Lassen Volcanic National Park
Lassen Volcanic National Park is a United States National Park in northeastern California. The dominant feature of the park is Lassen Peak, the largest plug dome volcano in the world, Lassen Volcanic National Park started as two separate national monuments designated by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1907, Cinder Cone National Monument and Lassen Peak National Monument. The source of heat for volcanism in the Lassen area is subduction off the Northern California coast of the Gorda Plate diving below the North American Plate, the area surrounding Lassen Peak is still active with boiling mud pots, stinking fumaroles, and churning hot springs. Lassen Volcanic National Park is one of the few areas in the world where all four types of volcano can be found, the park is accessible via State Routes SR89 and SR44. SR89 passes north-south through the park, beginning at SR36 to the south, SR89 passes immediately adjacent the base of Lassen Peak. A large lodge with concession facilities was located near the south-west entrance, a new, full-service visitor center was constructed in the same location, and opened to the public in 2008.
Near the old location was located Lassen Ski Area. Native Americans have inhabited the area long before white settlers first saw Lassen. The natives knew that the peak was full of fire and water, White immigrants in the mid-19th century used Lassen Peak as a landmark on their trek to the fertile Sacramento Valley. One of the guides to these immigrants was a Danish blacksmith named Peter Lassen, Lassen Peak was named after him. Nobles Emigrant Trail was cut through the area and passed Cinder Cone. Inconsistent newspaper accounts reported by witnesses from 1850 to 1851 described seeing fire thrown to a terrible height, as late as 1859, a witness reported seeing fire in the sky from a distance, attributing it to an eruption. Early geologists and volcanologists who studied the Cinder Cone concluded the last eruption occurred between 1675 and 1700, after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, the United States Geological Survey began reassessing the potential risk of other active volcanic areas in the Cascade Range.
Further study of Cinder Cone estimated the last eruption occurred between 1630 and 1670, recent tree-ring analysis has placed the date at 1666. The Lassen area was first protected by being designated as the Lassen Peak Forest Preserve, Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone were declared as U. S. National Monuments in May 1907 by President Theodore Roosevelt. Starting in May 1914 and lasting until 1921, a series of minor to major eruptions occurred on Lassen and these events created a new crater, and released lava and a great deal of ash. Fortunately, because of warnings, no one was killed, because of the eruptive activity, which continued through 1917, and the areas stark volcanic beauty, Lassen Peak, Cinder Cone and the area surrounding were declared a National Park on August 9,1916. The 29-mile Main Park Road was constructed between 1925 and 1931, just 10 years after Lassen Peak erupted, near Lassen Peak the road reaches 8,512 feet, making it the highest road in the Cascade Mountains
Oxnard High School
Oxnard High School, or OHS as it is commonly referred to, is a public four-year high school serving grades 9–12 in Oxnard, Ventura County, United States. Oxnard High School serves the Southwest and Beach communities of Oxnard, the original campus, located in the flight path of Oxnard Airport, was demolished. The current campus used today opened in 1995, william Bright, specialized in Native American and South Asian languages. Nao Takasugi, Mayor of Oxnard from 1982-92, elected to the California State Assembly from 1992-98, timmy Curran, Professional surfer and spokesperson for the Surfrider Foundation. Kevin Faulconer, current mayor of San Diego, California Bud Houser three-time Olympic gold medalist, bismarck Lepe, CEO of Ooyala, an internet video company. Kristal Marshall and former WWE Diva, paul McAnulty, Major League Baseball outfielder with the San Diego Padres Ken McMullen, former Major League Baseball third-baseman with the Los Angeles Dodgers. Jack OConnell, Politician and 26th California State Superintendent of Public Instruction, corey Pavin, Professional golfer, successful career includes winning the 1995 U. S.
Open. Alfred V. Rascon, United States Army soldier and Medal of Honor recipient, steve Zaragoza, YouTube personality and SourceFed Host. Official School Website District Webpage City of Oxnard Education an Alumni Website Oxnard High School Demolition
Oxnard /ˈɒksnɑːrd/ is a city in the United States, located along the coast of Southern California. It is the 19th most populous city in California and the most populous in Ventura County, the city lies approximately 30 miles west of the Los Angeles city limits, and is part of the larger Greater Los Angeles area. The population of Oxnard is 203,585 as of the 2012 Financial Report and it is located at the western edge of the fertile Oxnard Plain, sitting adjacent to an agricultural center of strawberries and lima beans. Oxnard is a transportation hub in Southern California, with Amtrak, Union Pacific, Greyhound. Oxnard has a regional airport called Oxnard Airport. Oxnard is the location of the National Weather Service forecast office that serves the Los Angeles area, before the arrival of Europeans, the area that is now Oxnard was inhabited by Chumash Native Americans. The first European to encounter the area was Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho, during the mission period, it was serviced by the Mission San Buenaventura, established in 1782.
Ranching began to take hold among Californio settlers, who lost their regional influence when California became a US state in 1850, at about the same time, the area was settled by American farmers, who cultivated barley and lima beans. Shortly after the 1897 beet campaign, a new town emerged, Oxnard intended to name the settlement after the Greek word for sugar, but frustrated by bureaucracy, named it after himself. The Oxnard factory operated from August 19,1899 until October 26,1959, factory operations were interrupted in the Oxnard Strike of 1903. Oxnard was incorporated as a California city on June 30,1903, in the mid-20th century Oxnard grew and developed the areas outside the downtown with homes, retail, and a new harbor named Channel Islands Harbor. Martin V. Smith became the most influential developer in the history of Oxnard during this time, smiths first enterprise in 1941 was the Colonial House Restaurant and the Wagon Wheel Junction in 1947. In June 2004, the Oxnard Police Department and the Ventura County Sheriff imposed a gang injunction over a 6. 6-square-mile area of the district of the city.
The injunction was upheld in the Ventura County Superior Court and made a permanent law in 2005, a similar injunction was imposed in September,2006 over a 4. 26-square-mile area of the south side of the city. Oxnard is located on the Oxnard Plain, an area with fertile soil, with its beaches, wetlands and the Santa Clara River, the area contains a number of important biological communities. Also native to the region is the endangered Ventura Marsh Milkvetch, the city of Oxnard is home to over 20 miles of scenic, relatively uncrowded coastline. The beaches in Oxnard are large and the sand is exceptionally soft, the sand dunes in Oxnard, which were once much more extensive, have been used to recreate Middle-Eastern desert dunes in many movies, the first being The Sheik with Rudolph Valentino. There are very few rocks or driftwood piles at most beaches, Oxnard has good surfing at many of its beaches
West Montalvo Oil Field
The West Montalvo Oil Field is a large and productive oil field on the coast of Ventura County, California, in the United States, in and adjacent to the city of Oxnard. Discovered in 1947, it has produced approximately 43.7 million barrels of oil, the offshore portion of the field is exploited from wells directionally drilled from onshore near McGrath Lake, from within an enclosure above the high-tide line at McGrath State Beach. Most of the field, both onshore and offshore, is operated by Venoco, Inc. an independent petroleum company based in Denver, with an office in Carpinteria. The West Montalvo field was the first dry natural gas field of value to be discovered in Ventura County. The oil field underlies the portion of coastline just south of the outlet of the Santa Clara River, including several state and this area was designated a greenbelt through a joint agreement between the cities of Oxnard and Ventura. The terrain is almost all flat, save for berms and sand dunes at the shoreline, elevations on the field range from sea level to about 40 feet above sea level, and drainage is to the west and southwest, via a system of canals.
Total productive area of the field is 780 acres, with 200 of that being offshore, some oil field and power generation facilities are in enclosures within the parks and open spaces. Venoco operates a row of wells near McGrath Lake which drill into the portion of the field. Reliant Energys 560-megawatt gas-fired Mandalay Generating Station is north of and adjacent to Mandalay Beach Park, an oil-gas separator adjacent to the Mandalay plant processes gas from the offshore Santa Clara and Hueneme fields and sells the gas to Reliant for use at the power plant. Mandalay Beach Park consists of 94 acres of land left in its state, without amenities. Venoco operates one oil well within Mandalay Beach Park, McGrath 4 Well No,1218, in a walled enclosure, as the well predated creation of the park, it is allowed to remain. This oil well is one of the most productive in the field, producing over 64,000 barrels of oil in 2009 alone. The climate in the region is Mediterranean, with cool, rainy winters and warm, rainless summers, in which the heat is moderated by frequent morning coastal low clouds and fog.
Annual precipitation is around 15 inches, almost all in the winter, the mean annual temperature is 56 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit, freezes occur rarely. The Montalvo field is an accumulation of oil within an eastward-plunging anticline, within the anticline, numerous Pliocene-age sand units contain petroleum of various types. These sand units pinch out, and many are lenticular, with impermeable units above, the anticline is bounded on the north by a branch of the Oakridge Fault, and the anticline itself is broken in many places by small faults perpendicular to the Oakridge. Standard Oil Company of California discovered the field in April 1947 by drilling into the McGrath producing horizon, the first well produced 154 barrels per day, encouraging further exploration. This producing horizon was part of the Colonia Zone, the field has changed owners several times
Venoco Corporation, or Venoco, is a private American oil and gas exploration and production corporation. It maintains an office in Carpinteria and its headquarters are in Denver. Predominantly active in California, it is a natural gas producer in the Sacramento Valley and produces oil. The company has fields and prospects in Santa Barbara County, Monterey County, Kern County, San Luis Obispo County, Venoco announced in 2014 that the West Montalvo Oil Field would be sold to an unnamed party for $200 million. While the field had been “a solid asset for Venoco, ” the company would use the proceeds to pay off a significant amount of debt, Venoco purchased the oil field in May 2007 from the Berry Petroleum Company for $61.3 million. Venoco has obtained 312,000 gross and 214,000 net acres in the Monterey, Venocos Monterey acreage is spread across three geologic basins, the San Joaquin, the Salinas Valley and the Santa Maria Valley. Initial work in two of the Monterey shale basins, the Santa Maria and Salinas, have caused local controversy.
Venocos initial fracking of the Monterey shale in the Los Alamos Valley aroused opposition in 2011, a group of concerned citizens brought up the issue with the Santa Barbara County Board of Supervisors, who initially cited Venoco for fracking without a permit, but withdrew the claim. The site of the test wells is in an adjacent to two wine producing regions, Santa Ynez Valley AVA and Santa Maria Valley AVA. In the Salinas basin, the Venoco encountered opposition in Monterey County over 9 proposed wells, in a wine producing region, environmental groups and concerned citizens have blocked its plans. Among the components listed in Venocos proposed fracking fluid for Monterey County is an agent with a 60 to 70 percent concentration of petroleum distillate blend. The exact mixture is unknown as it is proprietary to manufacturer Baker Hughes, Venoco and other oil companies, are experimenting in the Monterey shale formations. Venoco acknowledged fracking the Monterey Shale from Platform Gail on the Sockeye Field in 2009 off the coast of Oxnard, County Curious About Venoco’s Oil-Extraction Technique Monterey County Weekly, A Fracking Ordeal
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Pinnacles National Park
Pinnacles is managed by the National Park Service and the majority of the park is protected as wilderness. The national park is divided by the formations into East and West Divisions, connected by foot trails. The east side has shade and water, the west has high walls, the rock formations provide for spectacular pinnacles that attract rock climbers. The park features unusual talus caves that house at least thirteen species of bat, Pinnacles is most often visited in spring or fall because of the intense heat during the summer months. Park lands are prime habitat for prairie falcons, and are a site for California condors that have been hatched in captivity. Pinnacles National Monument was established in 1908 by U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, Pinnacles National Park was created from the former Pinnacles National Monument by legislation passed by Congress in late 2012 and signed into law by President Barack Obama on January 10,2013. Native Americans in the Pinnacles region comprised the Chalon and Mutsun groups of the Ohlone people and these native people declined with the arrival of the Spanish in the 18th century, who brought novel diseases and changes to the natives way of life.
The last Chalon had died or departed from the area by 1810, from 1810 to 1865, when the first Anglo-American settlers arrived, the Pinnacles region was a wilderness without human use or habitation. The establishment of a Spanish mission at Soledad hastened the areas native depopulation through disease, archaeological surveys have found thirteen sites inhabited by Native Americans, twelve of which post-date the establishment of the missions. One site is believed to be about 2000 years old, by the 1880s the Pinnacles, known as the Palisades, were visited by picnickers from the surrounding communities who would explore the caves and camp. The first account of the Pinnacles region appeared in print in 1881, between 1889 and 1891, newspaper articles shifted from describing excursions to the Palisades to calling them the Pinnacles. Interest in the rose to the point that the Hollister Free Lance sent a reporter to the Pinnacles. Investors came from San Francisco to consider placing a hotel there. In 1894 a post office was established in Bear Valley, since there was at least one other Bear Valley in California, the post office was named Cook after Mrs.
Hains maiden name. In 1924 the post office was renamed Pinnacles, Schuyler Hain was a homesteader who arrived in the Pinnacles area in 1891 from Michigan, following his parents and eight siblings to Bear Valley. White, was a student at Stanford University, and White brought one of his professors to see the Pinnacles in 1893, dr. Gilbert was impressed by the scenery, and his comments inspired Hain to publicize the region. Hain led tours to Bear Valley and through the caves, advocating the preservation of the Pinnacles, Hains efforts resulted in a 1904 visit by Stanford president David Starr Jordan, who contacted Fresno Congressman James C. Jordan and Needham in turn influenced Gifford Pinchot to advocate the establishment of the Pinnacles Forest Reserve to President Theodore Roosevelt, Roosevelt proclaimed the establishment on July 8,1906
Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park is a national park spanning portions of Tuolumne and Madera counties in Northern California. The park, which is managed by the National Park Service, on average, about 4 million people visit Yosemite each year, and most spend the majority of their time in the seven square miles of Yosemite Valley. The park set a record in 2016, surpassing 5 million visitors for the first time in its history. Almost 95% of the park is designated wilderness, Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea. First, Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development, Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, and the park supports a diversity of plants and animals. The park has a range from 2,127 to 13,114 feet and contains five major vegetation zones, chaparral/oak woodland, lower montane forest, upper montane forest, subalpine zone. Of Californias 7,000 plant species, about 50% occur in the Sierra Nevada, there is suitable habitat for more than 160 rare plants in the park, with rare local geologic formations and unique soils characterizing the restricted ranges many of these plants occupy.
The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granitic rocks, about 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and tilted to form its relatively gentle western slopes and the more dramatic eastern slopes. The uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in formation of deep, about one million years ago and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys. Ice thickness in Yosemite Valley may have reached 4,000 feet during the early glacial episode, the downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today. The name Yosemite originally referred to the name of a tribe which was driven out of the area by the Mariposa Battalion. Before the area was called Ahwahnee by indigenous people, as revealed by archeological finds, the Yosemite Valley has been inhabited for nearly 3,000 years, though humans may have first visited the area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago.
The indigenous natives called themselves the Ahwahneechee, meaning dwellers in Ahwahnee and they are related to the Northern Paiute and Mono tribes. Many tribes visited the area to trade, including nearby Central Sierra Miwoks, a major trading route went over Mono Pass and through Bloody Canyon to Mono Lake, just to the east of the Yosemite area. Vegetation and game in the region were similar to that present today, acorns were a staple to their diet, as well as seeds and plants, salmon. In 1851 as part of the Mariposa Wars intended to suppress Native American resistance and he was pursuing forces of around 200 Ahwahneechee led by Chief Tenaya. Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley, attached to Savages unit was Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, the company physician, who wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya, Bunnell wrote that Chief Tenaya was the founder of the Pai-Ute Colony of Ah-wah-nee
Channel Islands National Park
Channel Islands National Park is a United States national park that consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of the U. S. state of California, in the Pacific Ocean. Although the islands are close to the shore of densely populated Southern California, the park covers 249,561 acres of which 79,019 acres are owned by the federal government. The Nature Conservancy owns and manages 76% of Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park is home to a wide variety of significant natural and cultural resources. It was designated a U. S. National Monument on April 26,1938, and it was promoted to a National Park on March 5,1980. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles around Channel Islands National Park, the Channel Islands were originally discovered in 1542 by the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In 1938 the Santa Barbara and Anacapa islands were designated a national monument, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands were combined with the monument in 1980 to form modern-day Channel Islands National Park.
On January 28,1969 an oil rig belonging to Union Oil experienced a blow-out 6 miles off the coast of California, the resulting spill was, at the time, the largest oil spill to occur in United States territorial waters. Following the spill, tides carried the oil onto the beaches of the Anacapa, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and this spill had a large impact on native wildlife of the Channel Islands. Much of the seabird population was affected, with over an estimated 3,600 avians killed. Meanwhile, seals and other sea life died and washed ashore on both the islands and the mainland and this spill is the third largest oil spill in the United States, only surpassed by the Deepwater Horizon and the Exxon Valdez oil spills. It resulted in a 34,000 acres expansion of the Department of the Interior buffer zone in the channel, the islands within the park extend along the Southern California coast from Point Conception near Santa Barbara to San Pedro, a neighborhood of Los Angeles. Park headquarters and the Robert J.
Lagomarsino Visitor Center are located in the city of Ventura, only three mammals are endemic to the islands, one of which is the deer mouse which is known to carry the sin nombre hantavirus. The spotted skunk and Channel Islands fox are endemic, the island fence lizard is endemic to the Channel Islands. One hundred and forty-five of these species are unique to the islands, Marine life ranges from microscopic plankton to the endangered blue whale, the largest animal on earth. Archeological and cultural resources span a period of more than 10,000 years, the average annual visitation to the parks mainland visitor center was around 300,000 in the period from 2007 to 2016, with 364,807 visiting in 2016. The visitor center is located in the Ventura Harbor Village, the visitor center contains several exhibits that provide information regarding all five islands, native vegetation, marine life and cultural history. Also, visitors can enjoy a film, free of charge. The visitor center is open day, except Thanksgiving and Christmas, from 8, 30AM–5
2015 Oxnard train derailment
The 2015 Oxnard train derailment occurred on February 24,2015 when a Metrolink passenger train collided with a truck on a grade crossing and derailed at Oxnard, United States. The train engineer died from his injuries a week and 29 others were injured, an overpass had been planned for almost two decades for the Rice Avenue crossing where the accident eventually occurred. Funding, remained unavailable in Ventura County for the estimated $35 million grade separation project. The accident occurred at 5,44 a. m. local time when a train collided with a 2005 Ford F-450 pick-up truck and trailer on the Rice Avenue grade crossing in Oxnard. The train derailed, with three cars falling onto their sides and a fourth remaining upright, as did the locomotive which was pushing the train from the rear. The train was traveling from East Ventura to Los Angeles and was accelerating after leaving the Oxnard station 2 miles away from the crash site. It was traveling at 64 miles per hour when the brakes were applied and had slowed to 56 miles per hour when it hit the truck.
The trains usual cruising speed is 79 miles per hour, it was traveling under that speed, the train cars consisted of a Hyundai Rotem cab car #645, three Hyundai Rotem bi-level cars #206, #211 and #263, and an EMD F59PH diesel-electric locomotive #870 at the rear. All four cars derailed, with #263 remaining upright, according to the train crew, the truck appeared to possibly have been on fire before the collision. However, this was likely to have been the flashing headlights of the vehicle, the train was being operated at the time by a student engineer with the train engineer in the control cab with him. The truck was 80 feet west of the intersection and facing the train when the accident occurred, there were 48 passengers and three crew on board the train. Initially,28 of the injured were taken to hospital,20 were released and eight were admitted, two more passengers were transported to hospitals and released. Victims were treated at the Community Memorial Hospital, Los Robles Hospital & Medical Center, St.
Johns Regional Medical Center, St. Johns Pleasant Valley Hospital, Sanchez-Ramirez left the scene on foot following the accident, but was taken into custody about a mile away. According to his attorney, the man was trying to help in a remote part of the county without a vehicle. When he finally encountered police officers, he handed them the cell phone on which he had been talking to his son so that his son could explain to the officers what had just happened to the train. He was booked on suspicion of hit and run and held on $150,000 bail, sanchez was due back in court in May 2015. Metrolink trains between East Ventura and Moorpark were canceled, a bus service was provided for passengers traveling to these stations. Local roads around the scene of the accident were closed, Amtrak Pacific Surfliner service between Los Angeles and Goleta, that uses the same Union Pacific coast line, was cancelled
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Fresno, California. The park was established in 1940 and covers 461,901 acres and it incorporated General Grant National Park, established in 1890 to protect the General Grant Grove of giant sequoias. The park is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park and they were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976. Humans have inhabited the area for thousands of years, the first Native Americans in the area were Paiute peoples, who moved into the region from their ancestral home east of Mono Lake. The Paiute Nation people used deer and other animals for food. They created trade routes that extended down the slope of the Sierra into the Owens Valley. Kings Canyon had been known to white settlers since the mid-19th century, United States Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes fought to create the Kings Canyon National Park. He hired Ansel Adams to photograph and document this among other parks, the bill combined the General Grant Grove with the backcountry beyond Zumwalt Meadow.
Kings Canyons future was in doubt for nearly fifty years, some wanted to build a dam at the western end of the valley, while others wanted to preserve it as a park. The debate was settled in 1965, when the valley, along with Tehipite Valley, was added to the park, Kings Canyon National Park consists of two sections. The parks Giant Sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and this section of the park is mostly mixed conifer forest, and is readily accessible via paved highways. Both the South and Middle Forks of the Kings Rivers have extensive glacial canyons, one portion of the South Fork canyon, known as the Kings Canyon, gives the entire park its name. Kings Canyon, with a depth of 8,200 feet, is one of the deepest canyons in the United States. The canyon was carved by glaciers out of granite, the Kings Canyon, and its developed area, Cedar Grove, is the only portion of the main part of the park that is accessible by motor vehicle. Both the Kings Canyon and its Middle Fork twin, Tehipite Valley, are deeply incised, U-shaped glacial gorges with relatively flat floors and towering granite cliffs thousands of feet high.
In addition, the canyon has several systems, one of which is Boyden Cave. To the east of the canyons are the peaks of the Sierra Crest, which attain an elevation of 14,248 feet NAVD88 at the summit of North Palisade. This is classic high Sierra country, barren ridges and glacially scoured lake-filled basins