Interstate 39 is a highway in the Midwestern United States. I-39 runs from Normal, Illinois at I-55 to Wisconsin Highway 29 in Rib Mountain, Wisconsin six miles southwest of Wausau. I-39 was designed to replace U. S. Route 51. I-39 was built in the 1990s. In Illinois, the route has a total length of 140.82 miles. In Wisconsin, I-39 has a distance of 182 miles. With the exception of an eight-mile segment around Portage, the Interstate shares a route with at least one other route number in I-39's entirety. From Rockford to Portage, I-39 is concurrent with I-90. I-94 joins the pair in Madison until Portage. At 29 miles in length, this concurrency of three Interstates is the longest in the country. From Portage northward, US 51 is co-signed with the Interstate and has exit numbers based on its mileage. In Illinois, I-39 begins at Interstate 55, north of the Bloomington-Normal, area alongside of Route 251, it runs north through rural areas from the city of Normal. About 55 miles north of the city, I-39 crosses the Illinois River over the Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, 2,170.8 metres long.
Just north of the Illinois River, I-39 runs east of the cities of LaSalle and Peru before intersecting Interstate 80. North of I-80, the wind turbines of the Mendota Hills Wind Farm can be seen from milepost 72 at Mendota north to near Paw Paw. I-39 intersects with I-88 near Rochelle. Further north, I-39 crosses the Kishwaukee River before meeting US 20 on the south side of Rockford. I-39 runs east concurrently with US 20 to where the interstate joins the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway and Interstate 90 near Cherry Valley. I-39 and I-90 head north together to South Beloit. There is a toll plaza just south of Rockton Road. US 51 leaves I-39 / 90 at Illinois 75 in South Beloit. For all but 1 mile that Interstate 39 is in Illinois, it is designated concurrently with U. S. Route 51; the southern terminus of I-39 is less than 1 mile from Interstate 74. I-39 enters from Illinois along with I-90, passing under Stateline Road, bypasses Beloit to the east. East of the town, the route has a cloverleaf interchange that serves as the terminus for both WIS 81—which heads westward into Beloit—and I-43, which provides access to Milwaukee.
I-39/I-90 has 3 interchanges that serves Beloit. The I-39/90 concurrency continues to the north and is joined by WIS 11 about 7 mi north of the I-43 interchange; the route bypasses Janesville to the east, although interchanges with US 14 and WIS 26 provide access to the town. There are 4 exits; the route continues to the north, crossing the Rock River before having an interchange with WIS 59 that provides access to Edgerton to the west. Subsequently, the route enters Dane County, it is joined by US 51 from Edgerton and serves as the southern terminus of WIS 73. US 51 leaves the route 4 mi to the north, about 7 mi east of Stoughton; the Interstate turns westward around Utica to an interchange with CTH N. It turns back to the north and interchanges with US 12 and US 18 in Madison. I-39 and I-90 bypass Madison to the east, I-94 joins the concurrency at the eastern terminus of WIS 30, an interchange known as the Badger Interchange. About 2 mi to the north, the highway crosses US 151, which includes a south-side access to High Crossing Boulevard.
The last two Madison area interchanges are US 51 three miles northwest of the US 151 interchange and WIS 19 another mile northwest of the US 51 interchange. Access is provided to CTH V just west of DeForest four miles further north. I-39/I-90/I-94 enter Columbia County four miles north-northwest of CTH V; the Interstates cross WIS 60 at an interchange three miles north of the county line west of Arlington and CTH CS at another interchange four miles further north near Poynette. The highway crosses the Wisconsin River four miles north of CTH CS. At three miles further along the route from the river, I-39 leaves the concurrency with I-90 and I-94 and turns northward while the other two interstates turn northwest. WIS 78 terminates at this interchange and heads southwest; this is the starting point of the segment of freeway. The interstate crosses WIS 33, the first of 3 interchanges accessing Portage, two miles north of I-90/I-94. After crossing the Wisconsin River again, I-39 crosses the second interchange—this one with WIS 16 and turns northeast to an interchange with US 51.
The US route joins the Interstate and both turn north once again and leave the Portage area and, after four miles, enter Marquette County. WIS 23 joins I-39/US 51 northbound, 4 miles from the county line; the three highways pass along Buffalo Lake and encounter a south-side half interchange with CTH D in the town of Packwaukee. WIS 23 leave the concurrency to the east heading toward Montello at WIS 82 near Oxford, and the freeway takes a due north route to pass Westfield. I-39/US 51 enters Waushara County six miles north of Westfield. Four miles north of the county line, I-39 / US 51 junction with WIS 21 in Coloma. I-39/US 51 meet an interchange in Hancock with CTH V five miles further north and WIS 73 crosses in Plainfield after another five miles; this is two miles south of the Portage County line. In Portage County, I-39/US 51 takes a straight due north trajectory which provides access to CTH D, CTH W and WIS 54 over twelve miles
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Interstate 74 is an Interstate Highway in the midwestern and southeastern United States. Its western end is at an interchange with Interstate 80 in Iowa; the major cities that I-74 connects to includes Iowa. I-74 exists as several disconnected sections of highways in North Carolina. In the state of Iowa, Interstate 74 runs south from Interstate 80 for 5.36 miles before crossing into Illinois on the Interstate 74 Bridge. North of the Mississippi River, I-74 bisects Davenport. In the state of Illinois, Interstate 74 runs south from Moline to Galesburg. I-74 continues southeast to the Champaign-Urbana area, intersecting with Interstate 57; the interstate runs east past Danville at the Illinois-Indiana state line. U. S. Route 150 parallels Interstate 74 in Illinois for its entire length, save the last few miles on the eastern end, where it parallels U. S. Route 136. In the state of Indiana, Interstate 74 runs east from the Illinois state line to the Crawfordsville area before turning southeast, it runs around the city center of Indianapolis along Interstate 465.
Once I-74 reaches the southeast side of Indianapolis it diverges from I-465 and continues to the southeast. It enters Ohio in Harrison, Ohio. In the state of Ohio, Interstate 74 runs southeast from the Indiana border to the western segment's current eastern terminus at Interstate 75 just north of downtown Cincinnati, it is signed with U. S. Route 52 for its entire length. While planned to continue through West Virginia and Virginia to the Interstate 74 section in North Carolina, the route remains unsigned or unbuilt past Cincinnati. At this point, I-74 would follow U. S. Route 52 east from Cincinnati and the current Interstate 74. In the state of North Carolina, as of the end of 2018 I-74 exists in several segments, starting with a concurrency with I-77 at the Virginia border; this includes the most western portion from Interstate 77 to US 52 just south of Mount Airy, a segment co-signed as US 311, first opened to traffic as a bypass of High Point bypass extended west to I-40 east of Winston-Salem and east to Interstate 73 near Randleman another along the southern segment of Interstate 73 and U.
S. Route 220 from just north of Asheboro to south of Ellerbe, a more eastern segment that runs from Laurinburg to an end at NC 41 near Lumberton; the latest segment to be signed, from I-40 to High Point, occurred after the federal government approved signing this section as I-74 in the summer of 2013, despite the highway not being up to current interstate standards. It was uncertain why the Federal Highway Administration made an exception, but this might have been the result of a misinterpretation when a state highway administrator asked for interstate designation for another section and "Future Interstate" for the section completed that did not meet standards; the 1991 plan to build Interstate 73 soon included an extension of I-74 from where it ended in Hamilton County to I-73 at Portsmouth, Ohio along Ohio State Route 32. In November 1991, the United States Congress passed the $151 billion Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act that included the I-73/74 North-South Corridor and made I-73 a priority and included an extension of I-74 from Hamilton County to I-73 at Portsmouth.
On August 31, 1992, the Ohio Turnpike Commission passed a resolution to study making the extension of I-74 a toll road. Congress had authorized paying for 80 percent of the cost, but the state would have to pay the remainder of the $56 million, it was estimated that improving US 52 to interstate standards in West Virginia would cost $2 billion. Still, by 1994, improvements to US 52 were planned, future plans called for I-73 to follow that route; the I-74 extension seemed more certain. The Ohio Turnpike Commission proposed that the extension run along Ohio State Route 32. Long-range plans call for I-74 to continue east and south of Cincinnati to North Carolina using OH 32 from Cincinnati to Piketon and the proposed I-73 from Portsmouth through West Virginia to I-77, it would follow I-77 through Virginia into North Carolina, where I-74 splits from Interstate 77 near the Virginia state line and runs eastward to northwest U. S. Route 52, which it will follow to Winston-Salem along U. S. Route 311 through High Point to I-73.
I-73 and I-74 overlap to Rockingham. In 1996 AASHTO approved the signing of highways as I-74 along its proposed path east of I-81 in Wytheville, where those highways meet Interstate Highway standards. North Carolina started putting up I-74 signs along its roadways in 1997; as of October 2009, Interstate 74 remains unbuilt in the state of West Virginia. WVDOT is upgrading the Tolsia Highway to four lanes, but not to Interstate Highway standards; as of December 2008, Interstate 74 is proposed to follow the path of Interstate 77 through the state of Virginia, but remains unsigned from the West Virginia border to the North Carolina border. Two sections of I-74 in North Carolina are under construction; these include building the first part of a bypass of Rockingham with Interstate 73 by reconstructing US 220 to interstate standards for 4 miles south of Ellerbe and is scheduled to be completed in 2018 and the first
Woodford County, Illinois
Woodford County is a county located in the state of Illinois. The 2010 United States Census listed its population at 38,664, its county seat is Eureka. Woodford County is part of IL, Metropolitan Statistical Area, its name comes from General William Woodford, an officer of the American Revolutionary War who served at the brutal military encampment at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. Woodford County is part of what was the homelands of several Native American peoples, including the Potawatomi, the Meskwaki, the Sauk peoples, it was located just south of the land of the Illiniwek. The western portion of the county in particular shows extensive archeological evidence of supporting extensive First Nations populations. At the time of the American Revolutionary War, three competing American colonies — Massachusetts and Connecticut — claimed part of what is today the state of Illinois; the matter was solved in 1778 when Virginia amalgamated lands in the region into a massive county called Illinois, borrowing the name of a native people.
Indiana Territory was formed in 1800 with William Henry Harrison as Governor. It was not until 1809 that Illinois Territory was formally established as an official territory of the United States of America. Statehood followed in December 1818; the first organized Anglo settlements in the future Woodford County region appeared in the 1820s. First settlement in the county came at Spring Bay, with pioneers managing to select the same ground occupied by an ancient Indian burial site which ran north-and-south through the entire settlement; the location was chosen due to its proximity to the Illinois River. In the 1870s, an early historian of Woodford County wrote: There were a few Indians in the county at the time of settlement by the whites, but the two races did not come into conflict to any extent; the advancing wave of civilization seemed to follow up the retreating wave of barbarism. The first settlers encountered a few Indians...and in 1832 were involved to some extent in the Black Hawk War, but the active operations were further north than Woodford County.
The current boundaries of the county were not those drawn. In 1827 new lines were drawn and Tazewell County was established, including all of today's Woodford County. Settlers began arriving from neighboring territories during the early 1830s; this led to the formal creation of Woodford County along its current boundaries in February 1841. The County was named for Woodford County, in turn named after General William Woodford, who served with General George Washington at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania during the brutal winter of 1777-78; the first post office in today's Woodford County was established in 1836 at Partridge township, named for local tribal leader Black Partridge. In 1836, the area's first school was founded, by Miss Betsy Page; the first public school followed shortly thereafter. The first Sunday school was established in 1837 in the home of Parker Morse in Cazenovia; the first settlers of Woodford County occupied crude log cabins. Windows were covered with oiled papers. Construction of the cabins was primitive, with the floor plan involving a single room heated with a fireplace.
Meat was roasted on a spit. A common staple of pioneer life was waffles, baked from batter in a folding iron mold three or four feet long. Modern canning processes were unknown and the wintertime larder consisted of bread and meat. Vegetables were consumed seasonally, with pumpkin, red peppers and venison dried for use. Clothing was made at home of linen made from homegrown flax. In addition, other heavier compound fabrics known as "linsey," made of linen or cotton with woolen filling, "jeans," made of an heavier material and dyed brown with walnut bark, were used. Prior to 1831 all preparation of wool had to be done by hand at home, with the raw fiber "carded" between pairs of thin, metal spiked boards about 4 inches wide and a foot long; the resulting rolls of wool were spun into thread upon a spinning wheel and thereby prepared for the loom. A sexual division of labor was practiced, with women engaged in home manufactures and food preparation while men were occupied with agriculture and construction.
Since a great percentage of the land of Woodford County was tillable, farming was the principal occupation of the early settlers. Plowing was by means of wooden plows with iron shares. Hay using wild rather than cultivated grass, was cut with a scythe and taken up with rakes and pitchforks. With the advent of timber milling in the area, frame houses became possible. Settlers cooperated in construction, helping one another raise barns; the latter could be 30 feet in length and width with walls 16 feet high. "It was heavy and dangerous work, the raising of a large barn required the united energies of a whole community," one settler recalled. Other buildings constructed included stables, corn-cribs and ash-hoppers. Plank fences began to appear in the 1850s. Governance by the early settlers was not by voice vote. By 1850, Woodford County was well settled. Illinois settlers were
Edgar McLean Stevenson Jr. was an American actor and comedian. He is best known for his role as Lt. Colonel Henry Blake in the television series M*A*S*H, which earned him a Golden Globe Award in 1974. Stevenson appeared on a number of television series, notably The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and The Doris Day Show. Stevenson was born in Illinois, he was the great-grandson of William Stevenson, making him a second cousin once removed of two-time presidential candidate Adlai E. Stevenson II, he was the brother of actress Ann Whitney. His father, was a cardiologist, their shared middle name, "McLean", came from Lottie McLean. Stevenson attended Lake Forest Academy and joined the United States Navy. After his service he attended Northwestern University, where he was a Phi Gamma Delta fraternity brother, graduated with a bachelor's degree in theater arts. Afterward he worked at a radio station, played a clown on a live TV show in Dallas, became an assistant athletic director at Northwestern, sold medical supplies and insurance.
He worked as a press secretary for his cousin in the presidential elections of 1952 and 1956. He formed the "Young Democrats for Stevenson". In 1961, Stevenson's cousin invited him to social functions, he followed his cousin's advice to look for a show business career. He won a scholarship to the American Musical and Dramatic Academy, he made his professional career debut in The Music Man in 1962 and appeared in Warsaw, Indiana, in summer stock productions. Before becoming a star, Stevenson appeared as a contestant on the Password television game show in New York City, winning five pieces of luggage. After this he appeared in New York City on stage, in television commercials, he performed on Broadway, began to establish himself as a comedy writer, writing for the seminal That Was The Week That Was—in which Alan Alda appeared—and The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, performing on both shows. He was a regular on the 1970 The Tim Conway Comedy Hour variety show on CBS. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, he appeared in TV commercials for products such as Kellogg's, Libby's fruit cocktail, Dolly Madison and Winston cigarettes, in which he was shown sprinting around a parking lot of Winston delivery trucks and painting over the product slogan, replacing the "like" in "like a cigarette should" with the grammatically correct "as".
After guest-starring in That Girl with Marlo Thomas, he was cast in The Doris Day Show in 1969, playing magazine editor boss Michael Nicholson until 1971. He auditioned for the role of Hawkeye Pierce in M*A*S*H, but was persuaded to play Lt. Col. Henry Blake instead; this role shot him to stardom. He wrote the episode "The Trial of Henry Blake", provided the story for another, "The Army-Navy Game", which earned him an Emmy nomination. Stevenson found his greatest success in M*A*S*H; the series became one of the most popular situation comedies of its time, was recognized as one of the top sitcoms in television history. Despite the show's success, Stevenson began to resent playing a supporting role to the wisecracking Hawkeye, asked to be released from his contract during the show's third season; the show's writers reluctantly penned him an exit in the final episode of the 1974–1975 season, in which Lt. Colonel Blake was discharged, only to board a plane, shot down over the Sea of Japan, killing everyone on board—a development added after scripts were distributed so the show's actors would display genuine emotion.
In an interview, M*A*S*H actor Loretta Swit commented that Stevenson wanted to be the star and felt oppressed as one of an ensemble of eight. She said that before Stevenson left the series he told her, "I know I will not be in anything as good as this show, but I have to leave and be number one." Although he had played ensemble parts for several years, he has stated that the primary reasons for his departure were systemic problems with 20th Century Fox disregard for simple comforts for cast and crew on location, the more lucrative opportunities presented to him at the time. Stevenson was replaced in the series by Harry Morgan, a friend of Stevenson who had guest-starred opposite him in the Season Three premiere episode "The General Flipped at Dawn". Morgan portrayed Colonel Sherman Potter for the show's remaining eight seasons and starred in its short-lived spin-off AfterMASH. Stevenson appeared as a guest panelist for several weeks on Match Game in 1973, again in 1978 on the daytime and nighttime weekly syndicated version.
In 1981, he became a regular panelist on the daily syndicated version of Match Game, staying with the show until its cancellation a year later. He would make occasional appearances on the subsequent Match Game-Hollywood Squares Hour in 1983 and 1984. After his departure from M*A*S*H, Stevenson's acting career began to decline, he starred in a series of sitcoms. They included The McLean Stevenson Show, In the Beginning, Hello and Condo. All four sitcoms were dismissed by audiences and lambasted by critics, all aired while M*A*S*H was still in production. Stevenson guest-starred as Stan Zbornak's brother Ted in the hit sitcom The Golden Girls in 1987, in addition to guest-starring in shows such as Square One TV, The Love Boat, Diff'rent Strokes, Hollywood Squares, he filled in for Johnny Carson as guest host of The Tonight Show 58 times, as a guest on the pr
Ford County, Illinois
Ford County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 United States Census, it had a population of 14,081, its county seat is Paxton. Ford County is part of the Champaign -- IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Ford County was formed February 17, 1859, it was the last of Illinois’s 102 counties to be formed, was created at the behest of some residents of Vermilion County, who complained to the General Assembly that they lived too far from the Iroquois County county seat. Ford County was named after Thomas Ford, the Governor of Illinois from 1842 to 1846. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 486 square miles, of which 486 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Paxton have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in January 1999 and a record high of 102 °F was recorded in June 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.40 inches in February to 4.38 inches in May.
Kankakee County – north Iroquois County – east Vermilion County – southeast Champaign County – south McLean County – southwest Livingston County – west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,081 people, 5,676 households, 3,798 families residing in the county. The population density was 29.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,282 housing units at an average density of 12.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.1% white, 0.6% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.6% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 35.7% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 13.6% were American, 10.4% were English. Of the 5,676 households, 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families, 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.95.
The median age was 42.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,667 and the median income for a family was $62,819. Males had a median income of $43,849 versus $30,136 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,401. About 5.4% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.3% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. Gibson City Paxton Clarence Guthrie Perdueville Stelle Ten Mile Grove Ford County is one of the state's most Republican counties. In 1912, the GOP was mortally divided and Progressive Theodore Roosevelt carried the county over the more conservative official nominee William Howard Taft. Since 1968 no Democratic presidential candidate has topped 36% of the county’s vote, since the county first formed only three Democrats – all in landslide national victories – have managed 40% of Ford County’s votes; the Libertarian Party has performed well enough in recent elections to gain "established party" status, making it easier for Libertarian candidates to appear on the ballot.
Ford is the only county in Illinois. President Gerald Ford visited Ford County on October 24, 1974, to mark the retirement of Congressman Leslie C. Arends of Melvin who served in Congress for 40 years, including over 30 years as Republican Minority Whip. National Register of Historic Places listings in Ford County, Illinois United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas History of Ford County - Information from Centurama Celebrating The First 100 Years of Ford County, Illinois 1859-1959
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art