Port Royal, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia
Port Royal is a Canadian rural community in Annapolis County, Nova Scotia. It is situated on the north bank of the Annapolis Basin 8 km downstream from the discharge point of the Annapolis River and the town of Annapolis Royal. Predominantly a farming community, Port Royal is a significant tourist destination in Nova Scotia due to being the location of a historic French colonial settlement, commemorated by Port-Royal National Historic Site, established in 1925. A replica of the original settlement was constructed by the Government of Canada in 1939-41; the name Port Royal was established for the community by the Geographical Names Board of Canada on March 2, 1950. The original French settlement and capital of the colony of Acadia was named Port-Royal, it was located in the present-day community of Port Royal from 1605 until its destruction by a company of Englishmen from the Jamestown settlement in Virginia led by Samuel Argall in 1613. This settlement was rebuilt as a historic replica in 1939-41 by the Government of Canada and is called Port-Royal National Historic Site.
After 1613, France moved the settlement/capital of Port-Royal 8 km upstream to the south bank of the Annapolis River at present-day Annapolis Royal. This second settlement was seized by British military forces in 1710 in the Siege of Port Royal and was renamed Annapolis Royal in honour of Anne, Queen of Great Britain. Royal eponyms in Canada Monarchy in Nova Scotia
Port-Royal National Historic Site
Port-Royal National Historic Site is a National Historic Site located on the north bank of the Annapolis Basin in the community of Port Royal, Nova Scotia. The site is the location of the Habitation at Port-Royal; the Habitation at Port-Royal was established by France in 1605 and was that nation's first settlement in North America. Port-Royal served as the capital of Acadia until its destruction by British military forces in 1613. France relocated the settlement and capital 8 km upstream and to the south bank of the Annapolis River; the relocated settlement kept the same name "Port-Royal" and served as the capital of Acadia for the majority of the 17th century until the British conquest of the colony in 1710, at which time the settlement was renamed Annapolis Royal. On May 25, 1925, the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board recognized the original Habitation at Port-Royal in the community of Port Royal, Nova Scotia for its heritage significance, the Minister of the Interior designated it Port-Royal National Historic Site.
In the 1930s the approximate site of the original Habitation was located in the community and the results of archaeological excavations fed public interest in the period of the original French settlement. This interest had been increasing since the publication of Quietly My Captain Waits, an historical novel by the Canadian novelist Evelyn Eaton set in Port-Royal in the early 17th century. In the early 1900s, chiefly under the leadership of Harriet Taber Richardson, a native of Cambridge and summer resident of the nearby town of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotian preservationists and historians began lobbying the Government of Canada to build a replica of the Habitation which stood from 1605 until its destruction in 1613; the government agreed, after much persuasion. Construction took place from 1939-1941 and was based on a duplicate set of plans for the original Habitation, discovered in France; this was the first National Historic Site. Today, this replica serves as the cornerstone of Port-Royal National Historic Site, coupled with nearby Fort Anne National Historic Site in Annapolis Royal, continues to commemorate this important historic region for visitors.
Today, the replica of the Habitation is considered a milestone in the national heritage movement. Operated by Parks Canada, it is open to the public as a unit of the national park system, staffed by historical interpreters in period costumes, is a major tourist attraction. Costumed interpreters provide demonstrations of such historic early 17th-century activities as farming, cooking, fur trading and Mi'kmaq life. Port-Royal was founded after the French nobleman Pierre Du Gua de Monts who spent a disastrous winter in Île-Saint-Croix, he was accompanied by Samuel de Champlain, Louis Hébert and Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt et de Saint-Just. They decided to move their settlement to the north shore of present-day Annapolis Basin, a sheltered bay on the south shore of the Bay of Fundy, recorded by Champlain earlier in the spring of 1605 during a coastal reconnaissance. Champlain would note in his journals; as such, he would name the Royal Port. Poutrincourt asked King Henri IV to become the owner of the Seigneurie which encompassed the settlement.
Nestled against the North Mountain range, they set about constructing a log stockade fortification called a "habitation." With assistance from members of the Mi'kmaq Nation and a local chief named Membertou, coupled with the more temperate climate of the fertile Annapolis Valley, the settlement prospered. Mindful of the disastrous winter of 1603–04 at the Île-Saint-Croix settlement, Champlain established l'Ordre de Bon Temps as a social club ostensibly to promote better nutrition and to get settlers through the winter of 1606–07. Supper every few days became a feast with a festive air supplemented by performances and alcohol and was attended by the prominent men of the colony and their Mi'kmaq neighbours while the Mi'kmaq women and poorer settlers looked on and were offered scraps. Marc Lescarbot's "The Theatre of Neptune in New France", the first work of theater written and performed in North America, was performed on November 14, 1606, it was arguably the catalyst for the Order of Good Cheer.
In 1607, Dugua had his fur trade monopoly revoked by the Government of France, forcing settlers to return to France that fall. The Habitation was left in the care of Membertou and the local Mi'kmaq until 1610 when Sieur de Poutrincourt, another French nobleman, returned with a small expedition to Port-Royal. Poutrincourt converted Membertou and local Mi'kmaq to Catholicism, hoping to gain financial assistance from the government; as a result, Jesuits became financial partners with Poutrincourt, although this caused division within the community. In May, 1613 the Jesuits moved on to the Penobscot River valley and in July, the settlement was attacked by Samuel Argall of Virginia. Argall returned in November that same year and burned the Habitation to the ground while settlers were away nearby. Poutrincourt returned from France in spring 1614 to find Port-Royal in ruins and settlers living with the Mi'kmaq. Poutrincourt gave his holdings to his son and returned to France. Poutrincourt's son bequeathed the settlement to Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour upon his own death in 1623.
Grafting or graftage is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The upper part of the combined plant is called the scion while the lower part is called the rootstock; the success of this joining requires that the vascular tissue grow together and such joining is called inosculation. The technique is most used in asexual propagation of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades. In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots and this is called the stock or rootstock; the other plant is selected for its stems, flowers, or fruits and is called the scion or cion. The scion contains the desired genes to be duplicated in future production by the stock/scion plant. In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type. In another common form called bud grafting, a dormant side bud is grafted onto the stem of another stock plant, when it has inosculated it is encouraged to grow by pruning off the stem of the stock plant just above the newly grafted bud.
For successful grafting to take place, the vascular cambium tissues of the stock and scion plants must be placed in contact with each other. Both tissues must be kept alive until the graft has "taken" a period of a few weeks. Successful grafting only requires. Research conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls have shown that the connection of phloem takes place after 3 days of initial grafting, whereas the connection of xylem can take up to 7 days. Joints formed by grafting are not as strong as formed joints, so a physical weak point still occurs at the graft because only the newly formed tissues inosculate with each other; the existing structural tissue of the stock plant does not fuse. Precocity: The ability to induce fruitfulness without the need for completing the juvenile phase. Juvenility is the natural state through which a seedling plant must pass before it can become reproductive. In most fruiting trees, juvenility may last between 5 and 9 years, but in some tropical fruits e.g. Mangosteen, juvenility may be prolonged for up to 15 years.
Grafting of mature scions onto rootstocks can result in fruiting in as little as two years. Dwarfing: To induce dwarfing or cold tolerance or other characteristics to the scion. Most apple trees in modern orchards are grafted on to dwarf or semi-dwarf trees planted at high density, they provide more fruit per unit of land, higher quality fruit, reduce the danger of accidents by harvest crews working on ladders. Care must be taken when planting semi-dwarf trees. If such a tree is planted with the graft below the soil the scion portion can grow roots and the tree will still grow to its standard size. Ease of propagation: Because the scion is difficult to propagate vegetatively by other means, such as by cuttings. In this case, cuttings of an rooted plant are used to provide a rootstock. In some cases, the scion may be propagated, but grafting may still be used because it is commercially the most cost-effective way of raising a particular type of plant. Hybrid breeding: To speed maturity of hybrids in fruit tree breeding programs.
Hybrid seedlings may take ten or more years to fruit on their own roots. Grafting can reduce the time to shorten the breeding program. Hardiness: Because the scion has weak roots or the roots of the stock plants are tolerant of difficult conditions. E.g. many Western Australian plants are sensitive to dieback on heavy soils, common in urban gardens, are grafted onto hardier eastern Australian relatives. Grevilleas and eucalypts are examples. Sturdiness: To provide a strong, tall trunk for certain ornamental shrubs and trees. In these cases, a graft is made at a desired height on a stock plant with a strong stem; this is used to raise'standard' roses, which are rose bushes on a high stem, it is used for some ornamental trees, such as certain weeping cherries. Disease/pest resistance: In areas where soil-borne pests or pathogens would prevent the successful planting of the desired cultivar, the use of pest/disease tolerant rootstocks allow the production from the cultivar that would be otherwise unsuccessful.
A major example is the use of rootstocks in combating Phylloxera. Pollen source: To provide pollenizers. For example, in planted or badly planned apple orchards of a single variety, limbs of crab apple may be grafted at spaced intervals onto trees down rows, say every fourth tree; this takes care of pollen needs at blossom time, yet does not confuse pickers who might otherwise mix varieties while harvesting, as the mature crab apples are so distinct from other apple varieties. Repair: To repair damage to the trunk of a tree that would prohibit nutrient flow, such as stripping of the bark by rodents that girdles the trunk. In this case a bridge graft may be used to connect tissues receiving flow from the roots to tissues above the damage that have been severed from the flow. Where a water sprout, basal shoot or sapling of the same species is growing nearby, any of these can be grafted to the area above the damage by a method called inarch grafting; these alternatives to scions must be of the correct length to span the gap of the wound.
Changing cultivars: To change the cultivar in a fruit orchard to a more profitable cultivar, called top working. It may be faster to graft a new cultivar onto existing limbs of established trees than to replant an entire orchard. Maintain consistency: Apples are notorious for their genetic variability differing in multiple characteristics, such as, size and flavor, of fruits located on the same tree. In the commercia
South Dundas, Ontario
South Dundas is a municipality in eastern Ontario, Canada, in the United Counties of Stormont and Glengarry along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River, it is located 60 miles/100 kilometres south of Ottawa and is midway between Kingston and Montreal, Quebec. The township was established on January 1, 1998, with the amalgamation of the former Townships of Matilda and Williamsburg, along with the Villages of Iroquois and Morrisburg; the township of South Dundas comprises a number of villages and hamlets, including the following communities: Matilda Township: Brinston, Dixons Corners, Glen Stewart, Hulbert, Iroquois, Stampville. The county was named in 1792 to honour Henry Dundas, Lord Advocate for Scotland and Colonial Secretary at the time. Matilda and Williamsburgh were two of Upper Canada's original eight Royal Townships; the northern portions of Matilda and Williamsburg townships were separated in 1798 to form the new townships of Mountain and Winchester within Dundas County. The McIntosh apple was cultivated in South Dundas near Williamsburg.
John McIntosh's parents emigrated from Inverness, Scotland to the Mohawk Valley in New York, John moved to Upper Canada in 1796. In 1811 he acquired a farm in Dundela, while clearing the land of second growth discovered several apple seedlings, he transplanted these, one bore the superior fruit which became famous as the McIntosh Red apple. John's son Allan promoted this new species extensively, it was acclaimed in Ontario and the northern United States, was introduced into British Columbia about 1910. Its popularity in North America and propagation in many lands attest the initiative and industry of John McIntosh and his descendants. Morrisburg took its name from Canada's first postmaster general. Morris played an important role in canal-building in the area. James Pliny Whitney, Ontario's sixth premier, is buried here in the cemetery of Holy Trinity Anglican Church in Riverside Heights, just east of Morrisburg and north of County Road 2. Whitney was born in Williamsburg in 1843, represented Dundas County in the Legislature from 1888 to 1914 and served as Premier from 1905 to 1914.
Morrisburg and Iroquois were flooded by the creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1958. Unlike the Lost Villages of Cornwall and Osnabruck Townships, the two towns were relocated to higher ground in the same area. There was an international design competition in 1954 to design the new Iroquois townsite. Canadian-British architect Wells Coates was among those. An artificial lake, Lake Saint Lawrence, now extends from a hydroelectric dam at Cornwall to the control structure at Iroquois, replaces the narrow and turbulent section of river, impassable to large vessels, it replaces, in part, the Long Sault rapids. Several buildings from the Lost Villages were moved to a site near Morrisburg to create Upper Canada Village, a living museum which depicts 19th century life in Upper Canada. In 1976, stuntman Ken Carter attempted to jump a one-mile portion of the Saint Lawrence River by taking a one million dollar Lincoln Continental rocket car off an eight-storey ramp; this was billed as The Super Jump.
The ramp and its runway were located in a field just west of Hanes Road, South of County road 2. The ramp has since been demolished, but the concrete runway still exists as of 2012. Charles A. Barkley, elected mayor of the municipality in the 2006 municipal elections, died unexpectedly on June 17, 2009, he was a municipal politician since 1981. He was succeeded by deputy mayor Robert Gillard; the only provincial highway directly serving the township is Highway 401. All other highway routes in the township, including Highway 2 and Highway 31, were decommissioned by the province in the 1990s, were folded into Stormont and Glengarry's county road system. Highway 416, the main route from the 401 to Ottawa, has its southern terminus at Johnstown in the neighbouring township of Edwardsburgh/Cardinal. Morrisburg is served by a unattended airport adjacent to Upper Canada Village. Iroquois is served by a small unattended airport near the locks; the Morrisburg Lions of the Eastern Ontario Junior B Hockey League play out of the Morrisburg Arena.
Thoroughbred racing pioneer Francine Villeneuve, grew up in the community of Winchester Springs. Morrisburg Leader List of townships in Ontario The Morrisburg Leader Municipality of South Dundas Historical Society of South Dundas
The term cultivar most refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Most cultivars arose in cultivation. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, daffodils and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form; the world's agricultural food crops are exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield and resistance to disease, few wild plants are now used as food sources. Trees used in forestry are special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, defined as a plant whose origin or selection is due to intentional human activity. A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies, there are differences in the rules for creating and using the names of botanical varieties and cultivars.
In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory patents for plants and recognition of plant breeders' rights. The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants offers legal protection of plant cultivars to persons or organisations that introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be "distinct, uniform", "stable". To be "distinct", it must have characters that distinguish it from any other known cultivar. To be "uniform" and "stable", the cultivar must retain these characters in repeated propagation; the naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet; the cultivar epithet is in a vernacular language. For example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum'King Edward'.'King Edward' is the cultivar epithet, according to the Rules of the Cultivated Plant Code, is bounded by single quotation marks.
The word cultivar originated from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that arose in cultivation, presently denominated cultigens. This distinction dates to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, the "Father of Botany", keenly aware of this difference. Botanical historian Alan Morton noted that Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum "had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced changes and of the importance of genetic constitution"; the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants uses as its starting point for modern botanical nomenclature the Latin names in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum and Genera Plantarum. In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus enumerated all plants known to him, either directly or from his extensive reading, he recognised the rank of varietas and he indicated these varieties with letters of the Greek alphabet, such as α, β, λ, before the varietal name, rather than using the abbreviation "var." as is the present convention. Most of the varieties that Linnaeus enumerated were of "garden" origin rather than being wild plants.
In time the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with variations, cultivated increased. In the nineteenth century many "garden-derived" plants were given horticultural names, sometimes in Latin and sometimes in a vernacular language. From circa the 1900s, cultivated plants in Europe were recognised in the Scandinavian and Slavic literature as stamm or sorte, but these words could not be used internationally because, by international agreement, any new denominations had to be in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international nomenclature was proposed for cultivated plants. Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell University in New York, United States created the word cultivar in 1923 when he wrote that: The cultigen is a species, or its equivalent, that has appeared under domestication – the plant is cultigenous. I now propose another name, for a botanical variety, or for a race subordinate to species, that has originated under cultivation, it is the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin.
In that essay, Bailey used only the rank of species for the cultigen, but it was obvious to him that many domesticated plants were more like botanical varieties than species, that realization appears to have motivated the suggestion of the new category of cultivar. Bailey created the word cultivar, assumed to be a portmanteau of cultivated and variety. Bailey never explicitly stated the etymology of cultivar, it has been suggested that it is instead a contraction of cultigen and variety, which seems correct; the neologism cultivar was promoted as "euphonious" and "free from ambiguity". The first Cultivated Plant Code of 1953 subsequently commended its use, by 1960 it had achieved common international acceptance; the words cultigen and cultivar may be confused with
New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts; the largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which includes Worcester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Providence, Rhode Island. In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America.
In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship, enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists; these confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, was the first region of the U. S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration. The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine, their principal town was Norridgewock in Maine. The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine; the Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the Connecticut region. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England. In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636.
At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter
Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko was a Soviet Belarusian communist politician during the Cold War. He served as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. Gromyko was responsible for many top decisions on Soviet foreign policy until he retired in 1988. In the 1940s Western pundits called him Mr. Nyet or "Grim Grom", because of his frequent use of the Soviet veto in the United Nations Security Council. Gromyko's political career started in 1939 with his employment at the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs, he became the Soviet ambassador to the United States in 1943, leaving in 1946 to become the Soviet Permanent Representative to the United Nations. Upon his return to the Soviet Union he became a Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and the First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, he went on to become the Soviet ambassador to the United Kingdom in 1952. During his tenure as Foreign Minister of the Soviet Union, Gromyko was directly involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis and helped broker a peace treaty ending the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War.
Under Brezhnev's leadership, he played a central role in the establishment of detente with the United States through his negotiation of the ABM Treaty, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, SALT I & II, among others. As Brezhnev's health declined during the latter years of his leadership, Gromyko formed a troika with KGB Chairman Yuri Andropov and Defense Minister Dmitriy Ustinov that dominated decision-making in Moscow. Henceforth, Gromyko's conservatism and hardline attitudes towards the West dictated the course of Soviet foreign policy until the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985. Following Gorbachev's election as General Secretary, Gromyko lost his office as foreign minister and was appointed to the ceremonial office of head of state. Subsequently, he retired from political life in 1988, died the following year in Moscow. Gromyko was born to a poor "semi-peasant, semi-worker" Belarusian family in the Belarusian village of Staryya Gramyki, near Gomel on 18 July 1909. Gromyko's father, Andrei Matveyevich, worked as a seasonal worker in a local factory.
Andrei Matveyevich was not a educated man, having only attended four years of school, but knew how to read and write. He had fought in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. Gromyko's mother, Olga Yevgenyevna, came from a poor peasant family in the neighbouring city of Zhelezniki, she attended school only for a short period of time as, when her father died, she left to help her mother with the harvest. Gromyko grew up near the district town of Vetka where most of the inhabitants were devoted Old Believers in the Russian Orthodox Church. Gromyko's own village was predominantly religious, but Gromyko started doubting the supernatural at a early age, his first dialog on the subject was with his grandmother Marfa, who answered his inquiry about God with "Wait until you get older. You will understand all this much better". According to Gromyko, "Other adults said the same thing" when talking about religion. Gromyko's neighbour at the time, Mikhail Sjeljutov, was a freethinker and introduced Gromyko to new non-religious ideas and told Gromyko that scientists were beginning to doubt the existence of God.
From the age of nine, after the Bolshevik revolution, Gromyko started reading atheist propaganda in flyers and pamphlets. At the age of thirteen Gromyko became a member of the Komsomol and held anti-religious speeches in the village with his friends as well as promoting Communist values; the news that Germany had attacked the Russian Empire in August 1914 came without warning to the local population. This was the first time, as Gromyko notes, that he felt "love for his country", his father, Andrei Matveyevich, was again conscripted into the Imperial Russian Army and would serve for three years on the southwestern front, under the leadership of General Aleksei Brusilov. Andrei Matveyevich returned home on the eve of the 1917 October Revolution in Russia. Gromyko was elected First Secretary of the local Komsomol chapter at the beginning of 1923. Following Vladimir Lenin's death in 1924, the villagers asked Gromyko what would happen in the leader's absence. Gromyko remembered a communist slogan from the heyday of the October Revolution: "The revolution was carried through by Lenin and his helpers."
He told the villagers that Lenin was dead but "his aides, the Party, still lived on." When he was young Gromyko's mother Olga told him that he should leave his home town to become an educated man. Gromyko followed his mother's advice and, after finishing seven years of primary school and vocational education in Gomel, he moved to Borisov to attend technical school. Gromyko became a member of the All-Union Communist Party Bolsheviks in 1931, something he had dreamed of since he learned about the "difference between a poor farmer and a landowner, a worker and a capitalist". Gromyko was voted in as secretary of his party cell at his first party conference and would use most of his weekends doing volunteer work. Gromyko received a small stipend to live on, but still had a strong nostalgia for the days when he worked as a volunteer, it was about this time that Gromyko met Lydia Dmitrievna Grinevich. Grinevich was the daughter of a Belarusian peasant family and came from Kamenki, a small village to the west of Minsk.
She and Gromyko would have two children and Emilia. After studying in Borisov for two years Gromyko was appointed principal of a secondary school in Dzerzhinsk, where he taught, supervised the school and continued his studies. One day a representative from the Central Committee of the Communi