A Philosothon is an annual competition wherein students explore philosophical and ethical issues. Philosothons are held in all Australian states, New Zealand, the UK. At a Philosothon school aged students are assessed by university based professional philosophers and score where they demonstrate rigour and clarity of thought. An essential component of a Philosothon is the pedagogical model for teaching Philosophy to young people called Community of inquiry; the event has grown within the Philosophy for Children movement. The first Australasian Philosothon was held at Cranbrook School, Sydney in 2011 and the first UK Philosothon was held in 2012 at King's College, Taunton. In 2007, Hale School in Perth Western Australia initiated a project to promote higher-order thinking among secondary school students; the Head of Philosophy and Ethics Mr Matthew Wills, created the event to promote student engagement in the study of Philosophy. At the first Philosothon nine local high school teams, each including five students came together for an evening of philosophical investigation.
The word'Philosothon' was invented in the first few years of the event by Matthew Wills and Leanne Rucks. Following the first Philosothon it was decided to promote the event more broadly to other schools around the country and in the UK. Philosothons now take place annually in each Australian capital city and in regional locations around the country, they take place in the UK. Primary school Philosothons have been conducted in various Art Galleries in some Australian states and in the UK. Most Philosothons have been started up in regional cities throughout Australia and New Zealand as a result of the Philosothon Project. In 2017 The Templeton Religion Trust awarded $281,656 AUD to the Philosothon project in order to "grow existing Philosothons and support the establishment of new ones in remote schools and at schools catering for students from low socio-economic backgrounds" in Australasia; the rationale for the Philosothon methodology is based on empirical evidence that teaching children reasoning skills early in life improves other cognitive and academic skills and assists learning in general.
Students are given the topic some stimulus reading materials. Examples of topic questions from recent Philosothons are these: Is it moral to fake kindness? Do men and woman have different natures? Do you have free will? Should you always listen to the opinions of others? How free should speech be? Students and parents gather on a particular evening each year for the event; the students participate in a series of Communities of Inquiry which are facilitated by teachers or Phd. philosophy students from the local universities. While participating in this process students are scored by Philosophy lecturers from local universities; the scores are collated, ranked and in the evening awards are given to students at each age level and encouragement awards to the most promising male and female philosopher. A trophy is awarded to the winning school; some might argue. They believe that by ranking individuals the process of developing a Community of Philosophical Inquiry is fundamentally compromised. However, others have responded that many students forget they are involved in a competition and engage in the exact sort of investigation and collaboration we would hope to see in Philosophy.
Others have suggested that the same process is undertaken in any academic institution, tertiary or secondary where students are ranked against criteria. The only difference is. In July 2011 the Federation of Australasian Philosophy in Schools Associations decided to host the first National Philosothon at Cranbrook School; each Australian state sent three teams and so twelve schools in total arrived in Sydney to participate in the inaugural event. Each year the Australasian Philosothon is run in a different region in Australasia. In 2019 the eighth Australasian Philosothon will be held at Radford College in Canberra. Philosothons have been run in the UK since 2013. Revd. Mark Smith & Julie Arliss from the Philosophy of Religion and Ethics Department at King's College, Taunton, UK, have spearheaded the Philosothon movement in the United Kingdom in collaboration with Dr Michael Lacewing from Heythrop College and Lizzy Lewis from Sapere. Wells Cathedral College won the first event. Since Philosothons have been run annually around the UK including many Primary School Philosothons hosted by the Philosophy Foundation.
Other Philosothons have been held around the UK. In 2012 an inaugural Primary School Philosothon was held at the National Gallery of Victoria. In 2013 the first WA Primary school Philosothon was hosted by John XXIII College at the Art Gallery of WA. Since Annual Primary School Philosothons have been conducted in Victoria, WA and the UK. http://www.philosothon.org http://fapsa.org.au http://www.philosothon.co.uk/
Monash University is a public research university based in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1958, it is the second oldest university in the State of Victoria; the university has a number of campuses, four of which are in Victoria, one in Malaysia. Monash has a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy, a graduate research school in Mumbai, India and a graduate school in Suzhou, China. Monash University courses are delivered at other locations, including South Africa. Monash is home to major research facilities, including the Monash Law School, the Australian Synchrotron, the Monash Science Technology Research and Innovation Precinct, the Australian Stem Cell Centre, 100 research centres and 17 co-operative research centres. In 2016, its total revenue was over $2.2 billion dollars, with external research income around $282 million. In 2016, Monash enrolled over 22,000 graduate students, it has more applicants than any other university in the state of Victoria. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight, a coalition of Australia's eight leading research Universities, a member of the ASAIHL, is the only Australian member of the M8 Alliance of Academic Health Centers and National Academies.
Monash is one of two Australian universities to be ranked in the École des Mines de Paris ranking on the basis of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies. The original campus was in the City of Clayton; the university was granted an expansive site of 100 hectares of open land in Clayton. The 100 hectares of land consists of the former Talbot Epileptic Colony. From its first intake of 357 students at Clayton on 13 March 1961, the university grew in size and student numbers so that by 1967, it had enrolled more than 21,000 students since its establishment. In its early years, it offered undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in engineering, science, economics, politics and law, it was a major provider for international student places under the Colombo Plan, which saw the first Asian students enter the Australian education system. In its early years of teaching and administration, Monash was not disadvantaged by entrenched traditional practices. Monash was able to adopt modern approaches without resistance from those who preferred the status quo.
A modern administrative structure was set up. The university was named after the prominent Australian general Sir John Monash; this was the first time in Australia that a university had been named after a person, rather than a city or state. From the mid-1960s to the early 1970s, Monash became the centre of student radicalism in Australia, it was the site of many mass student demonstrations concerning Australia's role in Vietnam War and conscription. By the late 1960s, several student organisations, some of which were influenced by or supporters of communism, turned their focus to Vietnam, with numerous blockades and sit-ins. In one extraordinary event that came to be known as the Monash Siege, students forced Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser to hide in a basement at the Alexander Theatre, in a major protest over the Whitlam dismissal. In the late 1970s and 1980s, some of Monash's most publicised research came through its pioneering of in-vitro fertilisation. Led by Carl Wood and Alan Trounson, the Monash IVF Program achieved the world's first clinical IVF pregnancy in 1973.
In 1980, they delivered the first IVF baby in Australia. This became a massive source of revenue for the university at a time when university funding in Australia was beginning to slow down. In the late 1980s, the Dawkins Reforms changed the landscape of higher education in Australia. Under the leadership of Vice-Chancellor Mal Logan, Monash transformed dramatically. In 1988, Monash University had only one campus in Clayton, with around 15,000 students. Just over a decade it had 8 campuses, a European research and teaching centre, more than 50,000 students, making it the largest and most internationalised Australian university. Expansion of the university began in 1990 with a series of mergers between Monash, the Chisholm Institute of Technology, the Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education. In 1991 a merger with the Victorian College of Pharmacy created a new faculty of the university; this continued with the establishment of the Berwick campus. In 1998, the university opened the Malaysia campus, its first overseas campus and the first foreign university in Malaysia.
In 2001, Monash South Africa opened its doors in Johannesburg, making Monash the first foreign university in South Africa. The same year, the university secured an 18th-century Tuscan palace to open a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy. At the same time, Australian universities faced unprecedented demand for international student places, which Monash met on a larger scale than most. Today, around 30% of its students are from outside Australia. Monash students come from over 100 different countries, speak over 90 different languages; the increase in international students, combined with the university's expansion, meant that Monash's income increased throughout the 1990s, it is now one of Australia's top 200 exporters. In recent years, the university has been prominent in medical research. A highlight of this came in 2000, when Alan Trounson led the team of scientists which announced to the world that nerve stem cells could be derived from embryonic stem cells, a discovery which led to a dramatic increase in interest in the potential of stem cells.
It has led to Monash being ranked in the top
A string quartet is a musical ensemble consisting of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group. The string quartet is one of the most prominent chamber ensembles in classical music, with most major composers, from the mid 18th century onwards, writing string quartets; the string quartet was developed into its current form by the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn, with his works in the 1750s establishing the genre. Since Haydn's day the string quartet has been considered a prestigious form and represents one of the true tests of the composer's art. With four parts to play with, a composer working in anything like the classical key system has enough lines to fashion a full argument, but none to spare for padding; the related characters of the four instruments, while they cover in combination an ample compass of pitch, do not lend themselves to indulgence in purely colouristic effects. Thus, where the composer of symphonies commands the means for textural enrichment beyond the call of his harmonic discourse, where the concerto medium offers the further resource of personal characterization and drama in the individual-pitted-against-the-mass vein, the writer of string quartets must perforce concentrate on the bare bones of musical logic.
Thus, in many ways the string quartet is pre-eminently the dialectical form of instrumental music, the one most suited to the activity of logical disputation and philosophical enquiry. Quartet composition flourished in the Classical era, with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert following Haydn in each writing a number of quartets. A slight slackening in the pace of quartet composition occurred in the 19th century, in part due to a movement away from classical forms by composers such as Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss, it received a resurgence in the 20th Century with the Second Viennese School, Béla Bartók, Dmitri Shostakovich and Elliott Carter producing regarded examples of the genre. In the 21st century it remains an refined musical form; the standard structure for a string quartet as established in the Classical era is four movements, with the first movement in Sonata form, Allegro, in the tonic key. Some quartets play together for many years in ensembles which may be named after the first violinist, a composer or a location.
Some have fanciful names such as the JACK Quartet. Well-known string quartets can be found in the list of string quartet ensembles; the early history of the string quartet is in many ways the history of Haydn's journey with the genre. Not that he composed the first quartet of all: before Haydn alighted on the genre there had been several spasmodic examples of divertimenti for two solo violins and cello by Viennese composers such as Georg Christoph Wagenseil and Ignaz Holzbauer. David Wyn Jones cites the widespread practice of playing works written for string orchestra, such as divertimenti and serenades, with just four players, one to a part, there being no separate contrabass part in string scoring before the 19th century. However, these composers showed no interest in exploring the development of the string quartet as a medium; the origins of the string quartet can be further traced back to the Baroque trio sonata, in which two solo instruments performed with a continuo section consisting of a bass instrument and keyboard.
A early example is a four-part sonata for string ensemble by Gregorio Allegri that might be considered an important prototype. By the early 18th century, composers were adding a third soloist, thus when Alessandro Scarlatti wrote a set of six works entitled "Sonata à Quattro per due Violini, Violetta, e Violoncello senza Cembalo", this was a natural evolution from the existing tradition. The string quartet in its now accepted form came about with Haydn. If the combination of two violins and cello was not unknown before Haydn, when it occurred in chamber music it was more through circumstance than conscious design; the composition of Haydn's earliest string quartets owed more to chance than artistic imperative. During the 1750s, when the young composer was still working as a teacher and violinist in Vienna, he would be invited to spend time at the nearby castle at Weinzierl of the music-loving Austrian nobleman Karl Joseph Weber, Edler von Fürnberg. There he would play chamber music in an ad hoc ensemble consisting of Fürnberg's steward, a priest and a local cellist, when the Baron asked for some new music for the group to play, Haydn's first string quartets were born.
It is not clear whether any of these works ended up in the two sets published in the mid-1760s and known as Haydn's Opp.1 and 2, but it seems reasonable to assume that they were at least similar in character. Haydn's early biographer Georg August Griesinger tells the story thus: The following purely
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Jack Frost is a personification of frost, snow, sleet and freezing cold. He is a variant of Old Man Winter, held responsible for frosty weather, nipping the fingers and toes in such weather, coloring the foliage in autumn, leaving fern-like patterns on cold windows in winter. Starting in late 19th century literature, more developed characterizations of Jack Frost depict him as a sprite-like character, sometimes appearing as a sinister mischief-maker or as a hero. Jack Frost is traditionally said to leave the frosty, fern-like patterns on windows on cold winter mornings and nipping the extremities in cold weather. Over time, window frost has become far less prevalent in the modern world due to the advance of double-glazing, but Jack Frost remains a well-known figure in popular culture, he is sometimes described or depicted with paint brush and bucket coloring the autumnal foliage red, yellow and orange. Sometimes he is portrayed as a dangerous giant:The Hindus derive the name of Hindu Kush from the tradition that a giant used to lie there in wait to kill all the Hindus who passed that way.
This giant was the same whom we, in the Arctic Regions, used to call “Old Zero,” better known in England as “Jack Frost.” The horrors of the snow-covered wastes gave rise to the tradition." He may originate from Anglo-Saxon and Norse winter customs and has an entire chapter named after him in Kalevala, the Finnish national epic compiled from their ancient oral tradition. In Russia however, he has taken on a different form as Grandfather Frost, in Germany there is instead a different entity altogether known as Mrs. Holle. There are various other mythological beings who take on a similar role yet have different folklore to them. Jack Frost has appeared as a character in television and movies, he was mentioned in the wintertime song "The Christmas Song". He has been presented as a hero in others. Hannah Flagg Gould's poem "The Frost" features a mischievous being responsible for the quieter phenomena of winter, beautiful ice paintings on windows but who got upset at lack of gifts and caused the cold to break and ruin things.
In Margaret T. Canby's "Birdie and His Fairy Friends", there is a short story titled "The Frost Fairies." In this story, Jack Frost is the king of the Winter Spirits and is described as a kind fellow who wants to help children, whereas a king of a neighboring kingdom, King Winter, is cruel to them. The story tells the origins of how Jack Frost began to oversee the coloring of the leaves of the forest in fall. In 1891 Helen Keller made her own reproduction of the story, titled The Frost King. In Charles Sangster's "Little Jack Frost", published in The Aldine, Jack Frost is a playful being who runs around playing pranks and'nose-biting', coating places with snow before being chased off by Dame Nature for spring. In L. Frank Baum's The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, Jack Frost is the son of the otherwise unnamed Frost King, he takes pleasure in nipping "scores of noses and ears and toes", but Santa Claus, who likes Jack though he mistrusts him, asks him to spare the children. Jack says if he can resist the temptation.
The same Jack appears in "The Runaway Shadows", a short story by Baum. In this story, he has the power to freeze shadows, separating them from their owners, making them their own living entities. In Laurell K. Hamilton's Meredith Gentry series, a character emerges as the original Jack Frost. Jack Frost has appeared as a minor character in the Rupert Bear stories. In the Rainbow Magic books by Daisy Meadows, Jack Frost is an antagonist who wants to freeze Fairyland, he is accompanied by pesky goblins who steal fairies, try to sabotage them. Jack Frost appears in "First Death in Nova Scotia", a poem by Elizabeth Bishop. In the novel Hogfather by Terry Pratchett, Jack grows tired of "fern patterns" and paints more elaborate pictures on windows. Jack Frost appears in The Veil trilogy of novels by Christopher Golden; the Man Jack, an enigmatic assassin, calls himself Jack Frost in The Graveyard Book by Neil Gaiman. The Stranger, a picture book by Chris Van Allsburg, stars Jack Frost as a lonely stranger with amnesia.
Jack Frost is one of the co-stars of the 2002 novel Jill Chill and the Baron of Glacier Mountain, written by Ed McCray with artwork by George Broderick, Jr. Jack is portrayed as Jill Chill's boyfriend. Jack Frost, an automaton of one of the Ten Benchwarmers in the Unbreakable Machine-Doll light novel. William Joyce's Guardians of Childhood series features Jack Frost as a character, here known by the full name Jackson Overland Frost, he is the subject of the picture book The Guardians of Childhood: Jack Frost which depicts him as having been known as Nightlight, guardian of the Man in the Moon. Jack Frost will be the focus of the upcoming fifth Guardians novel, Jack Frost: The End Becomes the Beginning. Jack Frost features in Bear and the Nightingale by Katherine Arden In comic books, Jack Frost appears as a superhero in works published by Timely Comics in the 1940s. A man covered in ice, he is a member of the Liberty Legion. Marvel Comics had the first alias of the original Blizzard. In a Sunday edition of the Hi and Lois comic strip, father Hi, teen-aged son Chip, young son Ditto are driving to the garden center one Sunday afternoon in late autumn.
Ditto asks his father. "Well," says Hi, "there's a interesting story behind that..." However, Chip interrupts and gives Ditto the correct scientific explanation as to why leaves change color, which he learned i
Max Gawn is a professional Australian rules footballer playing for the Melbourne Football Club in the Australian Football League. A ruckman, 2.08 metres tall and weighing 109 kilograms, Gawn is capable of contributing in both the ruck and forward line. A basketballer and rugby union player at a young age, he pursued his career in Australian rules football and was drafted to the Melbourne Football Club with the thirty-fourth selection in the 2009 AFL draft, he made his AFL debut in the 2011 AFL season. Knee and hamstring injuries hampered his first four seasons in the AFL before he moved into the number one ruck position at Melbourne in 2015 along with All-Australian selection in 2016. Gawn is of New Zealand descent, he was born in Australia, but lived in Greymouth on the South Island of New Zealand at a young age before moving to Melbourne permanently as an infant. He played rugby union and basketball as a junior, although Australian rules football was his number one sport, he played his junior career with the Ormond Football Club.
In 2009, he played with the Sandringham Dragons in the TAC Cup and played the first three matches of the year before tearing his anterior cruciate ligament in the match against the Geelong Falcons at Skilled Stadium. He was selected in Victoria Metro's squad for the 2009 AFL Under 18 Championships, but missed the entire championships due to his knee injury. Gawn was recruited by the Melbourne Football Club with their fifth selection and thirty-fourth overall in the 2009 national draft. At the time of the draft, he was the second tallest player in the league at 208 cm, behind Aaron Sandilands at 211 cm. After undergoing surgery in 2009 to repair his ACL, he missed the majority of the 2010 season, he played a few matches at the end of the season for Melbourne's affiliate team, the Casey Scorpions, in the Victorian Football League development league. After strong performances in the VFL for Casey in the first half of 2011, he made his AFL debut in the thirty-three point win against Essendon at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in round eleven, where he played as a forward and recorded eight disposals, ten hitouts and two behinds.
For his debut match, he had the number 37 jumper presented to him by 1991 Brownlow Medallist, Australian football and Melbourne hall of famer, Jim Stynes, who wore the same guernsey number in his first season. He played in the next two matches before being omitted for the round fourteen match, he returned to the senior side for the seventy-six point loss against Carlton at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in round 20, but he was dropped the next week and managed four matches in his debut season. During the 2012 pre-season, Gawn suffered a knee injury, suspected as a meniscus tear in his right knee, but it was a tear in both his meniscus and ACL, which forced him to miss the entire 2012 season, he had a delayed start to the 2013 season when he suffered a hamstring injury during the pre-season and he was placed on the long-term injury list in January. He played his first match in eighteen months when he played for Casey in a VFL pre-season match in late March, he played his first AFL match for the season in round four where he kicked two final quarter goals to help Melbourne defeat Greater Western Sydney by forty-one points at the Melbourne Cricket Ground when they were down by three goals at three quarter time.
He played. He returned to the senior side for the three point win against the Western Bulldogs at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in round fourteen, he played seven of the remaining ten finished with thirteen in total. During the 2014 season, along with playing for Melbourne, Gawn returned to his junior club, the Ormond Football Club, to co-coach their division two team in the Victorian Amateur Football Association, he began a carpentry business called Max Jones & Co alongside then-Melbourne teammates, Matt Jones and Max King, producing tables. He played his first AFL match for the year in the seventeen point win against Richmond at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in round nine. In July, whilst playing for Casey in the VFL, he amassed eighty hitouts against Bendigo which broke the record for the most hitouts in a VFL match, he played in the final four AFL matches of the season finishing with nine in total. He suffered a knee injury in the final match of the year against North Melbourne at Etihad Stadium, although he avoided an ACL tear, he still required surgery for the third time on his right knee.
His season with the Casey Scorpions, in which he played eight matches, was rewarded with the Gardner Clark Medal for the club best and fairest and the Broadbridge Medal, awarded to the best Melbourne-listed player at Casey. At the end of the season he switched guernsey numbers from 37 to 11, the same numbers Melbourne hall of famer and former ruckman, Jim Stynes, wore during his career. Gawn played the first half of the 2015 season in the VFL for the Casey Scorpions, before playing his first senior match for the season in the twenty-five point loss against Collingwood at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in the annual Queen's Birthday clash in round ten. In his third match for the season, he helped Melbourne secure a twenty-four point win against Geelong at Simonds Stadium in round twelve, the club's first win in Geelong since 2006, where he recorded forty-four hitouts, nineteen disposals, eight marks, five tackles and a goal, he was praised for the match in which the media called it the best match of his career to that point, he earned the maximum three Brownlow votes for the matc