Calhoun is a town in McMinn County, United States. It is part of the Chattanooga–Cleveland–Athens combined statistical area; the population was 490 at the 2010 census. The Calhoun area was settled by John Walker, a part-Cherokee grandson of Nancy Ward and a prominent figure in the formation of McMinn County. Walker operated a ferry along the Hiwassee River and helped contract the Cherokee Turnpike Company in 1806, which maintained the road between Knoxville and Georgia. In 1819, Walker helped negotiate the Calhoun Treaty, in which the Cherokee ceded the remaining lands between the Little Tennessee River and the Hiwassee River, including what is now McMinn County. McMinn County was organized at Walker's house that same year. In 1820, Walker laid out the town of Calhoun, which he named for the Calhoun Treaty's chief U. S. negotiator, John C. Calhoun. Walker would be assassinated by two anti-removal Cherokees, who felt he had betrayed the Cherokee nation. Joseph McMinn, governor of Tennessee from 1815 to 1821, spent the last few years of his life in Calhoun, is buried in the Shiloh Presbyterian Cemetery, located in Calhoun.
In 1954, the pulp and paper giant Bowater established a plant in Calhoun that soon grew to become one of the largest newsprint mills in North America. The mill, which dominates the western half of Calhoun, produces 750,000 metric tons of newsprint and specialty paper per year. There is one government building in the city which functions as the town's library, police station, fire station. Directly across the road from this building is a baseball field. On December 11, 1990, a heavy fog led to a crash involving 99 vehicles along Interstate 75 near Calhoun, killing 12 and injuring 42; as a result, electronic speed limit signs equipped with fog sensors have been installed along the Calhoun section of the interstate. Calhoun is situated along the north bank of the Hiwassee River, which flows from the Appalachian Mountains to the east and empties into the Chickamauga Lake impoundment of the Tennessee River a few miles to the west; the river forms the boundary between Bradley County. The town of Charleston is located across the river on the Bradley County side.
Calhoun is situated around the junction of U. S. Route 11, which connects the town to Athens to the north and Charleston and Cleveland to the south, State Route 163, which connects Calhoun to U. S. Route 411 in Delano to Meigs County to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.1 square miles, of which 1.0 square mile is land and 0.1 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 496 people, 205 households, 148 families residing in the town; the population density was 486.4 people per square mile. There were 225 housing units at an average density of 220.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.78% White, 0.81% African American, 1.01% Asian, 0.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.43% of the population. There were 205 households out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families.
25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.86. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 29.2% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $38,438, the median income for a family was $44,688. Males had a median income of $36,563 versus $20,333 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,984. About 5.3% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.5% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over. Municipal Technical Advisory Service entry for Calhoun — information on local government and link to charter Media related to Calhoun, Tennessee at Wikimedia Commons
Roane County, Tennessee
Roane County is a county of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 54,181, its county seat is Kingston. Roane County is included in TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Roane County was formed in 1801, named for Archibald Roane, the second Governor of Tennessee. Upon the creation of the Southwest Territory in 1790, the territory's governor, William Blount wanted to locate the territorial capital at the mouth of the Clinch River, but was unable to obtain title to the land from the Cherokee. Kingston, Roane's county seat, is rooted in Fort Southwest Point, a frontier fort constructed in the early 1790s. During the Civil War, Roane County, like many East Tennessee counties, was pro-Union; when Tennessee voted on the Ordinance of Secession on June 8, 1861, Roane Countians voted 1,568 to 454 in favor of remaining in the Union. In October 1861, Union guerrilla William B. Carter organized the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy from a command post in Kingston. During the Knoxville Campaign in December 1863, a Union force led by General James G. Spears scattered a small Confederate force led by John R. Hart near Kingston.
In the years following the Civil War, Rockwood grew into a major iron and coal mining center with the establishment of the Roane Iron Company by General John T. Wilder. Iron ore and coal were mined on Walden Ridge and shipped to Rockwood, where the ore was converted into pig iron; the pig iron was shipped to rolling mills in Knoxville or Chattanooga. During the late 19th century, northern investors established two planned cities in Roane County— Cardiff and Harriman. Cardiff, located northeast of Rockwood, was planned as a company town to support several proposed mining industries in the area. Harriman was planned as a Temperance Town. Both ventures suffered critical setbacks as a result of the Panic of 1893. Harriman survived, but never grew in the manner its planners had envisioned, while Cardiff failed altogether. During World War II, the federal government created the city of Oak Ridge as a planned community as part of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb; as a result of the Project, both the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are located in the county.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 395 square miles, of which 361 square miles is land and 34 square miles is water. Three rivers— the Tennessee River, the Clinch River, the Emory River— pass through Roane County; the Emory empties into the Clinch near Kingston, the Clinch empties into the Tennessee just downstream from Kingston. The rivers in Roane are part of Watts Bar Lake. Roane County straddles the geographical boundary between the Tennessee Valley and the Cumberland Plateau, with the latter's Walden Ridge escarpment visible from much of the county. Campbell Bend Barrens State Natural Area Crowder Cemetery State Natural Area Kingston Refuge McGlothin-Largen Wildlife Management Area Mount Roosevelt Wildlife Management Area Paint Rock Refuge Watts Bar Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2010, there were 54,181 people, 22,376 households, 15,450 families residing in the county; the population density was 150 people per square mile. There were 25,716 housing units at an average density of 71 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 94.4% White, 2.7% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.0003% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. 1.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 22,376 households out of which 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.8% under the age of 18 and 18.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.9 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.85 males. As of the census of 2000, the median income for a household in the county was $33,226, the median income for a family was $41,399.
Males had a median income of $32,204 versus $22,439 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,456. About 10.30% of families and 13.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.80% of those under age 18 and 13.80% of those age 65 or over. The Census Bureau has defined the Harriman-Kingston-Rockwood area as a contiguous urban cluster. Several movies have been filmed in Roane County, including Boys of October Sky. Roane County was the childhood home of actress Megan Fox, she attended elementary school, took dance classes, was on the swim team in Roane County. The 2010 film, Get Low, starring Bill Murray, Robert Duvall, Sissy Spacek, was based on the true story of a Roane County man, Felix Breazeale. Breazeale was a local hermit; the funeral intrigued many. Tennessee Magnet Publications Harriman Kingston Oak Ridge Rockwood Oliver Springs Midtown Blair Cedar Grove Midway Ten Mile Paint Rock Post Oak Farms Postoak Cardiff Wheat National Register of Historic Places listings in Roane County, Tennessee Official site Roane County at Curlie Roane County News - Thrice-weekly community newspaper covering Harriman, Oliver Springs and Roane County, Tennessee The
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
E. H. Crump
Edward Hull "Boss" Crump was an American politician from Memphis, Tennessee. Representing the Democratic Party, he was the dominant force in the city's politics for most of the first half of the 20th century, during which the city had a commission form of government, he dominated Tennessee state politics for most of the time from the 1920s to the 1940s. He was elected and served as mayor of Memphis from 1910 through 1915, again in 1940. However, he appointed every mayor elected from 1915 to 1954. A native of Holly Springs in northern Mississippi, where he was born in 1874, Crump, at the age of 19, moved to Memphis, Tennessee on September 21, 1893, according to the Holly Springs Reporter; when he first arrived in Memphis, the ongoing Panic of 1893, the worst recession in the United States history to that time, made it hard for Crump to find work. He obtained a clerical position with Walter Goodman Cotton Company located on Front Street in downtown Memphis; this was the start of a successful business career as a trader.
In early 1901, Crump began courting a 23-year-old young woman by the name of Bessie Byrd McLean. Bessie, or "Betty," McLean was a prominent Memphis socialite and has been described as "one of the city's most beautiful and most sought after women." She was the only child of Mrs. Robert McLean, her father was serving as the vice president of the William R. Moore Dry Goods Company. Crump and McLean were married on January 1902, at the Calvary Episcopal Church. Alongside his rising business career, Crump began to make the political connections that served him for the rest of his life, he was a delegate to the Tennessee Democratic State Convention in 1902 and 1904. In 1905, he was named to the municipal Board of Public Works, was elected to the powerful position of Commissioner of Fire and Police in 1907, among three commissioners who governed the city. Starting in the 1910s, Crump began to build a political machine which came to have statewide influence, he was adept in his use of what were at the time two politically weak minority groups in Tennessee: blacks and Republicans.
Unlike most Southern Democrats of his era, Crump was not opposed to blacks voting. The party paid the poll taxes required by state law since the late 1880s. One of Crump's lieutenants in the black community was funeral director N. J. Ford, whose family became influential in Memphis and national politics, continuing to be so today. A symbiotic relationship developed in which blacks aided Crump, he aided them, as was usual in politics. Crump skillfully manipulated Republicans, who were numerically weak in the western two-thirds of the state due to the disenfranchisement of blacks, but dominated politics in East Tennessee, they found it necessary to align with Crump in order to accomplish any of their goals in the state government. Crump was influential for nearly half a century, he preferred to work behind the scenes and served only three two-year terms as mayor of Memphis at the beginning of his career. He named the next several mayors, his rise to prominence disturbed many of the state political leaders in Nashville.
The "Ouster Law", designed to remove officials who refused to enforce state laws, was passed with Crump and his lax enforcement of state Prohibition in mind. He was county treasurer of Shelby County from 1917 to 1923, he was elected seven times as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention. Crump became involved in earnest in state politics during the 1928 gubernatorial election when Henry Horton was seeking election in his own right. Horton had earlier been speaker of the state senate and succeeded to the position of governor when Austin Peay died in office. Crump supported Hill McAlister in the Democratic primary, while the Nashville machine of Luke Lea supported Governor Horton. Horton won the primary despite the strong vote for McAlister in populous Shelby County; when Horton ran for reelection in 1930, Crump and Lea cut a deal, Crump swung his formidable political machine behind Horton. Horton defeated independent Democrat L. E. Gwinn in the primary and Republican C. Arthur Bruce in the general election.
After years of working behind the scenes, Crump decided to run for U. S. Representative in 1930, he was elected to the Tenth District, co-extensive with Shelby County. He served two terms: from March 4, 1931, to January 3, 1935. During this time, he was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution, he remained hugely influential in Memphis as well. He was in constant communication with his operatives there and visited during each congressional recess. In 1936, Crump was named to the Democratic National Committee, serving on that body until 1945. In 1939, he was elected a final time as mayor, although that term was served by Walter Chandler. Chandler was U. S. Representative for the Ninth District, Crump thought that Chandler's time was better spent tending to congressional matters in Washington than campaigning for mayor in Memphis. So, without a platform, without a speech, without opposition, Crump was elected mayor of Memphis. Crump was sworn in at a few minutes past midnight on January 1, 1940, in a snow storm on the platform of the railroad station, just before leaving for New Orleans to see the Sugar Bowl.
In high humor, he resigned immediately. V
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Bradley County, Tennessee
Bradley County is a county located in the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 98,963, making it the thirteen most populous county in Tennessee, its county seat is Cleveland. It is named for Colonel Edward Bradley of Shelby County, colonel of Hale's Regiment in the American Revolution and the 15th Regiment of the Tennessee Volunteers in the War of 1812. Bradley County is included in the Cleveland, Tennessee Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Chattanooga-Cleveland-Dalton, TN-GA-AL Combined Statistical Area. Bradley County was first seen by Europeans on June 2, 1540 by Hernando De Soto and his expedition while traveling through the North American continent. Bradley County was established on February 10, 1836, it was named to honor Colonel Edward Bradley who served in the War of 1812. On January 20, 1838, Cleveland, a township with a population of 400, became the seat of Bradley County. Red Clay State Park, the site of the last Cherokee council before the tribe's removal via Trail of Tears, is located in Bradley County.
Like most East Tennessee counties, Bradley County was opposed to secession on the eve of the Civil War. In Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession referendum on June 8, 1861, the county's residents voted against secession by a margin of 1,382 to 507; the bridge over the Hiwassee River was burned on November 8, 1861, by members of the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy led by Alfred Cate. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 331 square miles, of which 329 square miles is land and 2.7 square miles is water. The county is situated on a series of paralleling ridges running north-northeasterly which are part of the Ridge and Valley Appalachians; the highest of these, Candies Creek Ridge, runs through the center of Cleveland. Located in between these ridges are creeks, there are several springs in the county, which made the area favorable to early settlers. Chatata is the Cherokee name for a region in the northeastern portion of the county where the so-called Chatata Wall was found in the late 19th century.
The highest point in the county is located on the Hamilton County line along White Oak Mountain. The county is bordered on the north by the Hiwassee River. Meigs County McMinn County Polk County Murray County, Georgia Whitfield County, Georgia Hamilton County Chickamauga Wildlife Management Area Charlotte Anne Finnel Neal Wildlife Management Area Red Clay State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 87,965 people, 34,281 households, 24,648 families residing in the county; the population density was 268 people per square mile. There were 36,820 housing units at an average density of 112 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.98% White, 3.99% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.89% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. 2.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 34,281 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families.
23.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 11.30% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,034, the median income for a family was $41,779. Males had a median income of $30,654 versus $21,407 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,108. About 9.00% of families and 12.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.40% of those under age 18 and 11.60% of those age 65 or over. With thirteen Fortune 500 manufacturers, Cleveland has the fifth largest industrial economy in Tennessee. Cleveland is home to a variety of industries, including household cooking equipment, textiles, storage batteries, industrial cleaning products, photographic processing and domestic chemicals, automotive parts.
Major employers include Whirlpool, Johnston Coca-Cola, Incorporated, Procter & Gamble, Hardwick Clothes, Cleveland Chair Company. Wacker Polysilicon, Olin Corporation and Arch Chemicals have factories and distribution centers in Charleston. Resolute Forest Products Bowater, has a plant across the river from Charleston in Calhoun. Agriculture in Bradley County has an annual market value of over $115 million. Bradley County is home to farms which raise beef cattle, poultry and crops, such as corn and fruits and vegetables. Bradley County has a 14-member county commission form of government, with two commissioners from each of seven districts; the commission is headed by a vice chairman, who are chosen by fellow commissioners. The current chairman is Johnny Mull from District 3 and the vice chairman is Jeff Yarber from District 5; each district is assigned a constable elected. The county executive separately elected, is Republican D. Gary Davis. Other elected officials include county clerk and criminal court clerk, register of deeds, assessor of property and road superintendent.
Elections take place every year, with primaries in the first week