The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the abstract five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of the Earth. The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, the position of the Arctic Circle is not fixed, as of 7 April 2017, it runs 66°33′46. 6″ north of the Equator. Its latitude depends on the Earths axial tilt, which fluctuates within a margin of 2° over a 40, 000-year period, the Arctic Circle is currently drifting northwards at a speed of about 15 m per year. The word arctic comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός and that from the word ἄρκτος, directly on the Arctic Circle these events occur, in principle, exactly once per year, at the June and December solstices, respectively. That is true at sea level, those limits increase with elevation above sea level, tens of thousands of years ago, waves of people migrated from eastern Siberia across the Bering Strait into North America to settle. Much later, in the period, there has been migration into some Arctic areas by Europeans.
The largest communities north of the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia and Norway, Norilsk, Tromsø, rovaniemi in Finland is the largest settlement in the immediate vicinity of the Arctic Circle, lying slightly south of the line. In contrast, the largest North American community north of the Arctic Circle, of the Canadian and United States Arctic communities, Alaska is the largest settlement with about 4,000 inhabitants. The Arctic Circle is roughly 16,000 kilometres, the area north of the Circle is about 20,000,000 km2 and covers roughly 4% of Earths surface. The Arctic Circle passes through the Arctic Ocean, the Scandinavian Peninsula, North Asia, Northern America, the land within the Arctic Circle is divided among eight countries, Sweden, Russia, the United States, Canada and Iceland. In the interior, summers can be warm, while winters are extremely cold
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.
In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.
It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Sveriges Radio AB is Swedens national publicly funded radio broadcaster. Sveriges Radio is a limited company, owned by an independent foundation. SRs status could be described as that of a quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization, the company was founded on 21 March 1924 as AB Radiotjänst, and performed its first public broadcast on 1 January 1925. It was officially renamed Sveriges Radio in 1957, Sveriges Radio was originally responsible for all broadcasting in Sweden, both radio and television, and hosted the 1975 Eurovision Song Contest. This structure was dissolved in 1993 with the national and local radio companies merging under the name of the old parent company, four radio channels are available nationwide on FM and via the internet. P1, culture, readings, almost no music is played, except in the daily summertime programme Sommar, and the Sunday morning Andliga sånger. P2, classical music, folk and world music, p3, popular music and comedy targeted at a younger audience. P4, popular music and sport, chiefly targeted at an older audience, a large part of P4s programming is regional with 25 regions each broadcasting their own local programmes during most of the day.
On 16 March 2010 Radio Sweden announced the end of broadcasts on shortwave, external service programmes would continue on the internet only
Church of Sweden
The Church of Sweden is the largest Christian church in Sweden. A member of the Porvoo Communion, the Church professes the Lutheran branch of Christianity and it is composed of thirteen dioceses, divided into parishes. It is a national church which, working with a democratic organisation and through the ministry of the church. The Primate of the Church of Sweden is the Archbishop of Uppsala — currently Antje Jackelén, the Church of Sweden is an Evangelical Lutheran church. 6.2 million people are members of the Church of Sweden and it is liturgically and theologically high church, having retained priests and the Mass during the Swedish Reformation. In common with other Evangelical Lutheran churches, the Church of Sweden maintains the historical episcopate, the Church of Sweden is known for its liberal position in theological issues, particularly the question of homosexuality. When Bishop Eva Brunne was consecrated as Bishop of Stockholm in 2009, despite a significant yearly loss of members, its membership of 6,225,091 people accounts for 63.
2% of the Swedish population. Until 2000 it held the position of state church, the high membership numbers are because until 1996 all newborn children were made members, unless their parents had actively cancelled their membership. Approximately 2% of the members regularly attend Sunday services. According to a Gallup poll conducted in 2009, 17% of the Swedish population considered religion as an important part of their daily life, King Gustav I Vasa instigated the Church of Sweden in 1536 during his reign as King of Sweden. This act separated the church from the Roman Catholic Church and its canon law, in 1571, the Swedish Church Ordinance became the first Swedish church order following the Reformation. The Church of Sweden became Lutheran at the Uppsala Synod in 1593 when it adopted the Augsburg Confession to which most Lutherans adhere, at this synod, it was decided that the church would retain the three original Christian creeds, the Apostles, the Athanasian, and the Nicene. In 1686, the Riksdag of the Estates adopted the Book of Concord, although certain parts, labelled Confessio fidei, were considered binding.
Confessio dei included the three aforementioned Creeds, the Augsburg Confession and two Uppsala Synod decisions from 1572 and 1593, during the 20th century the Church of Sweden oriented itself strongly towards liberal Christianity and human rights. In 1957, the assembly rejected a proposal for ordination of women. Since 1960, women have been ordained as priests, and since 1994, a proposal to perform same-sex weddings was approved on October 22,2009 by 176 of 249 voting members of the Church of Sweden Synod. The Christian church in Scandinavia was originally governed by the archdiocese of Bremen, in 1104 an archbishop for all Scandinavia was installed in Lund. Uppsala was made Swedens archdiocese in 1164, and remains so today, the papal diplomat William of Modena attended a church meeting in Skänninge in March 1248, where the ties to the Catholic Church were strengthened
Case is a special grammatical category whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by a noun, adjective, participle or numeral in a phrase, clause, or sentence. In some languages, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, numerals and their modifiers take different inflected forms depending on what case they are in. Distinctions can be seen with the pronouns, forms such as I, he and we are used in the role of subject, whereas forms such as me, him. A language may have a number of different cases, commonly encountered cases include nominative, accusative and genitive. A role that one of these languages marks by case will often be marked in English using a preposition, as a language evolves, cases can merge, a phenomenon formally called syncretism. More formally, case has been defined as a system of marking dependent nouns for the type of relationship they bear to their heads, cases should be distinguished from thematic roles such as agent and patient. They are often related, and in languages such as Latin several thematic roles have an associated case.
Languages having cases often exhibit free word order, because thematic roles are not required to be marked by position in the sentence. The English word case used in this sense comes from the Latin casus, the Latin word is a calque of the Greek πτῶσις, ptôsis, lit. falling, fall. The sense is that all cases are considered to have fallen away from the nominative. This picture is reflected in the word declension, from Latin declinere, to lean. The equivalent to case in several other European languages derives from casus, including cas in French, caso in Spanish, the Finnish equivalent is sija, which can mean position or support. Although not very prominent in modern English, cases featured much more saliently in Old English and other ancient Indo-European languages, such as Latin, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit. Among modern languages, cases still feature prominently in most of the Balto-Slavic languages, with most having six to eight cases, as well as Icelandic and Modern Greek, in German, cases are mostly marked on articles and adjectives, and less so on nouns.
Case is based fundamentally on changes to the noun to indicate the role in the sentence. This is not how English works, where word order and prepositions are used to achieve this, Modern English has largely abandoned the inflectional case system of Indo-European in favor of analytic constructions. The personal pronouns of Modern English retain morphological case more strongly than any other word class, for other pronouns, and all nouns and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, and by the genitive clitic -s. The oblique case, used for the direct or indirect object of a verb, for the object of a preposition, for an absolute disjunct, the genitive case, used for a grammatical possessor
The Torne, known as the Tornio, is a river in northern Sweden and Finland. For approximately half of its length it contains the border between two countries. It rises at Lake Torne near the border with Norway and flows generally southeast for a distance of 522 kilometres into the Gulf of Bothnia and it is the largest river in Norrbotten both by length and by watershed area. The Torne basin has an area of 37,300 square kilometres or 40,147.1 square kilometres. Of this,25,392.2 km2 or 25,393.1 km2 is in Sweden,10,400 km2 or 14,266.3 km2 is in Finland and 1,500 km2 or 497.7 km2 is in Norway. The source of the Torne is generally believed to be Lake Torne near the border with Norway, but the main feeder of this lake is Abiskojåkka, flowing out of Abiskojaure, which is mainly fed by Kamajåkka, coming from Lake Gamajávri. This lakes major tributary is Válfojohka, above Torne lake, the watershed of the Torne includes the villages Riksgränsen, Katterjåkk, Vassijaure, Låktatjåkka, Kopperåsen and Tornehamn.
On the south shore of Torne lake are Björkliden, Stordalen, on the north shore are the Sami villages Laimoluokta and Kattuvuoma. Beyond the lake, the Torne River flows unhindered by any concentrations of human inhabitants until the village of Kurravaara, the river splits in two parts that only join at Kurravaara, the part between the river is Alajávri nature reserve. Between the lake and Kurravaara, the streams Čearrojogaš and Rávdojohka join on the side, and shortly befare Kurravaara. On the left side, the streams Gukkajohka, Reaskkajohka and Dápmokjohka join, in the area between the two streams, the Beallejohka joins the right arm from the left. After Kurravaara, the river proceeds Laxforsen, where it is joined from the right by the Luossajoki, here is the first bridge over the river for the road leading from the E10 to Laxforsen, Luossajärvi and Esrange. The river continues to Jukkasjärvi, where the Ice hotel is built in winter from the river ice, beyond Paksuniemi, the river is joined by the Pounujoki from the right.
At Vittangi, the 125. 7-kilometre long Vittangi river, which passes by Esrange, here is the second river-crossing bridge, used by the E45 to Karesuando. The river proceeds to Kuoksu, where it is crossed by the road to Lainio and Oksajärvi, and to Juopakosku, at Junosuando, the Torne river loses 56% of its water to the Tärendö River in one of the four bifurcations in the watershed area. Here is a bridge for the road to Kangos and Parkolombolo, shortly after Junosuando, the Piipionjoki joins from the left and at Palokorva, the 259. 74-kilometre long Lainio River joins from the left. Between Junosuando and Pajala, the Käymäjoki joins from the left and the Liviöjoki, the village Anttis is located on the left bank of the river, with Swedish road Riksväg 395 on the right bank, the fifth bridge connects Anttis to the main road. Shortly after Pajala, the Torne river joins with the 379. 88-kilometre long Muonio River, near Pajala are two more bridges going north
Karesuando is the northernmost locality in Sweden. It is situated in Kiruna Municipality, Norrbotten County, Sweden and it is a church village of Sweden, located at the Muonio River on the border with Finland. On the Finnish side of the river, the Finnish village of Karesuvanto is located, according to Finnish tradition they are one and the same village, but they are usually considered different, since there is a national border between them. The Lutheran vicar and botanist Lars Levi Laestadius served in Karesuando from 1826 to 1849 and it was here that he founded the revivalist movement known to this day as Laestadianism. The area is traditionally Finnish speaking, and the border was drawn for political reasons in 1809, of course a cultural and language difference has grown because of school and church influence. Karesuando is the northernmost point on European route E45, media related to Karesuando at Wikimedia Commons
Lars Levi Laestadius
Laestadius was a noted botanist and an author. Laestadius himself became a teetotaller in the 1840s, when he began successfully awakening his Sami parishioners to the misery, the family lived in poverty due to Carl Laestadiuss alcoholism and extended absences. Due to their benefactor half-brothers death in 1817, the boys were constantly short of funds from the outset of their university studies, Lars Levi proved to be a brilliant student. Because of his interest in botany, he was assistant in the botany department while pursuing studies in theology. Lars Levi Laestadius was ordained a Lutheran priest in 1825 by the bishop of Härnösand, in 1827 Laestadius married Brita Katarina Alstadius, a local Sami woman who was a childhood friend of his, and together they had twelve children, at least two of whom died in childhood. Laestadiuss first parish was at Arjeplog in Lapland, where he became the missionary for the Pite district. From 1826 to 1849 he was the vicar in Karesuando parish in Lapland, near the end of his tenure in Karesuando, Laestadius applied for the positions of dean in Pajala parish in Norrbotten County and inspector of the Lapland parishes.
After he complemented his exams in Härnösand as required, he took over these offices in 1849, at the time of Laestadiuss 1826 arrival in Karesuando, the people of Lapland parish suffered from widespread misery and alcoholism. Laestadius met a Sami woman named Milla Clementsdotter of Föllinge in the municipality of Krokom in Jämtland during an 1844 inspection tour of Åsele in Lapland. She belonged to a movement marked by pietistic and Moravian influences. She told Laestadius about her experiences on her journey to living faith and this was an important meeting for Laestadius because after it, he said he first understood the secret of living faith. He had an experience, and he wrote that he at last saw the path that leads to eternal life. His sermons acquired, in his own words, a new kind of colour to which people began to respond, the movement spread quickly from Sweden to Finland and Norway. Laestadius based his sermons on the Bible, according to an account from the Sami cultural perspective, he Sami began to notice that.
Laestadius had changed. His sermons were filled with metaphors from the lives of the Sami that they could understand. He preached about a God who cared about the lives of the people and he attacked priests and traders who lined their pockets at the expense of others. After twenty years, something new had begun to happen between the pastor and his parishioners and old alike wanted to learn to read. There was a bustle and energy in the church, with people confessing their sins, not everybody liked it, of course