Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix was a German painter and printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of German society during the Weimar Republic and the brutality of war. Along with George Grosz, he is considered one of the most important artists of the Neue Sachlichkeit. Otto Dix was born in Untermhaus, now a part of the city of Gera, Thuringia; the eldest son of Franz Dix, an iron foundry worker, Louise, a seamstress who had written poetry in her youth, he was exposed to art from an early age. The hours he spent in the studio of his cousin, Fritz Amann, a painter, were decisive in forming young Otto's ambition to be an artist. Between 1906 and 1910, he served an apprenticeship with painter Carl Senff, began painting his first landscapes. In 1910, he entered the Kunstgewerbeschule in Dresden, now the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts, where Richard Guhr was among his teachers. At that time the school was not a school for the fine arts but rather an academy that concentrated on applied arts and crafts.
The majority of Dix’s early works concentrated on landscapes and portraits which were done in a stylized realism that shifted to expressionism. When the First World War erupted, Dix enthusiastically volunteered for the German Army, he was assigned to a field artillery regiment in Dresden. In the autumn of 1915 he was assigned as a non-commissioned officer of a machine-gun unit on the Western front and took part in the Battle of the Somme. In November 1917, his unit was transferred to the Eastern front until the end of hostilities with Russia, in February 1918 he was stationed in Flanders. Back on the western front, he fought in the German Spring Offensive, he reached the rank of vizefeldwebel. In August of that year he was wounded in the neck, shortly after he took pilot training lessons, he took part in a Fliegerabwehr-Kurs in Tongern, was promoted to Vizefeldwebel and after passing the medical tests transferred to Aviation Replacement Unit Schneidemühl in Posen. He was home for Christmas. Dix was profoundly affected by the sights of the war, described a recurring nightmare in which he crawled through destroyed houses.
He represented his traumatic experiences in many subsequent works, including a portfolio of fifty etchings called Der Krieg, published in 1924. Subsequently, he referred again to the war in The War Triptych, painted from 1929-1932. At the end of 1918 Dix returned to Gera, but the next year he moved to Dresden, where he studied at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, he became a founder of the Dresden Secession group in 1919, during a period when his work was passing through an expressionist phase. In 1920, he met George Grosz and, influenced by Dada, began incorporating collage elements into his works, some of which he exhibited in the first Dada Fair in Berlin, he participated in the German Expressionists exhibition in Darmstadt that year. In 1924, he joined the Berlin Secession, his 1923 painting The Trench, which depicted dismembered and decomposed bodies of soldiers after a battle, caused such a furore that the Wallraf-Richartz Museum hid the painting behind a curtain. In 1925 the then-mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer, cancelled the purchase of the painting and forced the director of the museum to resign.
Dix was a contributor to the Neue Sachlichkeit exhibition in Mannheim in 1925, which featured works by George Grosz, Max Beckmann, Heinrich Maria Davringhausen, Karl Hubbuch, Rudolf Schlichter, Georg Scholz and many others. Dix's work, like that of Grosz—his friend and fellow veteran—was critical of contemporary German society and dwelled on the act of Lustmord, or sexualized murder, he drew attention to the bleaker side of life, unsparingly depicting prostitution, old age and death. In one of his few statements, published in 1927, Dix declared, "The object is primary and the form is shaped by the object."Among his most famous paintings are Sailor and Girl, used as the cover of Philip Roth's 1995 novel Sabbath's Theater, the triptych Metropolis, a scornful portrayal of depraved actions of Germany's Weimar Republic, where nonstop revelry was a way to deal with the wartime defeat and financial catastrophe, the startling Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden. His depictions of legless and disfigured veterans—a common sight on Berlin's streets in the 1920s—unveil the ugly side of war and illustrate their forgotten status within contemporary German society, a concept developed in Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front.
When the Nazis came to power in Germany, they regarded Dix as a degenerate artist and had him sacked from his post as an art teacher at the Dresden Academy. He moved to Lake Constance in the southwest of Germany. Dix's paintings The Trench and War Cripples were exhibited in the state-sponsored Munich 1937 exhibition of degenerate art, Entartete Kunst. War Cripples was burned; the Trench was long thought to have been destroyed too, but there are indications the work survived until at least 1940. Its whereabouts are unknown, it may have been looted during the confusion at the end of the war. It has been called'perhaps the most famous picture in post-war Europe... a masterpiece of unspeakable horror. Dix, like all other practising artists, was forced to join the Nazi government's Reich Chamber of Fine Arts, a subdivision of Goeb
Willem Claesz. Heda
Willem Claeszoon Heda was a Dutch Golden Age artist from the city of Haarlem devoted to the painting of still lifes. He is known for his innovation of the late breakfast genre of still life painting. Heda was born in the son of the Haarlem city architect Claes Pietersz, his mother Anna Claesdr was a member of the Heda family. His uncle was the painter Cornelis Claesz Heda. Heda's early life is all but unknown, with no surviving pieces dated to that period. Judging from his date of birth, scholars have speculated that Heda began painting around 1615, his earliest known work was a Vanitas which fit the monochromatic and skillful texturing of his pieces, but portrayed a subject matter distinct from the depictions of more sumptuous objects in his years. This Vanitas, the two other breakfast pieces by Heda in the 1620s were known for their clear deviation with earlier breakfast-pieces; the objects in these works demonstrate greater special effect and maintain a sense of balance for the viewer despite the uneven and diagonal grouping of objects.
Additionally, these works adopted the monochromatic style contrary to early breakfast-pieces. Heda's skill was recognized early on in his career by other notable figures in Haarlem, such as Samuel Ampzing, a Dutch minister and poet from Haarlem, who captured the city in poetry. Heda won enough local fame in his own day for Ampzing to praise him in the same breath with Salomon de Bray and Pieter Claesz in his 1628 Beschryvinge ende lof der stad Haerlem in Holland. " ha to praise Heda with the banquet pieces of Solomon de bray and Pieter Claesz, their skill deserves to be mentioned in his poem."Following his support from Samuel Ampzing, Heda became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke; as evidenced by his signing of a new charter to regularize the affairs of the guild on May 22, 1631, Heda was an active member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke. Following his formative pieces of the 1620s, Heda reached his artistic maturity in the 1630s with pieces such as his 1631 still-life and those of the ‘1639 group’ sold to Vienna in the 1930s.
These pieces contain draped fabric and assortments of fine glass and metal wares in addition to orderly-presented foodstuffs. This set of paintings is characterized by a sublime simplicity and order that few artists of his genre obtained, his coloration and illustration of light in the pieces, combined with fine additive brush strokes, results in an unbelievable level of realism. Heda's style continued to progress with his pieces of the 1640s developing a great simplicity founded upon a “firm construction built up on broad lines.” In this time, he began to incorporate the crinkled napkin and knocked-over vases to his set of objects. This new set of objects presented a challenge to the artist to maintain cohesion and order in a disordered environment. Though remnants of his more intimate pieces remained in this period, Heda began to add more objects to his works, experimenting with modified compositional styles; the 1650s saw the introduction of a wider color-scheme. This change brought more fruit and curled leaves to his works, which combined with the crinkled napkins of the previous decade, resulted in a less firm character.
Heda's final years saw the artist begin the transition from the late breakfast still-life paintings he helped create, to the pronk, or display, still-life pieces of Willem Kalf in Amsterdam. His last known works were painted in 1664 and 1665, contained the warmer pallette of browns associated with Kalf's pieces. Though he lived until the 1680s, Heda's last known paintings were created in the 1660s. Heda died in Haarlem in 1680 or 1682. Willem was a contemporary and comrade of Dirck Hals, akin to him in pictorial touch and technical execution, but Heda was more careful and finished than Hals, showing considerable skill and taste in the arrangement and colouring of his chased cups and tankards of both precious and inferior metals. Heda was associated with the Haarlem artist and fellow still life painter, Floris van Dyck. In his work, the Dutch poet Theodorus Schrevelius acknowledged exceptional skill at his genre of painting. Heda and his contemporary and fellow still life painter, Floris van Dyck, were “held in high esteem by the community as the best at painting their genre.”As a painter of "ontbijt" or breakfast pieces, he is compared to his contemporary Pieter Claesz.
One of Heda's early masterpieces, dated 1623 and in Alte Pinakothek, Munich, is as homely as a one of 1651 in the Liechtenstein Gallery at Vienna. A more luxurious repast is a "Luncheon" in the Augsburg Gallery, dated 1644. Willem Claesz Heda's skill was recognized in his own time by Samuel Ampzing, the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke, Theodorus Schrevelius. Though Heda would not be included in Het schilder-boeck of Karel van Mander, as its 1604 publishing fell before his rise to prominence, it would be expected that he would be included in the work of the next great Dutch art biographer Arnold Houbraken. Houbraken mentioned Heda in the third volume of his work based on the biography by Schrevelius. Houbraken's paltry inclusion of Heda in his Groote Schouburgh was due to nothing more than the lack of information about the artist. Houbraken's antiquarian approach to artists’ biographies meant that he published all of the information he had on each individual, had he seen one of Heda's pieces, he would have written more.
Houbraken's scant mention of Heda was reflected in the works of his followers, Johan van Gool and Jacob Campo Weyerman. Neither of these individuals included Heda in their respective books. A
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
David Garshen Bomberg was a British painter, one of the Whitechapel Boys. Bomberg was one of the most audacious of the exceptional generation of artists who studied at the Slade School of Art under Henry Tonks, which included Mark Gertler, Stanley Spencer, C. R. W. Nevinson and Dora Carrington. Bomberg painted a series of complex geometric compositions combining the influences of cubism and futurism in the years preceding World War I, he was expelled from the Slade School of Art in 1913, with agreement between the senior teachers Tonks, Frederick Brown and Philip Wilson Steer, because of the audacity of his breach from the conventional approach of that time. Whether because his faith in the machine age had been shattered by his experiences as a private soldier in the trenches or because of the pervasive retrogressive attitude towards modernism in Britain Bomberg moved to a more figurative style in the 1920s and his work became dominated by portraits and landscapes drawn from nature. Developing a more expressionist technique, he travelled through the Middle East and Europe.
From 1945 to 1953, he worked as a teacher at Borough Polytechnic in London, where his pupils included Frank Auerbach, Leon Kossoff, Philip Holmes, Cliff Holden, Edna Mann, Dorothy Mead, Gustav Metzger, Dennis Creffield, Cecil Bailey and Miles Richmond. David Bomberg House, one of the student halls of residences at London South Bank University, is named in his honour, he was married to landscape painter Lilian Holt. Bomberg was born in the Lee Bank area of Birmingham on 5 December 1890, he was the seventh of eleven children of a Polish Jewish immigrant leatherworker and his wife Rebecca. He supported David's painting ambitions. In 1895, his family moved to Whitechapel in the East End of London where he was to spend the rest of his childhood. After studying art at City and Guilds, Bomberg returned to Birmingham to train as a lithographer but quit to study under Walter Sickert at Westminster School of Art from 1908 to 1910. Sickert's emphasis on the study of form and the representation of the "gross material facts" of urban life were an important early influence on Bomberg, alongside Roger Fry's 1910 exhibition Manet and the Post-Impressionists, where he first saw the work of Paul Cézanne.
Bomberg's artistic studies had involved considerable financial hardship but in 1911, with the help of John Singer Sargent and the Jewish Education Aid Society, he was able to attain a place at the Slade School of Art. At Slade School of Fine Art Bomberg was one of the remarkable generation of artists described today as the school's "crisis of brilliance" that studied under Henry Tonks and included Stanley Spencer, Paul Nash, Ben Nicholson, Mark Gertler and Isaac Rosenberg. Bomberg and Rosenberg, from similar backgrounds, had met some years earlier and became close friends as a result of their mutual interests; the emphasis in teaching at the Slade was on technique and draughtsmanship, to which Bomberg was well suited — winning the Tonks Prize for his drawing of fellow student Rosenberg in 1911. His own style was moving away from these traditional methods, however under the influence of the March 1912 London exhibition of Italian Futurists that exposed him to the dynamic abstraction of Francis Picabia and Gino Severini, Fry's second Post Impressionist exhibition in October of the same year, which displayed the works of Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse and the Fauvists alongside those of Wyndham Lewis, Duncan Grant and Vanessa Bell.
Bomberg's response to this became clear in paintings such as Vision of Ezekiel, in which he proved "he could absorb the most experimental European ideas, fuse these with Jewish influences and come up with a robust alternative of his own." His dynamic, angular representations of the human form, combining the geometrical abstraction of cubism with the energy of the Futurists, established his reputation as a forceful member of the avant-garde and the most audacious of his contemporaries. In 1913, the year in which he was expelled from the Slade because of the radicalism of his approach, he travelled to France with Jacob Epstein, where among others he met Amedeo Modigliani, André Derain and Pablo Picasso. Expelled from the Slade in the Summer of 1913, Bomberg formed a series of loose affiliations with several groups involved with the contemporary English avant-garde, embarking on a brief and acrimonious association with the Bloomsbury Group's Omega Workshops before exhibiting with the Camden Town Group in December 1913.
His enthusiasm for the dynamism and aesthetics of the machine age gave him a natural affinity with Wyndham Lewis's emerging vorticist movement, five of his works featured in the founding exhibition of the London Group in 1914. Still, Bomberg was staunchly independent and despite Lewis' attempts he never joined Vorticism. In July 1914 he refused involvement with the Vorticist literary magazine BLAST and in June of the following year his work featured only in the "Invited to show" section of the vorticist exhibition at London's Dore Gallery. 1914 saw the highpoint of his early career — a solo exhibition at the Chenil Gallery in Chelsea which attracted positive reviews from Roger Fry and T. E. Hulme and attracted favourable attention from experimental artists nationally and internationally; the exhibition featured several of Bomberg's early masterpieces, most notably The Mud Bath, hung on an outside wall surrounded by
Mary Beale was one of the most successful professional female Baroque-era portrait painters of the late 17th century due to her perseverance of her business. Praised by Richard Gibson and court painter Peter Lely, she is considered as successful as Joan Carlile. Joan Carlile was an English portrait painter, one of the first women to practise painting professionally. Mary Beale managed to be the financial provider for her family through her professional portrait business, her book Observations, though never published, was one of the first instructional books written by a woman, boldly announced her authority on painting. Mary Beale stood apart from other women due to her outspokenness and successful business that allowed her to be the breadwinner of the family. Mary Cradock was born in the rectory of Barrow, Suffolk, in late March 1633, she was baptised on 26 March by her father John Cradock in St Paul's Church in the village. Her mother was Dorothy. Aside from being a rector, John Cradock was an amateur painter, who may have taught Mary how to paint.
It was common for fathers to teach their daughters. Growing up in Barrow, Mary lived close to Bury St Edmunds. A group of painters worked in Bury St Edmunds, including Peter Lely and Matthew Snelling, whom Mary may have met in her youth. On 23 August 1643, Dorothy Cradock gave birth to a son named John. Dorothy died not long after the birth. During the Civil War, John Cradock appointed Walter Cradock, a distant cousin of his, as guardian of his children John and Mary. Mary Cradock met Charles Beale, a cloth merchant, an amateur painter, during a visit to the Heighams of Wickhambrook, who were related to the Yelverton and Beale families. Charles Beale wrote her a passionate love poem on 25 July of an unknown year. Mary Cradock married Charles Beale on 8 March 1651/2 at the age of eighteen, her father, John Cradock, died a few days after Mary's marriage. The couple moved to Walton-on-Thames at some point afterward. Charles Beale was a Civil Service Clerk at the time, but became Mary's studio manager once she became a professional painter.
At some point, Charles was working for the Board of Green Cloth. Circa 1660-64 the family moved to Albrook, Hampshire, to escape the plague. Throughout their marriage and Charles worked together as equals and as business partners, not seen at the time. On 18 October 1654 Charles and Mary's first son, was buried. Little else is known about their first son, their second son was baptised on 14 February 1655/6 and named Bartholomew. Their third son Charles was born in 1660; the most common way to learn how to paint at the time was to copy great works and masterpieces that were accessible. Mary Beale preferred to paint in water colours. Whenever she did a drawing, she would draw in crayon. Peter Lely, who succeeded Anthony van Dyck as the court painter, took a great interest in Mary's progress as an artist since she would practice painting by imitating some of his work. Mary Beale started working by painting favours for people she knew in exchange for small gifts or favors. Charles Beale kept, he would take notes on how she painted, what business transactions took place, who came to visit, what praise she would receive.
Charles wrote thirty notebooks' worth of observations over the years, calling Mary "my dearest heart". She became a semi-professional portrait painter in the 1650s and 1660s, working from her home, first in Covent Garden and in Fleet Street in London. In 1663, Mary Beale published Observations, it is a non-published piece of instructional writing that starts by critiquing how to paint apricots. Observations shows a good partnership and collaboration effort between Mary and Charles, it boldly declared Mary Beale as an artist to remember. Mary Beale wrote a manuscript called Discourse on Friendship in 1666 and four poems in 1667; the key for a female to become a successful professional painter was to earn a good reputation. Mary's father, an amateur artist, funded her general education may have including courses in painting and drawing, it could be easy to misconstrue strangers entering a woman's home for a business transaction as something that would portray the woman in an impure light. Once Mary did start painting for money in the 1670s, she picked whom she would paint, used the praise of her circle of friends to build a good reputation as a painter.
Some of these people included Queen Henrietta Maria and John Tillotson, a clergyman from St James' Church, a close friend of Mary Beale who became the Archbishop of Canterbury. It may be due to Mary's father, a rector, or her close connection to Tillotson that kept the clergymen of St James' as consistent customers. Mary's connection to Tillotson as well as her strong Puritan marriage to Charles worked in her favour in building up her good reputation. Mary Beale charged five pounds for a painting of a head and ten pounds for half of a body for oil paintings, she gave ten per cent of her earnings to charity. This income was enough to support her family, she did so. Needless to say, it is remarkable that Mary Beale was responsible for being the breadwinner of the family. By 1681 Mary's commissions were beginning to diminish. In 1681, Mary Beale took on two students, Keaty Trioche and Mr. More, who worked with her in the studio. In 1691, Sarah Curtis from Yorkshire became another student of M
Camille Pissarro was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas. His importance resides in his contributions to both Post-Impressionism. Pissarro studied including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, he studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo-Impressionist style at the age of 54. In 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the "pivotal" figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Art historian John Rewald called Pissarro the "dean of the Impressionist painters", not only because he was the oldest of the group, but "by virtue of his wisdom and his balanced and warmhearted personality". Paul Cézanne said "he was a father for me. A man to consult and a little like the good Lord," and he was one of Paul Gauguin's masters. Pierre-Auguste Renoir referred to his work as "revolutionary", through his artistic portrayals of the "common man", as Pissarro insisted on painting individuals in natural settings without "artifice or grandeur".
Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. He "acted as a father figure not only to the Impressionists" but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin. Jacob Abraham Camille Pissarro was born on 10 July 1830 on the island of St. Thomas to Frederick and Rachel Manzano de Pissarro, his father held French nationality. His mother was from a French-Jewish family from the island of St. Thomas, his father was a merchant who came to the island from France to deal with the hardware store of a deceased uncle, Isaac Petit, married his widow. The marriage caused a stir within St. Thomas' small Jewish community because she was married to Frederick's uncle and according to Jewish law a man is forbidden from marrying his aunt. In subsequent years his four children attended the all-black primary school. Upon his death, his will specified that his estate be split between the synagogue and St. Thomas' Protestant church.
When Camille was twelve his father sent him to boarding school in France. He studied at the Savary Academy in Passy near Paris. While a young student, he developed an early appreciation of the French art masters. Monsieur Savary himself gave him a strong grounding in drawing and painting and suggested he draw from nature when he returned to St. Thomas, which he did when he was seventeen. However, his father preferred, he took every opportunity during those next five years at the job to practise drawing during breaks and after work. When Pissarro turned twenty-one, Danish artist Fritz Melbye living on St. Thomas, inspired him to take on painting as a full-time profession, becoming his teacher and friend. Pissarro chose to leave his family and job and live in Venezuela, where he and Melbye spent the next two years working as artists in Caracas and La Guaira, he drew everything he could, including landscapes, village scenes, numerous sketches, enough to fill up multiple sketchbooks. In 1855 he moved back to Paris where he began working as assistant to Anton Melbye, Fritz Melbye's brother.
In Paris he worked as assistant to Danish painter Anton Melbye. He studied paintings by other artists whose style impressed him: Courbet, Charles-François Daubigny, Jean-François Millet, Corot, he enrolled in various classes taught by masters, at schools such as École des Beaux-Arts and Académie Suisse. But Pissarro found their teaching methods "stifling," states art historian John Rewald; this prompted him to search for alternative instruction, which he received from Corot. His initial paintings were in accord with the standards at the time to be displayed at the Paris Salon, the official body whose academic traditions dictated the kind of art, acceptable; the Salon's annual exhibition was the only marketplace for young artists to gain exposure. As a result, Pissarro worked in the traditional and prescribed manner to satisfy the tastes of its official committee. In 1859 his first painting was exhibited, his other paintings during that period were influenced by Camille Corot. He and Corot both shared a love of rural scenes painted from nature.
It was by Corot that Pissarro was inspired to paint outdoors called "plein air" painting. Pissarro found Corot, along with the work of Gustave Courbet, to be "statements of pictorial truth," writes Rewald, he discussed their work often. Jean-François Millet was another whose work he admired his "sentimental renditions of rural life". During this period Pissarro began to understand and appreciate the importance of expressing on canvas the beauties of nature without adulteration. After a year in Paris, he therefore began to leave the city and paint scenes in the countryside to capture the daily reality of village life, he found the French countryside to be "picturesque," and worthy of being painted. It was still agricultural and sometimes called the "golden age of the peasantry". Pissarro explained the technique of painting outdoors to a student: "Work at the same time upon sky, branches, keeping everything going on an equal basis and unceasingly rework until you have got it. Paint generously and unhesitatingly, for it is best not to lose the first impression."Corot, would complete his own scenic paintings back in his studio where they would be revised to his precon
Thomas John Thomson was a Canadian artist active in the early 20th century. During his short career he produced 400 oil sketches on small wood panels along with around 50 larger works on canvas, his works consist entirely of landscapes depicting trees, skies and rivers. His paintings use broad brush strokes and a liberal application of paint to capture the beauty and colour of the Ontario landscape. Thomson's accidental death at 39 by drowning came shortly before the founding of the Group of Seven and is seen as a tragedy for Canadian art. Raised in rural Ontario, Thomson was born into a large family of farmers and displayed no immediate artistic talent, he worked several jobs before attending a business college developing skills in penmanship and copperplate writing. At the turn of the 20th century, he was employed in Seattle and Toronto as a pen artist at several different photoengraving firms, including Grip Ltd. There he met those who formed the Group of Seven, including J. E. H. MacDonald, Lawren Harris, Frederick Varley, Franklin Carmichael and Arthur Lismer.
In May 1912, he visited Algonquin Park—a major public park and forest reservation in Central Ontario—for the first time. It was there that he acquired his first sketching equipment and, following MacDonald's advice, began to capture nature scenes, he became enraptured with the area and returned spending his winters in Toronto and the rest of the year in the Park. His earliest paintings were not outstanding technically, but showed a good grasp of composition and colour handling, his paintings vary in composition and contain vivid colours and thickly applied paint. His work has had a great influence on Canadian art—paintings such as The Jack Pine and The West Wind have taken a prominent place in the culture of Canada and are some of the country's most iconic works. Thomson developed a reputation during his lifetime as a veritable outdoorsman, talented in both fishing and canoeing, although his skills in the latter have been contested; the circumstances of his drowning on Canoe Lake in Algonquin Park, linked with his image as a master canoeist, led to unsubstantiated but persistent rumours that he had been murdered or committed suicide.
Although he died before the formal establishment of the Group of Seven, Thomson is considered an unofficial member. His art is exhibited with the rest of the Group's, nearly all of which remains in Canada—mainly at the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto, the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, the McMichael Canadian Art Collection in Kleinburg and the Tom Thomson Art Gallery in Owen Sound. Thomas John "Tom" Thomson was born in Claremont, the sixth of John and Margaret Thomson's ten children, he was raised in Leith, near Owen Sound, in the municipality of Meaford. Thomson and his siblings enjoyed both drawing and painting, although he did not display any major talents, he was taken out of school for a year because of ill health, including a respiratory problem variously described as "weak lungs" or "inflammatory rheumatism". This gave him free time to develop an appreciation of nature; the family were unsuccessful as farmers. Thomson went on walks with Dr. William Brodie, his grandmother's first cousin.
Brodie was a well-known entomologist and botanist, Thomson's sister Margaret recounted that they collected specimens on long walks together. Thomson was enthusiastic about sports, once breaking his toe while playing football, he was an excellent swimmer and fisherman, inheriting his passion for the latter from his grandfather and father. Like most of those in his community, he attended church; some stories say that he sketched in the hymn books during services and entertained his sisters with caricatures of their neighbours. His sisters said that they had fun "guessing who they were", indicating that he was not adept at capturing people's likeness; each of Thomson's nine siblings received an inheritance from their paternal grandfather. Thomson seems to have spent it quickly. A year he entered a machine shop apprenticeship at an iron foundry owned by William Kennedy, a close friend of his father, but left only eight months later. In 1899, he volunteered to fight in the Second Boer War, but was turned down because of a medical condition.
He was denied each time. In 1901, Thomson enrolled at Canada Business College in Ontario; the school advertised instruction in stenography, business correspondence and "plain and ornamental penmanship". There, he developed abilities in copperplate -- necessary skills for a clerk. After graduating at the end of 1901, he travelled to Winnipeg before leaving for Seattle in January 1902, joining his older brother, George Thomson. George and cousin F. R. McLaren had established the Acme Business School in Seattle, listed as the 11th largest business school in the United States. Thomson worked as an elevator operator at The Diller Hotel. By 1902, two more of his brothers and Henry, had moved west to join the family's new school. After studying at the business school for six months, Thomson was hired at Maring & Ladd as a pen artist and etcher, he produced business cards and posters, as well as three-colour printing. Having learned calligraphy, he specialized in lettering and painting. While working at Maring & Ladd, he was known to be stubborn.