A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
A company town is a place where all stores and housing are owned by the one company, the main employer. Company towns are planned with a suite of amenities such as stores, schools and recreation facilities, they are bigger than a model village. Some company towns have had high ideals. Others developed more or less in unplanned fashion, such as Summit Hill, United States, one of the oldest, which began as a LC&N Co. mining camp and mine site nine miles from the nearest outside road. Traditional settings for company towns were where extractive industries — coal, metal mines, lumber — had established a monopoly franchise. Dam sites and war-industry camps founded other company towns. Since company stores had a monopoly in company towns, it was possible to pay in scrip through a truck system although not all company towns engaged in this particular practice. In the Soviet Union there were several cities of nuclear scientists known as atomgrad. A company town is isolated from neighbors and centered on a large production factory, such as a lumber or steel mill or an automobile plant.
The company may donate a church building to a local congregation, operate parks, host cultural events such as concerts, so on. If the owning company cuts back or goes out of business, the economic effect on the company town is devastating, as people move to jobs elsewhere. Company towns become regular public cities and towns as they grow and attract other settlement, business enterprises, public transportation and services infrastructure. Other times, a town may not be a company town, but it may be a town where the majority of citizens are employed by a single company, thus creating a similar situation to a company town. Further, such dependencies extend to regions of larger cities. In each case, if the primary company falls on lean times, fails outright or the industry fades in importance the communities contract and lose property value and population as people move to find work elsewhere, the youth of the community bears the children of their generation in another demographic region. Paternalism, a subtle form of social engineering, refers to the control of workers by their employers who sought to force middle-class ideals upon their working-class employees.
Paternalism was considered by many nineteenth-century businessmen as a moral responsibility, or a religious obligation, which would advance society whilst furthering their own business interests. Accordingly, the company town offered a unique opportunity to achieve such ends. Although many prominent examples of company towns portray their founders as "capitalists with a conscience", for example, George Cadbury's Bournville, if viewed cynically, the company town was an economically viable ploy to attract and retain workers. Additionally, for-profit shops within company towns were owned by the company, which were unavoidable to its isolated workers, thus resulting in a monopoly for the owners. Although economically successful, company towns sometimes failed politically due to a lack of elected officials and municipally owned services. Accordingly, workers had no say in local affairs and therefore, felt dictated to; this political climate caused resentment amongst workers and resulted in many residents losing long-term affection for their towns.
Although many small company towns existed in mining areas of Pennsylvania before the Civil War, one of the largest, most substantial early company towns in the United States was Pullman, developed in the 1880s just outside the Chicago city limits. The town company-owned, provided housing, markets, a library and entertainment for the 6,000 company employees and an equal number of dependents. Employees were required to live in Pullman, although cheaper rentals could be found in nearby communities; the town operated until the economic panic of 1893, when demand for the company's products declined, employee wages had to be lowered accordingly. Despite this, the company refused to lower rents in the town or the price of goods at its shops, thus resulting in the Pullman Strike of 1894. A national commission formed to investigate the causes of the strikes found that Pullman's paternalism was to blame and labelled it "un-American"; the report condemned Pullman for refusing to negotiate and for the economic hardships he created for workers in the town of Pullman.
"The aesthetic features are admired by visitors, but have little money value to employees when they lack bread." The State of Illinois filed suit, in 1898 the Supreme Court of Illinois forced the Pullman Company to divest ownership in the town, annexed to Chicago. However, government observers maintained that Pullman's principles were accurate, in that he provided his employees with a quality of life otherwise unattainable to them, but recognised that his excessive paternalism was inappropriate for a large-scale corporate economy and thus caused the town's downfall. Accordingly, government observers and social reformers alike saw the need for a balance between control and well-designed towns, concluding that a model company town would only succeed if indepe
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S
Colorado State Highway 145
State Highway 145 is a 116.879 mi long state highway in western Colorado. SH 145's southern terminus is at U. S. Route 160 in Cortez, the northern terminus is at SH 141 near Naturita; the route begins in the south at its intersection with US 160 in the eastern portion of the city of Cortez. The route winds northward through the towns of Dolores, Sawpit, Placerville and Redvale before terminating at the junction with SH 141 about four miles east of Naturita. Just north of its midpoint between Rico and Sawpit, the road passes near and provides access to the town of Telluride
The Dolores River is a tributary of the Colorado River 241 miles long, in the U. S. states of Utah. The river drains a arid region of the Colorado Plateau west of the San Juan Mountains, its name derives from River of Our Lady of Sorrows. The river was explored and named by Juan Maria Antonio Rivera during a 1765 expedition from Santa Fe; the mean annual flow of the Dolores prior to damming was 1,200 cu ft/s, but due to diversions it has been reduced to about 600 cu ft/s. The Dolores River rises in a meadow called Tin Can Basin, near 12,520-foot Hermosa Peak in the San Miguel Mountains, in Dolores County, Colorado; the headwaters are located about 5 miles south of Lizard Head Pass in the San Juan National Forest. The river flows southwest in a canyon past Rico, receiving the West Dolores River flows into McPhee Reservoir near Dolores in Montezuma County. Formed by McPhee Dam, the reservoir is about 10 miles long and diverts flows of the upper Dolores River for irrigation. Downstream from McPhee Dam, the river re-enters Dolores County and carves the Dolores River Canyon, which stretches north for over 40 miles and averages 1,100 feet deep.
This section of the Dolores River is noted for its exposed sedimentary strata, desert wildlife, during years of heavy snowmelt for its whitewater. Near Egnar the river crosses into San Miguel County and from there into Montrose County. Continuing north, the Dolores cuts across the Paradox Valley which runs in an unusual transverse direction to the river. Below Paradox Valley it is joined by the San Miguel River, its main tributary, from the east. Due to diversions on the main stem, the San Miguel is the same size as the Dolores if not larger, providing most of the flow below the confluence in dry years. Below the confluence with the San Miguel, the Dolores enters Mesa County, flowing north-northwest past Gateway and turning west into Utah; the last segment of the river within Grand County, joins the Colorado near the historic Dewey Bridge, about 30 miles above Moab. Measured at Cisco, not far above the confluence with the Colorado River, the average unimpaired discharge of the Dolores River between 1906 and 1995 was 841,000 acre feet, or about 1,160 cubic feet per second.
The United States Geological Survey has operated a stream gage at Cisco from 1950 to the present. For the 36-year period December 1950 to September 1986, the river flow at Cisco averaged 845 cubic feet per second. By contrast, in the 27 years from October 1986 to October 2013, the river averaged only 599 cubic feet per second due to the McPhee Dam diversions. Measured at Bedrock, Colorado, at the entrance to Paradox Valley the effect of the flow reductions is more obvious, with an average of 504 cubic feet per second before September 1984 as compared to 240 cubic feet per second between October 1984 and May 2014; the ancestral Dolores River is believed to have flowed south to join the San Juan River near the Four Corners in what is now northwestern New Mexico. The uplift of Sleeping Ute Mountain about 70 million years ago diverted the Dolores River to its present northward course, causing it to carve the Dolores River Canyon on its way to the Colorado River, creating unusual geologic features such as the Paradox Valley.
The Dolores Canyon exposes rocks ranging from 300-million-year-old Pennsylvanian limestone to the 140-million-year-old Entrada sandstone deposited during the Jurassic. A cap of Cretaceous Dakota sandstone forms most of the upper rim of the canyon; the lower Dolores River may have once been the original course of the Colorado River, which flowed through the now dry Unaweep Canyon occupied by West Creek, a small tributary of the Dolores. When the Uncompahgre Plateau was formed it diverted the larger Colorado northwards through what is now the Grand Valley, looping around through Westwater Canyon to the confluence with the Dolores in eastern Utah and leaving Unaweep Canyon as a huge dry gap across the plateau. However, some geologists contend that the Colorado never flowed through Unaweep and the lower Dolores River, as the erosive force of the river should have created a water gap here; the Dolores is dammed at McPhee Reservoir near Cortez, Colorado to irrigate about 61,660 acres of arid plateau land.
The dam and diversion canals are operated by the Bureau of Reclamation as the Dolores Project. In some years all the water entering the reservoir is diverted, leaving only a small mandated minimum flow to pass downstream, as a result reducing the 150 mile stretch between the dam and the confluence of the San Miguel River to a large creek; the construction of the dam allowed local farmers to extend the irrigation season through September whereas natural river flows would have been insufficient by July or August. While the dam has reduced and sometimes halted spring peak flows in the lower Dolores, it provides supplemental flows in late summer in the range of 75 cubic feet per second, maintaining downstream fisheries. Before the dam was built, irrigators diverted nearly the entire flow of the river, leaving as little as 10 cubic feet per second to flow downstream. Releases from McPhee Dam are a controversial topic; the Bureau of Reclamation operates McPhee on a "fill spill" policy, where the dam is filled
Dolores County, Colorado
Dolores County is the seventh-least populous of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,064; the county seat is Dove Creek. It is thought that the area has been the site of human habitation since at least 2500 B. C. Dolores County's western portions were densely populated between 900 and 1300 AD. Population estimates of as many as 10,000 population, with villages of hundreds of rooms, have been made by archaeologists and other researchers, but this population was destroyed or migrated elsewhere following a drought and severe societal upheaval in the 14th century, for centuries thereafter, both the western and eastern mountainous areas of the county were occupied by nomads, including the Ute and the Navajo Indians. Like much of southwestern Colorado, Dolores County is rich in Indian sites of the Anasazi. According to the Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores County contains at least 816 recorded archaeological sites as of 1989, with many more inventoried since that time.
The county contains a portion of a site of regional historic interest, the Dominguez-Escalante Trail of 1776. The trail marks a historic 1,800-mile trip, intended to discover an overland route between Santa Fe, New Mexico and Monterey, California; the Expedition camped on Dove Creek in the western portion of the county. The Old Spanish Trail passed through the western portion of the County. Anglo trappers worked the mountains of eastern Dolores County as early as 1832-33, gold was discovered in the County in 1866, but it was not until the area was taken from the Ute and removed from the Ute Reservation by the Brunot Agreement of 1878 that large-scale minerals exploration and mining began in the county, although the Pioneer Mining District was established in 1876 in the Rico area. The development of the area was spurred by the discovery of large silver deposits near Rico in 1879, the Rio Grande Southern Railroad was constructed through the County to connect Durango and Ridgway in 1890-92 The RGS served the eastern end of Dolores County until 1952 when it was abandoned.
Rico's high point was in 1892, when the mining district population was more than 5,000. The 1893 Silver Panic hit the town hard; the mountainous area of Dolores County went through a series of booms and busts through the 20th Century. The low point of the community came in 1974 with an estimated population of 45. Efforts are underway in the early 21st Century to again begin major mining activities in the region. Dove Creek was a way station on the Old Spanish Trail from the mid 19th century, for caravans and travelers moving between Santa Fe, Salt Lake City, northern California and Nevada; the western portion of the county was used, beginning in the 1870s, for cattle ranching, but the lush grass soon suffered from overgrazing and fire suppression, allowing the massive expansion of sagebrush and juniper. Homesteading in the area became common beginning in 1914, dryland farming expanded throughout the Great Sage Plain. Today dryland farming of pinto beans and winter wheat is still a mainstay of the county's economy.
But the development of irrigation using water from the Dolores Project in the 1980s, with the construction of McPhee Reservoir, has changed the history and population of the county. Dolores County was created by the Colorado legislature on February 19, 1881, from the western portions of Ouray County, was named for the Dolores River, which heads up in the county and passes through the county in the Dolores Canyon; the complete Spanish name was Rio de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores, as reported by Father Silvestre Vélez de Escalante in 1776. Set in Rico, the first county courthouse was a 23x48 foot two storage log cabin, but was replaced by a stone and brick courthouse completed in 1883; the county seat was moved to Dove Creek in 1946, the current courthouse built in 1957. In 2009, Dolores County achieved notoriety as the most economically depressed county in Colorado. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,068 square miles, of which 1,067 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water.
Dolores County, like other counties in Colorado along its border with Utah, is split into two geographically distinct regions, in fact, under normal travel conditions, it is necessary to leave the county to travel between the two regions. The western portion of the county is the northern portion of the Great Sage Plain low and flat, consists of irrigated and dryland farming areas; the central portion of the county has higher open grasslands with forested hills and canyons, used for livestock raising. The eastern portion of the county is located in the highest peaks of the San Juan Mountains, around the old mining and modern tourist town of Rico, except for cattle grazing in the San Juan National Forest, has no agriculture, in part because its elevations range from 9,000 to 14,000+. Rico is developing in many ways as a
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti