United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
DeLorme is a producer of personal satellite tracking and navigation technology. The company's main product, inReach, integrates satellite technologies. InReach provides the ability to send and receive text messages anywhere in the world by using the Iridium satellite constellation. By pairing with a smart phone, navigation is possible with access to free downloadable topographic maps and NOAA charts. On February 11, 2016, the company announced that it had been purchased by Garmin, a multinational producer of GPS products and services. DeLorme produces printed atlas and topographic software products; the company combines digital technologies with human editors to verify travel information and map details. DeLorme Atlas & Gazetteer is a complement to a vehicle’s GPS or online mapping site, allowing a traveler to browse and highlight the anticipated route and the possible activities or excursions along the way or at the destination. DeLorme’s Topo software is one of the sources of North American trail, logging road and terrain data for outdoor enthusiasts.
Topo 10 has US and Canada topographic maps and elevation data with more than four million places of interest. Topo includes comprehensive park, lake and stream data for all 50 states. DeLorme continues to sell paper atlases, with more than 20 million copies sold to date. Founded in 1976, DeLorme is headquartered in Yarmouth, is home to Eartha, the world's largest revolving globe; the company was founded in 1976 by David DeLorme, being frustrated over obsolete back-country maps of the Moosehead Lake region of Maine, vowed to create a better map of Maine. DeLorme combined state highway and town maps as well as federal surveys to produce the Maine Atlas and Gazetteer, printed in a large-format book with an initial printing of 10,000, which he marketed out of his car; the Gazetteer, which listed bicycle trails and kayaking trips, museum and historic sites, proved quite successful. The company expanded to 75 employees in 1986, working from a Quonset hut in Freeport, producing maps for New England and upstate New York.
In 1987, the company produced a CD with detailed topographic map data of the entire world. In 1991, DeLorme began vending Street Atlas USA on a single CD-ROM, becoming the most popular street-map CD in the United States, as well as one of the first mass consumer CD-ROM software products of any kind. By 1995, DeLorme had 44 percent of the market share for CD maps; the same year the company partnered with the American Automobile Association to produce the AAA Map'n Go, the first mapping product to generate automatic routing. They introduced the DeLorme GPS receiver to work with its maps. In 1996, it introduced its maps into the PDA environment via Palm. In 1997, the company relocated to a new corporate campus in Yarmouth, that features a giant model of the world, named Eartha, the largest rotating globe in the world; the company has provided complimentary geographic educational sessions for thousands of school children over the years and the public is welcome to visit and see Eartha from the three-story balconies.
In 1999, DeLorme introduced 3D TopoQuad DVD and CD products, which include digitized U. S. topographic maps. In 2001, XMap professional GIS map program was produced on CD, an expanded XMap was released in 2002, modified to provide GPS functionality to Palm OS and Pocket PC. In 2005, DeLorme became the first company to sell a USB GPS device, the Earthmate GPS LT-20. At the same time, it began offering downloadable satellite and USGS 7.5-minute quads that could be overlaid on its maps using a new NetLink feature. Earlier models of Earthmate were among the first GPS receivers tethered to laptops. In 2006/2007, the firm introduced its first full-featured GPS standalone receiver, the Earthmate GPS PN-20. During 2008, the company continued expanding its handheld GPS line with the Earthmate GPS PN-40 model. DeLorme began selling OEM GPS modules allowing other manufacturers to add GPS to their products. In addition, the company began selling data to businesses. In 2009, DeLorme released D. A. E.. It is the first worldwide GPS accurate topographical map with a scale of 1 to 50,000.
D. A. E. is the official world map for the Australian militaries. It is a virtual globe of the earth, 1,000 feet in diameter. In 2011, DeLorme launched "InReach," a worldwide satellite communication and SOS device that fits in your pocket, it works in the middle of the ocean, at the north pole, through triple canopy jungles, has been proven on the summit of Mt. Everest. Through the SOS feature, 3 rescues a day occur around the world. On February 11, 2016, GPS products and services company Garmin announced it had agreed to purchase DeLorme; the announcement stated. Another announcement confirmed. Maps of the United States Geospatial Trail maps DeLorme website LaptopGPSworld.com: Review of DeLorme Street Atlas 2008 inReach website Facebook: DeLormeGPS Twitter: DeLormeGPS
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order; the order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the President and approved by Congress; the current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler, acting administrator since July 2018; the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education, it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U.
S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures; the agency works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA's employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists; the Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they have the power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce. Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry out the approved statutes; the Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations. A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to be implemented.
The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, in the 86th Congress; the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress's potential responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George P. Miller, to discuss the need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy.
In the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959. RCA would have established a Council on Environmental Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, required the preparation of an annual environmental report. President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1, 1970; the law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions affecting the environment; the "detailed statement" would be referred to as an environmental impact statement. On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency; this proposal included merging antipollution programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, U.
S. Department of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal; the EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, opened its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency's first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was a technical assistance agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress gave the agency its regulatory authority. EPA staff recall that in the early days there was "an enormous sense of purpose and excitement" and the expectation that "there was this agency, going to do something about a problem, on the minds of a lot of people in this country," leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate in the mighty effort to clean up America's environment; when EPA first began operation, members of the private sector felt that the environ
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
A hydrological code or hydrologic unit code is a sequence of numbers or letters that identify a hydrological feature like a river, river reach, lake, or area like a drainage basin or catchment. One system, developed by Strahler, known as the Strahler stream order, ranks streams based on a hierarchy of tributaries; each segment of a stream or river within a river network is treated as a node in a tree, with the next segment downstream as its parent. When two first-order streams come together, they form a second-order stream; when two second-order streams come together, they form a third-order stream, so on. Another example is the system of assigning IDs to watersheds devised by Otto Pfafstetter, known as the Pfafstetter Coding System or the Pfafstetter System. Drainage areas are delineated in a hierarchical fashion, with "level 1" watersheds at continental scales, subdivided into smaller level 2 watersheds, which are divided into level 3 watersheds, so on; each watershed is assigned a unique number, called a Pfafsetter Code, based on its location within the overall drainage system.
A comprehensive coding system is in use in Europe. This system codes from the ocean to the so-called primary catchment; the system determines a set of endorheic systems identified by a letter. These systems are subdivided into a maximum of 9 seas; the seas are numbered 1 to 9. Seas lying far from the ocean, for example the Black Sea receive a higher number; the seas are delimited using the so-called definitions made by the International Hydrographic Organization in 1953. The coasts of these seas are defined clockwise from north west to south east from the strait where the sea connects to the ocean or the other seas. Subsequently every watershed along this coast is assigned a number using the Pfafstetter Coding System; this implies that the four largest watersheds are selected and receive numbers 2,4,6, or 8. The watersheds in between the large systems receive numbers 3, 5, 7. Numbers 1 and 9 are used for the small watersheds on the edges of the strait; the smaller systems can subsequently be kept together for grouping purpose.
Landmasses are numbered in a logical manner, along a clock-wise oriented sea. For Europe containing many inner seas this feature helps to read the relative location of a hydrological object in the sea; the United States Geological Survey created a hierarchical system of hydrologic units called regions, sub-regions, accounting units, cataloging units. Each unit was assigned a unique Hydrologic Unit Code; as first implemented the system had 21 regions, 221 subregions, 378 accounting units, 2,264 cataloging units. Over time the system was expanded; as of 2010 there are six levels in the hierarchy, represented by hydrologic unit codes from 2 to 12 digits long, called regions, basins, subbasins and subwatersheds. The table below describes the system's hydrologic unit levels and their characteristics, along with example names and codes; the original delineation of units, down to subbasins, was done using data. The newer delineation work on watersheds and subwatersheds was done using 1:24,000 scale maps and data.
As a result, the subbasin boundaries were changed and adjusted in order to conform to the higher resolution watersheds within them. Changes to subbasin boundaries resulted in changes in area sizes. Therefore, older data using "cataloging units" may differ from newer, higher resolution data using "subbasins"; the regions are geographic areas that contain either the drainage area of a major river, such as the Missouri region, or the combined drainage areas of a series of rivers, such as the Texas–Gulf region. Each subregion includes the area drained by a river system, a reach of a river and its tributaries in that reach, a closed basin or basins, or a group of streams forming a coastal drainage area. Regions receive a two-digit code; the following levels are designated by the addition of another two digits. The hierarchy was designed and the units subdivided so that all the subbasins are larger than 700 square miles. Larger closed; the 10-digit watersheds were delineated to be between 40,000 and 250,000 acres in size, the 12-digit subwatersheds between 10,000 and 40,000 acres.
In addition to the hydrologic unit codes, each hydrologic unit was assigned a name corresponding to the unit's principal hydrologic feature or to a cultural or political feature within the unit. The boundaries of the hydrologic units correspond to drainage basins with some exceptions. S. drainage into not only Puget Sound but the Strait of Georgia, Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Fraser River. Region and subregion boundaries end at the U. S. international boundary. In general, hydrologic units were delineated such that all surface drainage within each unit converges at a single outlet point—a type of hydrologic unit called a "classic hydrological unit", it was not always possible to delineated units in this way while adhering to the size and subdivision standards of the system. There are several "non-classic" types of drainage areas, each requiring special criteria for delineation and subdivision."Remnant areas" occur along coasts where individual streams are too small for the given subdivision type.
Such remnants were combined into a single unit if they could be combined. These "composite" units are called "frontal units", they are non-classic. For example, the coastal area along Puget Sound betwee
Middle Island Creek
Middle Island Creek is a river, 77 miles long, in northwestern West Virginia in the United States. It is a tributary of the Ohio River, draining an area of 565 square miles on the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau, it was named by late 18th century pioneering travelers on the Ohio River, who noted the location of the Creek's mouth opposite Middle Island in the larger river. In an artifact of nomenclature, it is pointed out that Middle Island Creek is the longest stream in West Virginia bearing the name of "creek". Middle Island Creek is formed at the community of Smithburg in Doddridge County by the confluence of Meathouse Fork and Buckeye Creek, it flows northwestward in a winding course through Doddridge and Tyler Counties, through the unincorporated community of Avondale and the town of West Union in Doddridge County. From Middlebourne the creek turns to the southwest and flows parallel to the Ohio River, through the unincorporated communities of Next, Little and Falls Mills in Tyler County; the lowermost 12 square miles of the creek are inundated by backup from the Willow Island Locks and Dam downstream on the Ohio River.
In addition to the Meathouse Fork and Buckeye Creek, the largest tributaries of Middle Island Creek are Arnold Creek, which it collects on the boundary of Doddridge and Tyler counties. Middle Island Creek's most extreme meander forms a peninsula known as "the Jug," located upstream of Middlebourne; the creek rounds a 7-mile bend only to return to within 100 feet of itself. Sometime prior to 1800, a settler named George Gregg had a mill race carved across the narrow point of the peninsula and harnessed the resulting hydropower for a gristmill and sawmill; these were destroyed by a flood in 1852, while mills were subsequently built and washed away by floods. In 1947 the West Virginia Conservation Commission constructed a low water bridge which dammed the cut-through and restored a steady flow to the bend of the creek; the land encircled by the creek's loop is operated as a Wildlife Management Area by the state of West Virginia. According to sources gathered by the Geographic Names Information System, Middle Island Creek has been known as: Be-Van-Soss Creek of the Indians Be-van-Soss Creek of the Indians Be-van-soss Be-yan-soss Bulls Creek By-En-Soss Creek By-en-Soss Creek By-en-soss Louisa River The creek's environs were the site of substantial oil and gas extraction activities in the late 19th century and 20th century.
An oil boom began in the region in the 1860s. It peaked in Middlebourne in the 1890s, an oil refinery operated in St. Marys between 1914 and 1987. Glass- and carbon-manufacturing facilities were built in West Union and Smithburg in the early 20th century, owing to the availability of natural gas. Throughout its course Middle Island Creek is a low-gradient stream, it is considered one of the best streams in the state for muskellunge fishing. Other fish found in the creek include spotted bass, smallmouth bass, rock bass, various species of sunfish, freshwater drum, channel catfish, flathead catfish. List of West Virginia rivers West Union Covered Bridge
St. Marys, West Virginia
St. Marys is a city in Pleasants County, West Virginia, in the United States; the population was 1,860 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Pleasants County. St. Marys was established in 1849 by Alexander Creel, said to have had a vision of Mary while passing the townsite by boat on the Ohio River. St. Marys is part of the WV-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. Train tracks run down the middle of 2nd Street in St. Marys, freight trains running through the middle of downtown St. Marys are a common sight, it is one of the few remaining towns in the United States where freight trains share city streets with automotive traffic. St. Marys is located at 39°23′47″N 81°11′59″W, along the Ohio River at the mouth of Middle Island Creek. Middle Island, part of the Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge, is located in the Ohio opposite St. Marys. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.02 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,860 people, 841 households, 543 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,823.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 954 housing units at an average density of 935.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.0% White, 0.1% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 841 households of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.4% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 16% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.73. The median age in the city was 43.9 years. 20.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.1% male and 50.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,017 people, 879 households, 588 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,074.1 people per square mile. There were 961 housing units at an average density of 988.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.56% White, 0.05% African American, 0.64% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.15% from other races, 0.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.25% of the population. There were 879 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 20.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,755, the median income for a family was $37,621. Males had a median income of $31,000 versus $21,522 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,206. About 12.8% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over. List of cities and towns along the Ohio River Pleasants County Courthouse Cain House