Richmond is a city in western Contra Costa County, United States. The city was incorporated on August 7,1905, under the McLaughlin Administration, Richmond was the largest city in the United States served by a Green Party mayor. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population is at 103,710. The largest, Virginia, is the namesake of the California city, the Ohlone Indians were the first inhabitants of the Richmond area, settling an estimated 5,000 years ago. The name Richmond appears to predate actual incorporation by more than fifty years, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad had its terminus at Richmond. The first post office opened in 1900, Richmond was founded and incorporated in 1905, carved out of Rancho San Pablo, from which the nearby town of San Pablo inherited its name. Until the enactment of prohibition in 1919, the city had the largest winery in the world, in the 1920s the Ku Klux Klan was active in the city. In 1930 the Ford Motor Company opened a plant called Richmond Assembly Plant which moved to Milpitas in the 1960s.
The old Ford plant has been a National Historic Place since 1988, the city was a small town at that time, until the onset of World War II which brought on a rush of migrants and a boom in the industrial sector. Standard Oil set up here in 1901, including a what is now the Chevron Richmond Refinery and tank farm. There is a pier into San Francisco Bay south of Point Molate for oil tankers, the western terminus of the Santa Fe Railroad was established in Richmond with ferry connections at Ferry Point in the Brickyard Cove area of Point Richmond to San Francisco. Many of these lived in specially constructed houses scattered throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, including Richmond, Berkeley. A specially built rail line, the Shipyard Railway, transported workers to the shipyards, kaisers Richmond shipyards built 747 Victory and Liberty ships for the war effort, more than any other site in the U. S. The city broke many records and even built one Liberty ship in a five days. On average the yards could build a ship in thirty days, the medical system established for the shipyard workers at the Richmond Field Hospital eventually became todays Kaiser Permanente HMO.
It remained in operation until 1993 when it was replaced by the modern Richmond Medical Center hospital, Point Richmond was originally the commercial hub of the city, but a new downtown arose in the center of the city. It was populated by many department stores such as Kress, J. C. Penney, Macys, during the war the population increased dramatically and peaked at around 120,000 by the end of the war. Once the war ended the workers were no longer needed
Interstate 80 in California
Interstate 80 is a major east–west route of the Interstate Highway System, running between the U. S. states of California and New York. The highway has its terminus in San Francisco. From there it heads east across the Bay Bridge to Oakland, I-80 traverses the Sierra Nevada, cresting at Donner Summit, before crossing into the state of Nevada within the Truckee River Canyon. The speed limit is at most 65 miles per hour along the route instead of the states maximum of 70 mph. I-80 has portions designated as the Eastshore Freeway and Alan S. Hart Freeway, throughout California, I-80 was built along the corridor of U. S. Route 40, eventually replacing this designation entirely. The prior US40 corridor itself was built along several historic corridors in California, notably the California Trail, the route has changed from the original plans in San Francisco due to freeway revolts canceling segments of the originally planned alignment. Similarly in Sacramento, the freeway was re-routed around the city plans to upgrade the original grandfathered route through the city to Interstate highway standards were cancelled.
I-80 is recognized as the Dwight D. Eisenhower Highway in the western United States, in California, it follows the original corridor of the Lincoln Highway from Sacramento to Reno. According to the California State Highway system, I-80 begins at its intersection with U. S. Route 101 in San Francisco, the Interstate designation is interpreted by some to actually beginning on the Bay Bridge approach itself, at the location of the Fremont Street off-ramp. Thus, the first 1.20 miles of the signed Interstate may not be officially an actual Interstate, the Eastshore Freeway is a segment of Interstates 80 and 580 along the northeast shoreline of San Francisco Bay in northern California. It begins at the Carquinez Bridge and ends at the MacArthur Maze interchange just east of the end of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Interstate 580 joins the Eastshore Freeway at an interchange known locally as the Hoffman Split in Albany. S, the Eastshore Highway began in El Cerrito at an intersection with San Pablo Avenue at Hill Street between Potrero Avenue and Cutting Blvd.
Adjacent to the location today of the El Cerrito Del Norte station of BART and it was not a freeway in that access was at intersections with adjoining streets rather than by ramps. The Eastshore Highway ran from El Cerrito to the Bay Bridge along the routing as todays freeway. A causeway was constructed for this purpose by filling in part of the mudflats along the bayshore, the frontage road along the east side of todays Eastshore Freeway between Buchanan Street in Albany and Hearst Avenue in Berkeley retains the name Eastshore Highway. The terminal segment of the old Eastshore Highway in El Cerrito between Potrero and San Pablo Avenues is today named Eastshore Boulevard, the name Eastshore Freeway was applied to what is today known as the Nimitz Freeway upon its construction in 1947. This freeway was dedicated in 1958 to Admiral Nimitz, and so for a few years in the 1950s prior, until the late 1960s, the Eastshore Freeway was designated as part of State Route 17 together with the Nimitz Freeway.
The Eastshore Freeway was officially renamed the Kent D. Pursel Memorial Freeway in 1968, but this name is hardly recognized as such by the public, and most maps still show the name Eastshore Freeway
Albany is a city in Alameda County, California. The population was 18,539 at the 2010 census, in 1908, a group of local women protested the dumping of Berkeley garbage in their community. Armed with two shotguns and a rifle, they confronted the drivers of the wagons near what is now the corner of San Pablo Avenue. The women told the drivers of the horse-drawn garbage wagons to go home, shortly thereafter, the residents of the town voted to incorporate as the City of Ocean View. In 1909, voters changed the name of the city, primarily to distinguish the city from the adjacent section of Berkeley which had previously been named Ocean View. On a vote of 38 to 6 the city was renamed in honor of Albany, New York, the birthplace of the citys first mayor, Frank Roberts. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 5.5 square miles. The principal shopping street in Albany is Solano Avenue, which cuts across the city from west to east, another important street is San Pablo Avenue, which travels from north to south.
Albany is located on the shore of San Francisco Bay, bordering the city of Berkeley to the south and east. Albanys northern and southern borders are defined by two creeks, Codornices Creek on the south and Cerrito Creek on the north, Cerrito Creek takes its name from El Cerrito de San Antonio, now known as Albany Hill. The hills unusual location near the bay makes it a prominent landmark in the East Bay. The rest of the city is flat by Bay Area standards. Albanys waterfront has undergone significant man-made changes, the most prominent landform is now the Albany Bulb, the bulb was the site of a small art colony and shanty town until it was cleared to turn the area into part of the new Eastshore State Park. University Village, a unit of the University of California Berkeley, is located in Albany. The 2010 United States Census reported that Albany had a population of 18,539, as of 2012, Albany had a population of 18,969. The population density was 3,392.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Albany was 10,128 White,645 African American,88 Native American,5,790 Asian,37 Pacific Islander,607 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,891 persons.
The Census reported that 18,454 people lived in households,74 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 341 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 123 same-sex married couples or partnerships
A landfill site is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal, some landfills are used for waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage and transfer, or processing of waste material. A landfill may refer to ground that has filled in with rocks instead of waste materials, so that it can be used for a specific purpose. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or soil liquefaction of the ground during a large earthquake, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network on their way to the tipping face or working front, where they unload their contents. After loads are deposited, compactors or bulldozers can spread and compact the waste on the working face, before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles may pass through a wheel-cleaning facility. If necessary, they return to the weighbridge for re-weighing without their load, the weighing process can assemble statistics on the daily incoming waste tonnage, which databases can retain for record keeping.
In addition to trucks, some landfills may have equipment to handle railroad containers, the use of rail-haul permits landfills to be located at more remote sites, without the problems associated with many truck trips. Typically, in the face, the compacted waste is covered with soil or alternative materials daily. Alternative waste-cover materials include chipped wood or other waste, several sprayed-on foam products, chemically fixed bio-solids. Blankets can be lifted into place at night and removed the day prior to waste placement. The space that is occupied daily by the waste and the cover material is called a daily cell. Waste compaction is critical to extending the life of the landfill, factors such as waste compressibility, waste-layer thickness and the number of passes of the compactor over the waste affect the waste densities. Landfills are often the most cost-efficient way to dispose of waste, in addition, landfill gas can be upgraded to natural gas—landfill gas utilization—which is a potential revenue stream.
Another advantage is having a location for disposal that can be monitored. Landfills have the potential to cause a number of issues, infrastructure disruption, such as damage to access roads by heavy vehicles, may occur. Pollution of local roads and water courses from wheels on vehicles when they leave the landfill can be significant, pollution of the local environment, such as contamination of groundwater or aquifers or soil contamination may occur, as well. Extensive efforts are made to capture and treat leachate from landfills before it reaches groundwater aquifers, every landfill liner will leak, allowing the leachate to contaminate the groundwater. Installation of composite liners with flexible membrane and soil barrier is enforced by the EPA to ensure that leachate is withheld, rotting food and other decaying organic waste allows methane and carbon dioxide to seep out of the ground and up into the air
Redwood Regional Park
Redwood Regional Park is a park of the East Bay Regional Parks District in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is located in the hills east of Oakland, the park contains the largest remaining natural stand of coast redwood found in the East Bay. The park is part of a belt of coast redwood extending south to Leona Canyon Regional Open Space Preserve. Redwood forests are commonly found closer to the coast where the air is cool. In the Bay Area, such forests are found in the Santa Cruz Mountains, the unique geographical circumstances of the redwood forest in Redwood Regional Park create coastal conditions. Winds funneled through the Golden Gate flow directly across the Bay and are channeled into the valley in which the Montclair District of Oakland is situated. This valley is well-watered all year round and is protected from extremes of temperature, up to the middle of the 19th century, the bulk of the redwood forest lay in the Redwood Creek valley, with extensions to the surrounding ridges. In 1826 British navy captain Frederick William Beechey used the Navigation Trees, logging from 1845 to 1860 wiped out the original trees, leaving only their stumps.
A second logging occurred after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, in this instance the second growth redwoods as well as the stumps from the first generation trees were logged, the site of which is registered as California Historical Landmark #962. The redwoods contained in todays park are third-growth trees, many of which are over 100 years old. Redwood Regional Park official web page Redwood Regional full trail map
Anthony Chabot Regional Park
Anthony Chabot Regional Park is a regional park in Oakland, California in the United States. It covers 5,067 acres in the San Leandro Hills adjacent to Oakland and it is part of the East Bay Regional Park District system. The terrain of the park is steep, consisting of grasslands, chaparral. The park is adjacent to Lake Chabot Regional Park, Redwood Regional Park, Dunsmuir Ridge Open Space, there are trails for hiking, horseback riding, and cycling that connect to other regional parks. Trailheads are located along Redwood Road and Skyline Boulevard in Oakland, the park houses two equestrian centers for private horse boarding and lessons, Chabot Equestrian Center and Skyline Ranch Equestrian Center. A marksmanship range was operated within the park by the non-profit Chabot Gun Club, the range closed in 2016, after operating 53 years, due to pollution problems caused by shell casings. Redwood Canyon Public Golf Course, a marina with rental boats, camping is a major activity in the park with a 75 campsite family campground and seven group camps.
Anthony Chabot Family Campground is open year-round and features 53 drive-to tent campsites,10 walk-to tent campsites, some campsites offer views overlooking Lake Chabot. The parks seven group campsites are for groups ranging in size from 11 to 300 campers, Bort Meadow Group Camp, with a capacity of 300, allows equestrian camping. Anthony Chabot Regional Park opened in 1952 as Grass Valley Regional Park, originally named for the dominant geographic feature of the part of the park. In 1965 the park was renamed in honor of Anthony Chabot, the lands that make up the park were originally ancestral land of the Jalquin, an Ohlone and Bay Miwok speaking tribe. The lands were divided by the Mexican land grants in the 1840s, the portion of the park to Rancho San Lorenzo. In the 1860s American settlers ranched the area including the 525-acre Grass Valley Ranch located in the area that is today Bort Meadow, cattle grazing continues in Grass Valley in modern times. Extensive coast redwood logging occurred in Anthony Chabot Regional Park and neighboring Redwood Regional Park from the late 1800s to early 1900s, while all the coast redwoods in Anthony Chabot Regional Park were logged, many regrowth trees are over 100 years old.
Various water companies, predecessors to the East Bay Municipal Utility District, beginning around 1910, the water companies were responsible for planting the large eucalyptus plantations that are still a dominant feature in the park. Some water company land was leased to ranchers in the 1900s, including the family of Manuel Maciel, the Maciel family, ranched the land in the area that is now the Anthony Chabot Family Campground and marksmanship range. The main access road to these facilities is named Marciel Road in the familys honor, in the area of Big Bear Staging Area along Redwood Road was the Big Bear Tavern. While no traces remain, this was the site began the traditional jazz revival
Hayward Regional Shoreline
Hayward Regional Shoreline is a regional park located on the shores of the San Francisco Bay in Hayward, California. It is part of the East Bay Regional Parks system, the 1,713 acre park extends to the shores of San Lorenzo. Part of the park is former commercial salt flats purchased in 1996, a former landfill, now capped with soil and plants, is located in the park. The park includes the 250 acre tidal wetland, Cogswell Marsh, located to the south of the park is the Hayward Shoreline Interpretive Center, which provides information on the Bay shore habitats. The San Francisco Bay Trail runs through the park, which connects the park with San Lorenzo Creek, Hayward Regional Shoreline official web page Hayward Regional Shoreline at the San Francisco Bay Trail Project website
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U. S. state of California. It is a body consisting of the lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members, and the upper house. New legislators convene each new session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers, respectively. Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round, the Democratic Party currently holds supermajorities in both chambers of the California Legislature. The state senate currently consists of 27 Democrats and 13 Republicans, except for the period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election. The Senate has been in Democratic hands continuously since 1970, the first Californian State House was originally a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre Don Pedro Sainsevain and his associates. The State Legislature currently meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento, members of the Assembly are elected from 80 districts and serve two-year terms.
Members of the Senate are elected from forty districts and serve four-year terms, twenty Senate seats are up for election at each two-year election cycle. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28 which allows legislators to serve a maximum of 12 years without regard to whether the years are served in the State Assembly or the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are briefly summarized in regularly published journals, which show votes, reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a video feed for its sessions. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly. As a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an acts preamble is extremely difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in one form or another, the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance. A bill is a proposal to change, repeal, or add to existing state law, an Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly, a Senate Bill, in the Senate. Bills are designated by number, in the order of introduction in each house, for example, AB16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly. The numbering starts afresh each session, there may be one or more extraordinary sessions
Point Isabel Regional Shoreline
It has easy access for pedestrians and via public transit, private vehicles, and bikes. It features a concession offering food for people and grooming for pets, a longtime community organization and nonprofit, Point Isabel Dog Owners and Friends, is active in the maintenance and improvement of the park. This 50-acre park was incorporated into the East Bay Regional Park District in 1975, the United States Postal Service operates a large bulk mail facility adjacent to what is now Point Isabel Regional Shoreline. As mitigation for the construction of this facility on the shoreline. The lease came with the condition of public access. Originally 23 acres, Point Isabel officially added North Point Isabel in 2002 when McLaughlin Eastshore State Park was created, North Point Isabel is across the narrow Hoffman Channel from Point Isabel and accessed via a short footbridge or from the Bay Trail. Both Point Isabel and North Point Isabel, like many parks along the East Bay shoreline, are landfill, for years North Point Isabel was a dumping ground for industrial waste—the Battery Point name referred to battery casings—and underwent an intensive cleanup and clay-capping operation in the 1980s.
Two of the toxins of concern in the area were lead, the fenced-off area just north of the public restrooms at the Rydin Road end of the park is dirt that was dug more recently when the restrooms were installed. The dirt pile tested positive for high levels of contaminants and was fenced off, the park is slated to undergo some trail and parking lot repaving in the second half of 2015. A few years ago it underwent some US $500,000 worth of improvements, including new irrigation systems and turf, fox tail removal, trail repavement, picnic sites. That was funded by a portion of US $225 million collected by Measure AA, at some point in the future there are plans to possibly expand the seating at Mudpuppys Tub and Scrub cafe. Park usage has increased exponentially from an estimated 500,000 human visitors in 2000 to more than 1,400,000 last year and it is used heavily by people walking dogs but by walkers, windsurfers, photographers and picnickers. Point Isabel regularly makes the list of the top best places in the U. S.
to walk dogs off-leash and it was named the number one dog park by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals in 2006. It is named for the promontory of Point Isabel, which was itself named for landowner Víctor Castros daughter Isabel. During the Gold Rush, the Castros operated a ferry from Point Isabel to send supplies from their ranch to San Francisco, for many years a pottery company, operated near where the water treatment plant is today. Shards of broken pottery are still found in the area. The remains of Laci Peterson washed up at Point Isabel in 2003, the park is located along the eastern shore of the San Francisco Bay in the East Bay region of the Bay Area and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. The park consists of two halves of roughly equal size—Point Isabel and North Point Isabel—separated by the narrow Hoffman Channel
Middle Harbor Shoreline Park
Middle Harbor Shoreline Park is located on San Francisco Bay and the Port of Oakland entrance channel, west of downtown Oakland, California It is operated by the East Bay Regional Parks District. The park is primarily on land that was the site of the Oakland Naval Supply Depot. The Naval Supply Depot closed in 1998 and the property was transferred to the Port of Oakland, the interlocking tower from the railroads pier has been moved and partially restored as a small commemorative museum. The land was redeveloped for the park from 2002 to 2004, redevelopment of the land included restoration of beaches and creation of a lagoon. The mast of the USS Oakland is displayed at the entrance of the park, East Bay Regional Parks District, official Middle Harbor Shoreline Park website Map, 37°48′21″N 122°19′27″W