The Goingsnake Massacre was a shootout that occurred during a trial in the Cherokee court system on April 15, 1872, in the Goingsnake District of the Cherokee Nation. Ezekial "Zeke" Proctor was being tried for killing Polly Beck and wounding Jim Kesterson in a shooting incident; the trial was charged due to the strong family ties of the accused and victims and because of a jurisdictional dispute between the Cherokee and United States courts. A federal posse consisting of two Deputy US Marshals, two of their regular posse members, six white men from Fort Smith, five Cherokee was sent to attend the trial and to arrest Proctor on federal charges if he was acquitted. However, shooting broke out in the crowded courtroom during the proceedings, killing eight of the Marshals posse and three Cherokee citizens; the incident has been called the Goingsnake Tragedy, the Cherokee Courthouse Shootout and the Proctor-Beck Fight. During the Civil War, Ezekiel "Zeke" Proctor, a Cherokee from Georgia, fought for the Union Army, while all of the Beck family Cherokee, fought for the Confederate Army.
Following the war, tensions between the Becks and the Proctors were high. Proctor was a member of the Keetoowah Nighthawk Society, which believed in the preservation of traditional ways, including a growing dislike of the European-American encroachment; this belief included disapproval of Cherokee women being involved romantically with white men. Thus, Proctor thought Polly should not be in a relationship with a white man, despite Proctor's and Polly Beck's fathers both having been white. Proctor was the son of a known murderer and was drunk, he once forced his way into a house. He was involved in several saloon brawls in the small town of Cincinnati, but was known for his trait of always returning afterward to pay for damages, he had previously killed two Cherokee brothers from the Jaybird family. Polly was said to have been an attractive woman of mixed race, she was the widow of a Cherokee man, Steven Hilderbrand, killed during the Civil War. She remarried several times, Jim Kesterson or Chesterson, another white man, was either her fourth or fifth husband.
Polly had two first cousins who were with the Deputy US Marshals. The United States Marshals have one version of what led up to the incident, whereas the Cherokee nation another. Over time, various versions of the initial incident have surfaced, but all tend to indicate three particular facts: 1; the murder suspect, Zeke Proctor did object to a Cherokee woman being involved with a white man, 2. The victim Jim Kesterson had once been married to Proctor's sister, 3; the victim Polly Beck was a love interest to Proctor. Aside from these fact, the versions of the story are quite different; some versions state that Jim Kesterson had been involved with Proctor's sister and had left her for Polly, leaving Susan and the children destitute. Another version indicates Kesterson intended to prosecute, yet another version claims Proctor had been involved romantically with Polly, known locally to be promiscuous, that he was in love with her. Another version indicates Proctor had never been involved with Polly, but was jealous about a native woman having married or being involved with a white man.
Whatever the reason, Proctor confronted Polly and Jim at Polly's dead husband's mill in the Oklahoma Territory, on February 27. The incident developed into an argument. Proctor turned to Polly and fired, killing her. Zeke maintained. Stories diverge here, but one version says Proctor surrendered himself after the murder of Polly to the sheriff of the Goingsnake District of the Cherokee Nation. Cherokee judge Blackhawk Sixkiller was appointed to the case. Chesterson, believing Proctor would not be convicted in a Cherokee court, appealed to the local federal court, asking that an arrest warrant be issued to ensure that Proctor received a trial in a non-Cherokee court in Fort Smith, Arkansas. Treaties with the United States federal government said that Cherokee Nation courts would have jurisdiction over Cherokee people, so the involvement of non-tribal law officers was seen as a threat to tribal sovereignty and was resented by the Cherokee people; the federal court dispatched a ten-member posse led by two Deputy US Marshals to secure the arrest of Proctor at the court house in Tahlequah.
Five members of the Beck clan traveled with this posse. Several Cherokees were prepared to protect their treaty rights, so the Cherokee court's trial of Proctor was moved to the schoolhouse, since it was seen as being easier to defend than the courthouse. All participants of the trial were armed. Without issuing a warning, members of the group with the Deputy US Marshals attacked the schoolhouse. In the ensuing melee, eight of the posse members were killed or mortally wounded and nine Cherokee, including Proctor and the judge, were wounded, several mortally; the Cherokee authorities removed the trial to acquitted Proctor. In Fort Smith, District Attorney James Huckleberry dispatched a large posse under the command of Deputy US Marshal Charles Robinson, they took with them two doctors. The second posse arrested several men believed to have been i
Bartholemew William Barclay "Bat" Masterson was a U. S. Army scout, professional gambler, journalist known for his exploits in the 19th-century American Old West. Born to a working-class Irish family in Quebec, Masterson moved to the Western frontier as a young man and distinguished himself as a buffalo hunter, civilian scout, Indian fighter on the Great Plains, he earned fame as a gunfighter and sheriff in Dodge City, during which time he was involved in several notable shootouts. By the mid-1880s, Masterson moved to Denver and established himself as a "sporting man", he took an interest in prizefighting and became a leading authority on the sport, attending every important match and title fight in the United States from the 1880s until his death in 1921. He moved to New York City in 1902 and spent the rest of his life there as a reporter and columnist for the New York Morning Telegraph, he became a close friend of President Theodore Roosevelt and was one of the "White House Gunfighters" who received federal appointments from Roosevelt, along with Pat Garrett and Ben Daniels.
By the time of his death in 1921, Masterson was known throughout the country as a leading sports writer and celebrity. He is remembered today for his connection to many of the Wild West's most iconic people and events, his life and likeness are depicted in American popular culture. Masterson was born on November 26, 1853, at Henryville, Quebec, in the Eastern Townships of what was known as Canada East, he was baptized under the name Bartholomew Masterson. Masterson was the second child of Thomas Masterson, born in Canada to an Irish family, Catherine McGurk, born in Ireland; the other six Masterson children were Edward John, James Patrick, Nellie E. Thomas, George Henry, Emma Anna "Minnie"; the children were raised on farms in Quebec, New York and Missouri until the family settled near Wichita, Kansas. In his late teens and brothers, Ed and Jim, left their family's farm to hunt buffalo on the Great Plains. In July 1872, Ed and Bat Masterson were hired by a subcontractor named Raymond Ritter to grade a five-mile section of track for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad.
Ritter skipped out without paying the Masterson brothers all of the wages to which they were entitled. It took Masterson nearly a year, but he collected his overdue wages from Ritter, at gunpoint. On April 15, 1873, Masterson learned that Ritter was due to arrive in Dodge City, Kansas aboard a Santa Fe train and that Ritter was carrying a large roll of cash; when Ritter's train pulled in, Masterson entered the car alone and confronted him and marched him out onto the rear platform of the train, where he forced him to hand over the $300 owed to him, his brother Ed, a friend named Theodore Raymond. A loud cheer went up from a large crowd which had witnessed the event. Masterson was once again engaged in buffalo hunting on June 27, 1874, when he became an involuntary participant in one of the Wild West's most celebrated Indian fights: a five-day siege by several hundred Comanche warriors led by Quanah Parker at a collection of ramshackle buildings in the Texas panhandle known as Adobe Walls. Masterson was one of just 28 hunters.
The Comanche suffered the most losses during the battle, though the actual number killed is not known, with reports ranging from a low of 30 to a high of 70. The defenders of Adobe Walls lost only four men. After being fought to a standstill, Quanah Parker and his followers rode off. In August 1874, Masterson signed on as a U. S. Army scout with Colonel Nelson Miles, leading a force from Fort Dodge to pursue Comanche and Apache war parties across the Cherokee Strip and into Texas; the force was engaged to recover four sisters — ranging in age from 9 to 15 —, captured by a group of Cheyenne Dog Soldiers. The sisters were part of a family, attacked outside of Ellis, Kansas, on September 11, 1874, while migrating to Colorado Territory, their parents and two older sisters had been killed and scalped. All four sisters were recovered alive by Miles' force over a period of about six months. Masterson's first gunfight took place on January 1876, in Sweetwater, Texas, he was attacked by a soldier, Corporal Melvin A. King, real name Anthony Cook because he was with a woman named Mollie Brennan, accidentally, or not, hit by one of King's bullets and was killed.
King died of his wounds. Masterson recovered. Masterson soon settled in Dodge City. On June 6, 1877, Masterson tried to prevent the arrest of Robert Gilmore, known to the locals as "Bobby Gill." Masterson managed to wrap his arms about the girth of the 315 pound city marshal, Lawrence Edward "Larry" Deger, thereby permitting Gill to escape. Masterson was pistol-whipped by the lawman; the following day, Masterson was fined $25 for disturbing the peace. Bobby Gill, the cause of Masterson's fine, was assessed only $5. During July 1877, Masterson was hired to serve as under-sheriff to Sheriff Charles E. Bassett. Bassett was prohibited by the Kansas State Constitution from seeking a third consecutive term. With the job up for grabs, Masterson decided to run for the office. Masterson's opponent turned out to be Larry Deger. On November 6, 1877, Masterson was elected county sheriff of Ford
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Charles N. Haskell
Charles Nathaniel Haskell was an American lawyer and politician, the first governor of Oklahoma. As a delegate to Oklahoma's constitutional convention in 1906, he played a crucial role in drafting the Oklahoma Constitution and gaining Oklahoma's admission into the United States as the 46th state in 1907. A prominent businessman in Muskogee, he helped, he represented the city as a delegate in both the Oklahoma convention and an earlier convention, a failed attempt to create a U. S. state of Sequoyah. During Oklahoma's constitutional convention, Haskell succeeded in pushing for the inclusion of prohibition and blocking the inclusion of women's suffrage in the Oklahoma Constitution; as governor, he was responsible for moving the state capital to Oklahoma City, establishing schools and state agencies, reforming the territorial prison system, enforcing prohibition. Lee Cruce succeeded Haskell, who died of a stroke in 1933. Born in West Leipsic, Ohio on March 13, 1860, Charles Haskell was the son of George R. Haskell, a cooper who died when the boy was three years old.
His mother, Jane H. Reeves Haskell, worked for the local Methodist church as a bell ringer and custodian to support the six children. At the age of 10, he started working as a farm boy for a farmer named Miller in Putnam County, where he lived and worked for eight years as he grew into adulthood. Miller was a school teacher, but as the young Haskell had to work, he did not have time to attend school. Instead, Miller's wife taught him at home and Haskell earned a teaching certificate at age 17. Haskell taught for three years in Putnam County. On December 6, 1880, he passed the bar exam, became a practicing attorney at age 20 despite having no academic training in the field. In his work as an attorney, Haskell became one of the most successful lawyers in Ottawa, the county seat, as well as one of the most prominent members of the Democratic Party in northwestern Ohio. In 1888, Haskell started work as a general contractor. During this time, he lived in San Antonio, Texas. Haskell married Lucie Pomeroy, daughter of a prominent Ottawa family, on October 11, 1881.
Their children were Norman. Mrs. Haskell died in March 1888. Haskell remarried to Lillie Elizabeth Gallup, they had three children: Frances and Jane. With the Land Run of 1889 and the passage of the Organic Act in 1890, Oklahoma Territory was gaining importance on the national scene. Haskell moved his family to Muskogee, the capital of the Creek Nation, in March 1901; when he arrived, Haskell found Muskogee a sleepy village of some 4,500 people. Upon his arrival a movement of building business blocks began and he built the first five-story business block in Oklahoma Territory. Haskell built most of the railroads running into Muskogee, he is said to have owned 14 brick buildings in the city. Through his influence, Muskogee grew to be a center of business and industry with a population of more than 20,000 inhabitants. Haskell told others that he hoped Muskogee would become the “Queen City of the Southwest.” His success earned him clout in the politics of Indian Territory and the attention of the Creek Nation.
During this time, the Native American nations in Indian Territory were talking of creating a state and joining the Union under the name of the State of Sequoyah. The Creeks selected Haskell as their official representative to the conventions, in the position of vice-president for the Five Civilized Tribes, held in Eufaula, Oklahoma in 1902 and Muskogee in 1905. Of the six delegates at the Muskogee convention, all were of Native American descent, save two: Haskell and William H. Murray. Though U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt blocked the attempt to create Sequoyah, Haskell wrote a large portion of the proposed state’s constitution. Though Haskell publicly worked for a separate state for Indian Territory he was thrilled to see the Sequoyah proposal defeated. Haskell believed; the United States Congress and President Roosevelt agreed that Oklahoma and Indian Territories could only enter the Union as one state, the State of Oklahoma. After the federal passage of the Enabling Act in 1906, Haskell was elected as a delegate by the largest margin in the new state, representing the seventy-sixth district, which included Muskogee.
Traveling to Guthrie and the Oklahoma Constitutional convention on November 20, 1906, Haskell would meet William H. Murray from the Muskogee convention and Robert L. Williams; because of their meetings at both conventions, Haskell would gain a friendship with Murray that would last until the end of his life. The delegates to the Guthrie convention included many of those who had served in the Sequoyah convention in Muskogee, a number of the ideas proposed for the new constitution were based upon the rejected Sequoyah constitution. Haskell owned the New State Tribune, through its editorial columns advocated for the propositions he wanted in the new constitution, most of which were incorporated into the document, in substance if not in form. While Murray served as the convention's president, delegates recognized Haskell's power in the body. A local newspaper during the time, the Guthrie Report, called Haskell “the power behind the throne.” Haskell had a perfect voting record during the session.
He advocated for provisions that affected both territories’ labor problems and avocation for representatives of organized labor. Haskell drafted a report drawing up county boundaries
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
The American frontier comprises the geography, history and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912. A "frontier" is a zone of contact at the edge of a line of settlement; the leading theorist Frederick Jackson Turner went deeper, arguing that the frontier was the defining process of American civilization: "The frontier," he asserted, "promoted the formation of a composite nationality for the American people." He theorized it was a process of development: "This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward...furnish the forces dominating American character." Turner's ideas since 1893 have inspired generations of historians to explore multiple individual American frontiers, but the popular folk frontier concentrates on the conquest and settlement of Native American lands west of the Mississippi River, in what is now the Midwest, the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the Southwest, the West Coast.
In 19th- and early 20th-century media, enormous popular attention was focused on the Western United States in the second half of the 19th century, a period sometimes called the "Old West" or the "Wild West". Such media exaggerated the romance and chaotic violence of the period for greater dramatic effect; this inspired the Western genre of film, which spilled over into television shows and comic books, as well as children's toys and costumes. This era of massive migration and settlement was encouraged by President Thomas Jefferson following the Louisiana Purchase, giving rise to the expansionist philosophy known as "Manifest destiny"; as defined by Hine and Faragher, "frontier history tells the story of the creation and defense of communities, the use of the land, the development of markets, the formation of states." They explain, "It is a tale of conquest, but one of survival and the merging of peoples and cultures that gave birth and continuing life to America." Through treaties with foreign nations and native tribes, political compromise, military conquest, establishment of law and order, the building of farms and towns, the marking of trails and digging of mines, the pulling in of great migrations of foreigners, the United States expanded from coast to coast, fulfilling the dreams of Manifest Destiny.
Turner, in his "Frontier Thesis", theorized that the frontier was a process that transformed Europeans into a new people, the Americans, whose values focused on equality and optimism, as well as individualism, self-reliance, violence. As the American frontier passed into history, the myths of the West in fiction and film took a firm hold in the imagination of Americans and foreigners alike. In David Murdoch's view, America is exceptional in choosing its iconic self-image: "No other nation has taken a time and place from its past and produced a construct of the imagination equal to America's creation of the West." The frontier line was the outer line of European-American settlement. It moved westward from the 1630s to the 1880s. Turner favored the Census Bureau definition of the "frontier line" as a settlement density of two people per square mile; the "West" was the settled area near that boundary. Thus, parts of the Midwest and American South, though no longer considered "western", have a frontier heritage along with the modern western states.
In the 21st century, the term "American West" is most used for the area west of the Great Plains. In the colonial era, before 1776, the west was of high priority for politicians; the American frontier began when Jamestown, Virginia was settled by the English in 1607. In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, until about 1680, the frontier was any part of the interior of the continent beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the Atlantic coast. English, French and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada. Although French fur traders ranged through the Great Lakes and mid-west region they settled down. French settlement was limited to a few small villages such as Kaskaskia, Illinois as well as a larger settlement around New Orleans; the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers who created compact, permanent villages.
They created a dense rural settlement in upstate New York. Areas in the north that were in the frontier stage by 1700 had poor transportation facilities, so the opportunity for commercial agriculture was low; these areas remained in subsistence agriculture, as a result by the 1760s these societies were egalitarian, as explained by historian Jackson Turner Main: The typical frontier society therefore was one in which class distinctions were minimized. The wealthy speculator, if one was involved remained at home, so that ordinarily no one of wealth was a resident; the class of landless poor was small. The great majority were landowners, most of whom were poor because they were starting with little property and had not yet cleared much land nor had they acquired the farm tools and animals which would one day ma
Battle of Cimarron
The Battle of Cimarron was a famous gunfight that occurred on January 12, 1889, during the Gray County War, between the people of Cimarron, a group of lawmen led by Bill Tilghman. The gunfight, which lasted several hours and resulted in the death of at least one man and the wounding of seven others, began when Tilghman and his raiders attempted to take the county records from the Old Gray County Courthouse back to Ingalls. In the late 1880s, Cimarron and its neighbor to the west, were locked in a contest to decide which town would become the new county seat; because towns in the 19th century relied on their county seat status to survive, the county seat contests resulted in violence. After an election to decide the contest ended with accusations of fraud and protests from both sides, the matter was sent to the Kansas Supreme Court. Meanwhile, a man from Ingalls named Newt Watson became the new county clerk, he demanded that the county records in Cimarron be taken from the courthouse and brought to him.
When the citizens of Cimarron refused to turn over the records, the Ingalls faction organized a group of raiders to go into town and take them by force. The raiding party, led by Bill Tilghman included Jim Masterson, brother of the famous Bat Masterson, Ben Daniels, "Neal" Brown, Fred Singer, who were all former Dodge City peace officers, in addition to some "cowtown mercenaries," George Bolds, Ed Brooks, Billy Allensworth. To give them "semi-official status," all of the men in the group were deputized by Tilghman, appointed temporary Gray County Sheriff by Watson after the current sheriff, Joe Reynolds, was put in a hospital with a gunshot wound to the stomach; the raid was set to take place on January 12, 1889. That day and the others arrived in Cimarron with a wagon to carry the records. After pulling up to the courthouse, Masterson and Allensworth entered the building to begin loading the documents into the back of the wagon, while the rest of the men waited outside. In the meantime, some armed Cimarron men were moving into position to attack.
The Cimarron men opened fire on the raiders waiting by the wagon. Tilghman was hit in one of his legs, Brooks "doubled over" with a gunshot, Bolds was struck three times, once in the leg and twice in the abdomen; the wagon driver, a man by the name of Charlie Reicheldeffer, was hit, but somehow they all managed to climb back onto the wagon and drive it out of town without being killed. Masterson and the others were left inside the courthouse, so they took up positions on the second floor to return fire; the Cimarron men attempted to storm the building by rushing the front door, but were beaten back by "deadly shots" from the remaining raiders. After that failed, the Cimarron men attempted to breach the building by raising a ladder up to a window in the back of the building; this plan was thwarted when Masterson found out and kicked down the ladder. The townsfolk made it into the first floor of the building and from there they fired up through the ceiling and into the second floor; the raiders, climbed on top of the filing cabinets, a steel safe to protect themselves.
The battle lasted for about six hours and came to an end when the Cimarron faction received a telegraph from Bat Masterson in Dodge City warning that unless his brother and his friends were allowed to leave town, he would "hire a train and come in with enough men to blow Cimarron off the face of Kansas." After that, the raiders put down their guns and were taken prisoner. According to Richard M. Patterson's Historical Atlas of the Outlaw West, only one man - a Cimarron resident named J. W. English - was killed in the entire shootout, although other sources say that as many as three men died as result. Patterson says that in total one man was killed and three wounded on the Cimarron side, that four men were wounded on the Ingalls side; the raiders were tried for the killing of English, but they were acquitted. The dispute over the new county seat did not end either, it was settled in February 1893, when Cimarron became the permanent seat of Gray County. The Old Gray County Courthouse, replaced in 1927, is now open to the public and serves as a meeting hall.
It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 2009 for its association with the Kansas County Seat Wars. List of Old West gunfights County seat war