National Museum of American History
Among the items on display is the original Star-Spangled Banner. The museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution and located on the National Mall at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW in Washington, the museum opened in 1964 as the Museum of History and Technology. It was one of the last structures designed by the architectural firm McKim Mead & White. In May 2012, John Gray was announced as the new director, the museum underwent an $85 million renovation from September 5,2006 to November 21,2008, during which time it was closed. Skidmore and Merrill provided the architecture and interior design services for the renovation, major changes made during the renovation include, A new, five-story sky-lit atrium, which is surrounded by displays of artifacts that showcase the breadth of the museums collection. A new, grand staircase that links the museums first and second floors, a new welcome center, and the addition of six landmark objects to orient visitors. New galleries, such as the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Hall of Invention, an environmentally controlled chamber to protect the original Star-Spangled Banner.
In 2012, the museum began a $37 million renovation of the west wing to add new spaces, public plazas. The renovation will include panoramic windows overlooking the National Mall on all three floors and new features to the exhibits. The first floor of the west wing reopened on July 1,2015 with the second and third floors of the west wing reopening in 2016 and 2017, each wing of the museums three exhibition floors is anchored by a landmark object to highlight the theme of that wing. These include the John Bull locomotive, the Greensboro, North Carolina lunch counter, landmarks from pre-existing exhibits include the 1865 Vassar Telescope, a George Washington Statue, a Red Cross ambulance, and a car from Disneylands Dumbo Flying Elephant ride. Artifact walls,275 feet of glass-fronted cases, line the first, the lower level of the museum displays Taking America to Lunch, which celebrates the history of American lunch boxes. The museums food court, the Stars and Stripes Café, the first floors East Wing has exhibits that feature transportation and technology, they include America on the Move and Lighting a Revolution.
The John Bull locomotive is the signature artifact, the exhibits in the West Wing address science and innovation. They include Science in American Life featuring Robots on the Road, spark. Lab is a hands-on exhibit of the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation. The Vassar Telescope is the signature artifact, a café and the main museum store are located on the first floor. The first floor contains the Constitution Avenue lobby, as well as a space for a temporary exhibit. The exhibitions in 2 East, the east wing of the floor, consider American ideals
Chicago History Museum
Chicago History Museum was founded in 1856 to study and interpret Chicagos history. It is located in Lincoln Park at 1601 North Clark Street at the intersection of North Avenue in the Old Town Triangle neighborhood and it was renamed the Chicago History Museum in September 2006. Much of the collection of the Chicago Historical Society was destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire in 1871, but like the city. Among its many documents which were lost in the fire was a copy of the Emancipation Proclamation, after the fire, the Society began collecting new materials, which were stored in a building owned by J. Young Scammon, a prominent lawyer and member of the society. However, the building and new collection were destroyed by fire in 1874. The Chicago Historical Society built a building on the site of its pre-1871 building at 632 North Dearborn Street. This impressively massive Richardsonian Romanesque building remained a nightclub for years until closing in 2014, in 1920, the Society purchased the large history collection of Charles F.
Gunther with the intention of changing its focus from only a research institution into a public museum. Many of the items in Gunthers collection, in addition to Chicago, were related to Abraham Lincoln and these include Lincolns deathbed and several furniture pieces from the room where he died in Petersen House and clothing he and wife Mary Todd Lincoln allegedly wore the evening of his assassination. In 2010 the museum was inducted into the Chicago Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame, after 36 years in the Henry Ives Cobb structure on North Dearborn Street, the museum and library moved to the current structure in Lincoln Park. The current home of the museum was designed by Graham, Probst & White and constructed in 1932 by the WPA, the 1932 Federal-style structure has been expanded twice. The first addition, clad in limestone, opened in 1972 and was designed by Alfred Shaw and Associates. The second addition, designed by Holabird and Root, was made in 1988, both expansions occurred on the west side of the 1932 structure, leaving intact its original porticoed entrance facing Lincoln Park.
The main entrance and reception hall, was moved to the new western addition facing Clark street, the 1988 extension, in addition to expanded exhibition galleries, contains the museums store and public cafe. The museum explores both Chicago and American history, exhibitions draw primarily on the museums own collection, which numbers approximately 22 million holdings. Chicago, Crossroads of America is a 16, 000-square-foot space that explores the development and its relationship to. Nearly 600 objects document the people and events of the past 200 years, facing Freedom focuses on eight American conflicts over freedom from the 1850s to the 1970s. The Abraham Lincoln alcoves highlight the sixteenth presidents election, his leadership during the Civil War, the adjoining Portrait Gallery features an installation on Chicago during the time of Lincoln. The Sensing Chicago exhibition invites children to use their senses to discover the past, the Lobby displays museum treasures, including a 1978 Chevrolet Monte Carlo lowrider
United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world. When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicators, major is one rank senior to that of an army captain and it is considered the most junior of the field officer ranks. Majors are typically assigned as specialised executive or operations officers for battalion-sized units of 300 to 1,200 soldiers, in some militaries, notably France and Ireland, the rank of major is referred to as commandant, while in others it is known as captain-major. The rank of major is used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures, such as the Pennsylvania State Police, New York State Police, New Jersey State Police. As a police rank, major roughly corresponds to the UK rank of superintendent, the term major can be used with a hyphen to denote the leader of a military band such as in pipe-major or drum-major. Historically, the rank designation develops in English in the 1640s, taken from French majeur, in turn a shortening of sergent-majeur, which at the time designated a higher rank than at present
Appomattox County, Virginia
Appomattox County is a United States county located in the Piedmont region and near the center of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The county is part of the Lynchburg, VA Metropolitan Statistical Area, Appomattox County was created in 1845 from sections of four other Virginia counties. The name of the county comes from the Appomattox River, which rises in the county, the county is historically associated with the surrender of Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House, which effectively ended the American Civil War. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,973 and this was an increase of more than 9 percent from the 13,705 reported in the 2000 census. Appomattox County was formed in 1845 from Buckingham, Prince Edward, Campbell, in 1848, another part from Campbell County was added. It was named for the Appomattox River, which in turn was named for the Appamatuck, the surrender of Lee, which effectively ended the American Civil War, took place at the McLean House, home of Wilmer McLean. According to the U. S.
Census Bureau, the county has an area of 335 square miles. The population density is 41 people per square mile, there are 5,828 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county is 75. 94% White,22. 91% Black or African American,0. 13% Native American,0. 17% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 26% from other races, and 0. 56% from two or more races. 0. 47% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race,21. 30% of all households are made up of individuals and 10. 00% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.55 and the family size is 2.94. In the county, the population is out with 24. 70% under the age of 18,7. 10% from 18 to 24,27. 80% from 25 to 44,25. 60% from 45 to 64. The median age is 39 years, for every 100 females there are 94.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 91.10 males, the median income for a household in the county is $36,507, and the median income for a family is $41,563.
Males have an income of $31,428 versus $21,367 for females. The per capita income for the county is $18,086,11. 40% of the population and 8. 70% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the population,14. 10% of those under the age of 18 and 21. 50% of those 65. Matt Farris in the Virginia House of Delegates, and Republican Tom Garrett in the U. S. House of Representatives
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States. As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War and he implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with President Andrew Johnson. His presidency has often criticized for tolerating corruption and for the severe economic depression in his second term. Grant graduated in 1843 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, after the war he married Julia Boggs Dent in 1848, their marriage producing four children. Grant initially retired from the Army in 1854 and he struggled financially in civilian life. When the Civil War began in 1861, he rejoined the U. S. Army, in 1862, Grant took control of Kentucky and most of Tennessee, and led Union forces to victory in the Battle of Shiloh, earning a reputation as an aggressive commander. He incorporated displaced African American slaves into the Union war effort, in July 1863, after a series of coordinated battles, Grant defeated Confederate armies and seized Vicksburg, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River and dividing the Confederacy in two.
After his victories in the Chattanooga Campaign, Lincoln promoted him to lieutenant general, Grant confronted Robert E. Lee in a series of bloody battles, trapping Lees army in their defense of Richmond. Grant coordinated a series of devastating campaigns in other theaters, as well, in April 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, effectively ending the war. Historians have hailed Grants military genius, and his strategies are featured in history textbooks. After the Civil War, Grant led the armys supervision of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states and he used the army to build the Republican Party in the South. After the disenfranchisement of some former Confederates, Republicans gained majorities, in his second term, the Republican coalitions in the South splintered and were defeated one by one as redeemers regained control using coercion and violence. In May 1875, Grant authorized his Secretary of Treasury Benjamin Bristow to shut down and his peace policy with the Indians initially reduced frontier violence, but is best known for the Great Sioux War of 1876.
Grant responded to charges of corruption in executive offices more than any other 19th Century president and he appointed the first Civil Service Commission and signed legislation ending the corrupt moiety system. In foreign policy, Grant sought to trade and influence while remaining at peace with the world. His administration successfully resolved the Alabama claims by the Treaty of Washington with Great Britain, Grant avoided war with Spain over the Virginius Affair, but Congress rejected his attempted annexation of the Dominican Republic. His administration implemented a standard and sought to strengthen the dollar. Grant left office in 1877 and embarked on a two-year diplomatic world tour that captured the nations attention, in 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term
World's Columbian Exposition
The Worlds Columbian Exposition was a worlds fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the New World in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago bested New York City, Washington, D. C. the Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture, the arts, Chicagos self-image, and American industrial optimism. The layout of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in part, designed by John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted. It was the prototype of what Burnham and his colleagues thought a city should be and it was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry and splendor. The color of the generally used to cover the buildings facades gave the fairgrounds its nickname. Many prominent architects designed its 14 great buildings and musicians were featured in exhibits and many made depictions and works of art inspired by the exposition.
The exposition covered more than 600 acres, featuring nearly 200 new buildings of predominantly neoclassical architecture and lagoons, more than 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month run. Dedication ceremonies for the fair were held on October 21,1892, the fair continued until October 30,1893. On October 9,1893, the day designated as Chicago Day, the debt for the fair was soon paid off with a check for $1.5 million. Chicago has commemorated the fair one of the stars on its municipal flag. Schwab, Chicago railroad and manufacturing magnate John Whitfield Bunn, and Connecticut banking, the fair was planned in the early 1890s during the Gilded Age of rapid industrial growth and class tension. Worlds fairs, such as Londons 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition, had been successful in Europe as a way to bring together societies fragmented along class lines, the first American attempt at a worlds fair in Philadelphia in 1876, drew crowds but was a financial failure. Nonetheless, ideas about distinguishing the 400th anniversary of Columbus landing started in the late 1880s.
Civic leaders in St. Louis, New York City, Washington DC and Chicago expressed an interest in hosting a fair to generate profits, boost real estate values, Congress was called on to decide the location. What finally persuaded Congress was Chicago banker Lyman Gage, who raised several million dollars in a 24-hour period, over. The exposition corporation and national exposition commission settled on Jackson Park, Daniel H. Burnham was selected as director of works, and George R. Davis as director-general. Burnham emphasized architecture and sculpture as central to the fair and assembled the periods top talent to design the buildings, the temporary buildings were designed in an ornate Neoclassical style and painted white, resulting in the fair site being referred to as the “White City”
Prince William County, Virginia
Prince William County is a county on the Potomac River in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 402,002, on 1 July 2015 and its county seat is the independent city of Manassas. A part of Northern Virginia, Prince William County is part of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, in 2012 it had the seventh highest income of any county in the United States. It was Virginias first majority-minority county, with Caucasian, Hispanic and, when John Smith and other English explorers ventured to the upper Potomac River beginning in 1608, they recorded the name of a village the Doeg inhabited as Pemacocack. It was located on the west bank of the Potomac River about 30 miles south of present-day Alexandria, unable to deal with European diseases and firepower, the Doeg had abandoned their villages in the area by 1700. The county was named for Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, in 1790 the population of the county was 58% white, most of the remainder was black and enslaved.
The county had been an area of plantations, where crops were being changed to mixed crops due to soil exhaustion. In the first two decades after the Revolution, the number and percentage of blacks increased in Virginia as some whites freed their slaves. Most free people of color in the state were descended from unions between white women and African-American men, indentured servant or free. Under colonial law since 1662, children took the status of their mother, so children born to women were free. The county was rural and agricultural for decades, the population into the early 20th century was centered in two areas, one at Manassas, the other near Occoquan and Woodbridge along the Potomac River. Beginning in the late 1930s, a suburban population was attracted to new housing that was developed near the existing population centers. By 2000, this was the third-most populous local jurisdiction in Virginia, from 2000 to 2010, the population increased by 43. 2%. This was the first county in Virginia to be minority-majority, the new majority is composed of Hispanic, African American, in 2012 it was the seventh-wealthiest county in the country.
The estimated population of 2014 is more than 437,000, the Marine Corps Heritage Museum and the Hylton Performing Arts Center opened in the 21st century. The American Wartime Museum is to be located in this county, during the commemoration of the Sesquicentennial of the Civil War, re-enactment of the famous First and Second Battles of Manassas was planned. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 348 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Loudoun and Fairfax Counties, on the west by Fauquier County, on the south by Stafford County, the magisterial districts each elect one supervisor to the Board of Supervisors which governs Prince William County
Clover Hill Tavern
The Clover Hill Tavern with its guest house and slave quarters are structures within the Appomattox Court House National Historical Park. They were registered in the National Park Services database of Official Structures on June 26,1989 and it became a popular stopping point for the stagecoach. The Clover Hill Tavern inn grew and farmhouses grew up around it soon after it opened and it was built by Alexander Patteson and his brother Lilburne Patteson as a stagecoach stop for the line between Cumberland County and Lynchburg. The Patteson brothers formed a partnership in 1809 to develop a line between Richmond and Lynchburg. They purchased the acreage of Clover Hill in 1814, which was about half way between these towns. The land came with a small frame dwelling which they used as the headquarters for their stagecoach business. There was much optimism after the War of 1812, the brothers made considerable money since there was a good economic boom starting in 1815. Clover Hill developed into a commercial village with many people passing through into the frontier states, such as Kentucky, Tennessee.
In 1819 Alexander built a 2 1⁄2-story, four-bay structure as his residence for his large family. This served as a tavern, Patteson built a three-story tavern guest house to go with the tavern. The residence became the Clover Hill Tavern with the guest house converted into a dining room. The tavern was the residence of Captain John Raine and his wife Eliza in the 1840s, in 1839 the Raines purchased half interest in the tavern and the accompanying 206 acres for $1,525 from the estate of Alexander Patteson, who died in 1836. In 1840 they purchased the half interest of the property for the same price from the estate of Lilburne Patteson. The stagecoach was stopping twice every day at the tavern during the week, in spite of this, through poor management of running the tavern business, he ultimately had to sell the property to his brother Hugh in 1842 for the balance of the overdue notes on the property. The 1840 U. S. Census of Prince Edward County shows the Raine family consisted of 10 children,7 boys and 3 girls.
In 1845, when Appomattox County was established, a post office was formed, the village of Clover Hill changed its name to Appomattox Court House. In 1846, Samuel D. McDearmon bought the Clover Hill Tavern, the village had approximately 150 people throughout the 1850s. In 1865 on Palm Sunday, the approaching end of the Civil War changed the prosperity of the Clover Hill Tavern with the surrender of General Robert E. Lee to General Ulysses S. Grant
Niagara Falls, New York
Niagara Falls is a city in Niagara County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 50,193. It is adjacent to the Niagara River, across from the city of Niagara Falls, the city is within the Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Western New York region. While the city was occupied by Native Americans, Europeans who migrated to the Niagara Falls in the mid-17th century began to open businesses. After the 1960s, the city and region witnessed an economic decline consistent with the rest of the Rust Belt as industries left the city, globalization has played a large role in the decline of manufacturing in the city. Despite the decline in industry, Niagara Falls State Park. The population, has continued to decline from a peak of 102,394 in the 1960s due to the loss of manufacturing jobs in the area, before Europeans entered the area, it was dominated by the Neutral Nation of Native Americans. European migration into the area began in the 17th century, the first recorded European to visit the area was Frenchman Robert de la Salle, accompanied by Belgian priest Louis Hennepin, who was the first known European to see the falls.
The influx of newcomers may have been a catalyst for already hostile native tribes to turn to warfare in competition for the fur trade. The City of Niagara Falls was incorporated on March 17,1892 from the villages of Manchester and Suspension Bridge, thomas Vincent Welch, a member of the charter committee and a New York state assemblyman and a second-generation Irishman, persuaded Governor Roswell P. Flower to sign the bill on St. Patricks Day, george W. Wright was elected the first mayor of Niagara Falls. By the end of the 19th century, the city was an industrial area. In 1927, the city annexed the village of La Salle from the Town of Niagara, the village was named for the French explorer Robert de la Salle. who built his ship, the Griffon, on the shores of the Niagara River five miles east. Industry and tourism grew steadily throughout the first half of the 20th century due to a demand for industrial products. Paper, plastics, carbon insulators and abrasives were among the major industries. This prosperity would end by the late 1960s as aging industrial plants moved to less expensive locations, in addition, the falls were incompatible with modern shipping technology.
In 1956, the Schoellkopf Power Plant on the river just downstream of the American Falls was critically damaged due to a massive collapse of the Niagara Gorge wall above it. This prompted the planning and construction of one of the largest hydroelectric plants to be built in North America at that time, causing an influx of workers