate School died before reaching cover during the tornado.
Clay is located at 33°42′0″N 86°37′23″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the CDP had a total area of 10.3 square miles, of which 10.3 square miles was land and 0.04 square miles was water. The local newspaper is The Trussville Tribune; the Tribune, which covers government, sports and community events in Trussville and Pinson, is published each Wednesday. It provides current news online; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,947 people, 1,636 households, 1,421 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 479.7 people per square mile. There were 1,683 housing units at an average density of 163.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.96% White, 0.71% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.12% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. 0.40% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,636 households out of which 49.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.4% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 13.1% were non-families.
11.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.02 and the average family size was 3.26. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 30.7% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 5.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $61,042, the median income for a family was $64,798. Males had a median income of $40,092 versus $28,787 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,323. About 3.9% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 9,708 people, 3,574 households, 2,780 families residing in the city; the population density was 480 people per square mile.
There were 3,799 housing units at an average density of 368.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.1% White, 13.3% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. 1.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,574 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.3% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.2% were non-families. 20.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 31.9% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $70,273, the median income for a family was $82,911. Males had a median income of $52,800 versus $42,813 for females; the per capita income for the city was $28,000. About 1.7% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over. Clayne Crawford, actor Courtney Porter, Miss Alabama 2011 Clay News - Local newspaper City official site Clay Chamber of Commerce