Shell Canada Limited is the subsidiary of Anglo-Dutch Royal Dutch Shell and one of Canada's largest integrated oil companies. Exploration and production of oil, natural gas and sulphur is a major part of its business, as well as the marketing of gasoline and related products through the company's 1,800 stations across Canada. After a global reorganization by the European parent, Shell's North American operations are controlled by Shell Energy North America, headquartered in Houston, Texas. Shell Energy North America's Canadian operational unit, Shell Canada, maintains a regional corporate office in Calgary, Alberta. Shell Canada maintains a major office in Toronto, Ontario. Shell Canada's shares were independently traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange; the company was 78% owned by Royal Dutch Shell which in 2006 launched an $8.7-billion takeover of the 22% of Shell Canada that it didn't own. In March 2007 the shareholders of Shell Canada Ltd. accepted a $45.00 per share cash offer from Royal Dutch Shell Plc.
This acquisition was driven by the desire of the parent company to take total control of its Canadian division's unconventional resources the tar sands. The move was unanimously approved by the independent members of the board of directors. In 2003 Royal Dutch Shell had appointed a British executive, former Chairman of Shell in the UK, Clive Mather, as president and CEO of Shell Canada; as a consequence of the stock acquisition by Royal Dutch Shell, all Shell Canada executives holding stock options benefitted. Shell Canada announced on Mr Mather’s retirement from the company shortly after the acquisition was completed that his total pay package for his final year was $4.9-million Including bonuses, stock options and pension contributions and that on leaving the company, Mr. Mather was additionally eligible for a lump sum payment equal to his annual gross salary, his total benefit in that year was, therefore $9.8 million of which some $5 million was from exercised stock options, making him one of the highest remunerated employees in Royal Dutch Shell.
In 2006, Shell Canada acquired the tar sand developer BlackRock Ventures Inc. for C$2.4 billion. As a part of this deal, Shell acquired the Orion oil-sands project near Alberta. In May 2012, Shell announced. Current Shell Canada Directors are Michael Crothers, Andrew Dueck, Andrew Harris, Barry Tyndall and Zoe Yujnovich. In October 2008, Shell Canada Limited was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc. and was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine. That month, Shell Canada was named one of Alberta's Top Employers, announced by the Calgary Herald and the Edmonton Journal. Scotford Upgrader and Refinery: 100,000 bbl/d Corunna Refinery: 75,000 bbl/d Montreal East Refinery: 161,000 bbl/d Closed in 2010 Canadian Environment Awards Official website Shell.com – The Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies
Carleton University is a public comprehensive university in Ottawa, Canada. Founded in 1942 as Carleton College, a private, non-denominational evening college to serve veterans returning from World War II, the institution was chartered as a university by the provincial government in 1952 through the The Carleton University Act; the legislation was subsequently amended in 1957 to give the institution its current name. The university moved to its current campus in 1959, would expand throughout the 1960s amid broader efforts by the provincial government to increase support to post-secondary institutions and expand access to higher education. Carleton, which has produced more than 140,000 alumni, is reputed for its strength in a variety of fields such as humanities, international business, physics, computer science, many of the disciplines housed in its Faculty of Public Affairs; as well as having excellent student accommodation facilities. The university is named for the now-dissolved Carleton County, which included the city of Ottawa at the time the university was founded.
Carleton County, in turn, was named in honour of Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, who served as Governor General of Canada of The Canadas from 1786 to 1796. As of 2017, Carleton has enrolment of more than 25,000 undergraduate and more than 4,000 postgraduate students, its campus is located west of Old Ottawa South, within close proximity to The Glebe and Confederation Heights, is bounded to the north by the Rideau Canal and Dow's Lake and to the south by the Rideau River. Carleton competes in the U Sports league as the Carleton Ravens; the university is renowned for the strong performance of its men's basketball team, which won seven consecutive Canadian national championships between 2006 and 2017, in addition to 13 of the 15 championships since 2003. I learned early the life lesson that it is people, not buildings, that make up an institution, and if we put our hearts to it we can do something worthwhile. – Henry Marshall Tory Carleton College, a non-denominational institution, was founded in 1942 at the height of the Second World War by the Ottawa Association for the Advancement of Learning.
It began in a rented building and only offered night courses in public administration and introductory university subjects. When the war ended in 1945, the college began expanding to meet the needs of veterans coming home; the Faculty of Arts and Science was established, which included courses in journalism and first-year engineering. In 1946, the college moved to First Avenue in The Glebe neighbourhood, the former location of the Ottawa Ladies' College, its first degrees were conferred in 1946 to graduates of its programs in Journalism and Public Administration. For nearly a decade the college operated on a shoestring budget, with funds raised through community initiatives and modest student fees. During the war, student fees were kept low and Carleton gave special grants to veterans returning home who wished to continue their studies; the faculty was composed of part-time professors who worked full-time in the Public Service, some of whom were convinced to leave for full-time tenure positions.
However, full-time teaching staff were still young scholars at the beginning of their careers. In 1952, the Carleton College Act was passed by the Ontario Legislature, changing its corporate name to Carleton College and conferring the power to grant degrees. Carleton thus became the province's first non-sectarian college. In the same year, the 62-hectare property nestled between the Rideau Canal and the Rideau River on which the current campus is located was acquired; some of the land was donated by a prominent Ottawa businessman. Construction began on the new campus in 1953. In 1957, the Carleton University Act of 1952 was amended, granting Carleton status as a public university and thus changing its name to Carleton University. Carleton's motto, "Ours the Task Eternal," is taken from Walt Whitman's poem, Pioneers! O Pioneers!. The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority over all other matters.
The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. In 1959, construction was completed on the new Rideau River campus, Carleton moved to its current location; the original buildings included three that still stand today, the Maxwell MacOdrum Library, Norman Paterson Hall and the Henry Marshall Tory Building. Following this, Carleton expanded to meet the need for tertiary education in Canada; the policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. In 1967, a Catholic institution, Saint Patrick's College, was incorporated into Carleton. Founded in 1942, it had been granting its diplomas via the University of Ottawa. Both University of Ottawa and Saint Patrick's had been inaugurated by the Catholic order Oblates of Immaculate Mary; the college was housed in a building near the Pretoria Bridge.
Around 1973, a new building was erected on the Carleton campus proper. The college was dissolved as a separate entity after the 1979 academic year, its final dean was Gerald Clarke, a professor fro
Parkwood Hills is a neighbourhood in Knoxdale-Merivale Ward in the west end of Ottawa, Canada. Prior to amalgamation in 2001, it was located in the City of Nepean, it is notable for the thriller Parkwood Hills, filmed on location in the area by Kolin Casagrande, for being a typical and illustrative example of town planning and development by Minto in the context of its position as the property manager for the National Capital Commission. Central to this development is Meadowlands Drive to the north, bounded to the east by Fisher Avenue and to the west by Merivale Road. Image, it is in River Ward, in Knoxdale-Merivale Ward, expanded in 2006. The councillor for River is Maria McRae, for Knoxdale Merivale it is Keith Egli, replacing the perennial incumbent, Gord Hunter, who retired prior to the 2010 Municipal Election, it is known. The farmhouse was taken over by the Parkwood Presbyterian Church. Farming was challenging in some respects, due to animal predation and fire risk. Parkwood Hills is the name given to a residential development to the east of the section of Ottawa known as Nepean.
One possible source for the name is Parkwood Hill, the fictional suburban setting for the 1948-1969 UK radio series Mrs Dale's Diary. It is a mixed-dwelling suburb, having apartment blocks, townhouses and an assortment of single-family houses; the development is the work of the building company, which maintains ownership of many of the multi-residence buildings. The tract has been developed over the past half-century and is complete; the development was planned by architect John Russell in 1959. He see Ottawa urban planning; the building took place between 1959 and 1972. In 1967 Minto built the first high-rise condominium development in Canada, called Horizon House, located on Meadowlands Drive at Chesterton. Suburban development flourished in the 1950s and'60s, with Ottawa companies, including Minto and Campeau Corporation building slews of suburban singles in Elmvale Acres, Parkwood Hills and similar areas, many of them in the 1,200-square-foot range; the movie Parkwood Hills was made on location here in 2002 by Kolin Casagrande, who produced The Walkers in 2004.
It is a "short horror film, made as part of a project that assigned filmmakers to make short films with a horror theme," and was shown as part of a Halloween entertainment in Ottawa in 2007. Since the plot centres on the fears of a babysitter, it falls into the horror-of-personality subgenre. Public schools in Nepean are administered by Ottawa-Carleton District School Board. Catholic schools are administered by the Ottawa-Carleton Catholic School Board. Amalgamation of some schools has been recommended, due to a fall in student numbers. Parkwood Hills Public School closed in 2010 after a low decline in students. Students afterwards went to Sir Winston Churchill. Des Laurier High School has an active basketball team which played a friendly against the local police in May 2009. Parkwood Hills Public School won a Health Pennant from the Ministry of Health on 4 May 2007, took part in the Who is Nobody program in 2009. Huron Towers Preschool/Kindergarten Child Care Centre caters for 44 children. In 2010 the Child Care Center moved to a new, environmentally friendly building where it will cater for 47 children on Capilano Drive and Beaver Ridge.
St. Luke’s Child Care Center caters for 47 children; this center operates outside visits. 115th Parkwood Hills Scouts meets weekly from fall through spring, holds meetings for Beavers and Sea Scouts. Parkwood Presbyterian Church in Chesterton drive was built in 1974, but its first service was held in Parkwood Hills Public School in 1964. Due to expansion in attendance, a congregation was formed in 1965, the Mulvagh farmhouse - at the corner of Meadowlands and Chesterton - became the manse, with the congregation's first full-time minister. Between 1965 and 2009 there have only been three resident ministers. Fundraising provided for the new church building. Due to further growth of the congregation, an expansion fund was set up in the early 1980s; the old manse was renovated to become the Fellowship Centre in 1989, with a wheelchair ramp added in 1990. In 1996 the church building was expanded, the congregation was involved in various missions in 1996 and 1998; this is a church-going community, surrounded by other neighbourhoods, so that the only church in Parkwood does not have a monopoly on the local faithful.
For example, those with a different outlook can attend Trinity United Church in a neighbouring neighbourhood, which mentions open minds and inclusivity on its website. This community includes parks, tennis courts and retail areas. A neighbourhood bonfire takes place at Halloween. Parkwood Hills Recreation Centre is on Merivale Road. General Burns park, named after E. L. M. Burns, contains an outdoor public swimming pool, 4 tennis courts, baseball field, soccer field and a children's play area; the General Burns Community Centre is in a 1950s log cabin, offers recreational and community programs, which include pilates, taekwondo, 117th Company Pathfinders, 115th Parkwood Hills Scout group, Duffer Doo and Parkwood Hills Softball Association. In winter from mid-December the park operates children's ice pad. Parkwood Hills Softball Association operates youth and adult softball
Road speed limits are used in most countries to set the maximum speed at which road vehicles may travel on particular stretches of road. Speed limits may be variable and in some places speed is unlimited. Speed limits are indicated on a traffic sign. Speed limits are set by the legislative bodies of nations or provincial governments and enforced by national or regional police or judicial authorities; the first maximum speed limit was the 10 mph limit introduced in the United Kingdom in 1861. The highest posted speed limit in the world is 160 km/h, which applies to two motorways in the UAE. However, some roads have no speed limit for certain classes of vehicles. Most famous are Germany's less congested Autobahns, where automobile drivers have no mandated maximum speed. Measurements from the German state of Brandenburg in 2006 showed average speeds of 142 km/h on a 6-lane section of autobahn in free-flowing conditions. Rural roads on the Isle of Man and the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana lack speed limits.
In Europe, speed limits are considered as part of the speed management policy. There are several reasons for wanting to regulate speed on roads, it is done to improve road traffic safety and reduce the number of casualties from traffic collisions. In the World report on road traffic injury prevention report, the World Health Organization identify speed control as one of various interventions to contribute to a reduction in road casualties. Speed limits may be set to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic and to satisfy local community concerns for the safety of pedestrians; some cities have reduced limits to as little as 30 km/h for both efficiency reasons. Sometimes, however changing a speed limit has little effect on the average speed of cars. In situations where the natural road speed is considered too high by governments, notably in urban areas where speed limits are set below 50 km/h traffic calming is also used. For some classes of vehicle, speed limiters may be mandated to enforce compliance.
Since their introduction, speed limits have been opposed by some motoring advocacy groups. The United Kingdom Stage Carriage Act 1832 first introduced the offense of endangering the safety of a passenger or person by'furious driving'; the first numeric speed limits were created in the UK by a series of Locomotive Acts. The Locomotives on Highways Act 1896, which raised the speed limit to 14 mph is celebrated to this day by the annual London to Brighton Veteran Car Run; the first person to be convicted of speeding is believed to be Walter Arnold of East Peckham, who on 28 January 1896 was fined for speeding at 8 mph. He was fined 1 shilling plus costs. In the UK 20 mph speed was allowed in 1903. In Australia, during the early 20th century, there were people reported for "furious driving" offences. One conviction in 1905 cited furiously driving 20 mph when passing a tram traveling at half that speed. In the 1960s, in continental Europe, some speed limit were established based on the V85 speed. Sweden defined the Vision Zero program.
Most jurisdictions use the metric speed unit of kilometers per hour for speed limits, while some the United States and the United Kingdom, use speed limits given in miles per hour. There is an ongoing discussion as to whether they should follow the lead of other countries and switch to using metric units. Main article: Basic Speed Law or Rule. In countries bounded by Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, article 13 defines a basic rule for Speed and distance between vehicles: Every driver of a vehicle shall in all circumstances have his vehicle under control so as to be able to exercise due and proper care and to be at all times in a position to perform all manœuvres required of him, he shall, when adjusting the speed of his vehicle, pay constant regard to the circumstances, in particular the lie of the land, the state of the road, the condition and load of his vehicle, the weather conditions and the density of traffic, so as to be able to stop his vehicle within his range of forward vision and short of any foreseeable obstruction.
He shall slow down and if necessary stop whenever circumstances so require, when visibility is not good. Drivers are required to drive at a safe speed for conditions. In the United States, this requirement is referred to as the basic rule, but more in Britain and elsewhere in common law as the reasonable man requirement; the German Highway Code section on speed begins with a statement which may be rendered in English: Any person driving a vehicle may only drive so fast that the car is under control. Speeds must be adapted to the road, traffic and weather conditions as well as the personal skills and characteristics of the vehicle and load. In France the law clarifies that if speed is limited by law and by local authority, the driver assumes the responsibility to control his vehicle's speed, to reduce speed in various circumstances, such as overtaking a pedestrian, or bicycles, individually or in a group, when overtaking a stoppe
Hog's Back Road
Hog's Back Road is a 1 km road in Ottawa, Canada. The road connects Meadowlands Drive and Prince of Wales Drive to Riverside Drive and Brookfield Road; the road is used as the boundary line between Hog's Back Park. It goes over the dam creating Mooney's Bay and Hog's Back Falls, continues over the Hog's Back swing bridge over the Rideau Canal, to allow taller boats navigating the canal to pass; the road runs past the spot where the Rideau Canal separates from the Rideau River. Prince of Wales Drive / Meadowlands DriveHog's Back BridgeColonel By DriveBridge over Rideau River and Hog's Back FallsRiverside Drive / Brookfield Road
Ontario Highway 417
King's Highway 417 referred to as Highway 417 and the Queensway through Ottawa, is a 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. It connects Montreal with Ottawa, is the backbone of the transportation system in the National Capital Region. Within Ottawa, it forms part of the Queensway west from Highway 7 to Ottawa Regional Road 174. Highway 417 extends from the Quebec border to Arnprior, where it continues westward as Highway 17. Aside from the urban section through Ottawa, Highway 417 passes through farmland that dominates much of the fertile Ottawa Valley. Within Ottawa, the Queensway was built as part of a grand plan for the city between 1957 and 1966, reconstructed to its present form throughout the 1980s; the eastern section, from Gloucester to the Quebec border, opened in 1975 in preparation for the 1976 Montreal Olympics. Sections west of Ottawa have been under construction since the mid-1970s, with the section bypassing Arnprior opening on November 29, 2012 and another 5.3 km stretch in December 2016.
Highway 417 is a 181.4 km controlled-access highway that traverses the lower Ottawa Valley and upper St. Lawrence Valley, bypassing the two-lane Highway 17 and providing a high-speed connection between Montreal and Ottawa via A-40; the freeway has gradually been extended northwest from Ottawa alongside the old highway to its current terminus in Arnprior. Highway 417 has 42 interchanges from the Quebec border to Arnprior, with more planned as the highway is extended westward. Unlike other highways in Ontario and most of North America, exits are numbered from east to west. While a significant portion of Highway 417 is a rural four lane freeway divided by a grass median, the section within urban Ottawa is a busy commuter route as wide as eight lanes; the portion of the route from the Highway 7 interchange east to the Split – a large four-way interchange between Highway 417, Ottawa Regional Road 174 and the Aviation Parkway – is known formally as the Queensway, although no indication of this name appears on any signage.
Highway 417 begins at the border between the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, east of which the four lane freeway continues as Autoroute 40. The route proceeds west along the former alignment of Highway 17, it passes through a forested and agricultural landscape en route to Ottawa, serving the communities of Hawkesbury, Vankleek Hill, Casselman and Vars. After 9 km the route curves southwest while ramps provide access from the westbound lanes to Prescott and Russell County Road 17 and from County Road 17 to the eastbound lanes of Highway 417; the route meets the southern terminus of Highway 34 at Exit 27. Continuing southwest, the route meanders along the boundary between The Nation and North Glengarry encountering the northern terminus of Highway 138—a highway built to connect Highway 417 with Highway 401 and Cornwall—east of Casselman. At this point, the freeway enters The Nation and diverges from the boundary. After crossing a Via Rail line, the route dips south of Casselman and curves to the west at Exit 66.
It parallels the Via Rail line several kilometres north of the freeway, though significant deviations bypass the communities of Benoit and Limoges. Near Limoges is the Larose Forest, a man-made forest planted between 1928 and 1980 over the Bourget Desert, itself created as the result of clear cutting in the 19th century. At Exit 88, Highway 417 enters the city of Ottawa, though the surroundings remain unchanged until Exit 110, near Ramsayville. North of Ramsayville, the route jogs abruptly to the west as it crosses Greens Creek and enters the suburbs of Ottawa; the freeway merges with the Queensway at a large multi-level interchange known locally as the Split, curving to the west and into downtown Ottawa. The interchange provides access to Aviation Parkway from westbound Highway 417 and from the parkway to eastbound Highway 417. Within Ottawa, the Queensway extends from Orleans in the east and passes just south of downtown through central Ottawa to Kanata in the west. Two major interchanges anchor either end of this section: in the east, Highway 417 diverges south towards Montreal at the split, while the Queensway continues east as Ottawa Regional Road 174 and Aviation Parkway branches north.
The core section of the Queensway is eight lanes wide, four per carriageway. The freeway is elevated on a berm along some central portions of the route, providing views of downtown and the Gatineau Hills to the north; this section was constructed along a former Canadian National Railway railbed. The route bisects central Ottawa with downtown and the Parliament Buildings lay to the north of the highway and residential neighbourhoods including the Glebe to the south. Towards the Richmond Road interchange, the original western terminus of the Queensway, both sides of the freeway are lined by residential subdivisions. Between Eagleson/March Road and Moodie Drive in the west and between Blair Road and Place d'Orléans Drive in the east, a bus-only shoulder is used by OCTranspo's Transitway rapid-transit network. Several spaced exits serve the downtown core of Ottawa, including Nicholas Street, Bronson Avenue and Metcalfe Street. West of the interchange with Highway 416, the freeway enters the suburb of Kanata and travels through it in an east–west direction.
At Exit 145, the route encounters the ea
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th