A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold water to enable swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground or built above ground, are a common feature aboard ocean-liners and cruise ships. In-ground pools are most constructed from materials such as concrete, natural stone, plastic or fiberglass, can be of a custom size and shape or built to a standardized size, the largest of, the Olympic-size swimming pool. Many health clubs, fitness centers and private clubs have pools used for exercise or recreation. Many towns and cities provide public pools. Many hotels have pools available for their guests to use at their leisure. Educational facilities such as universities have pools for physical education classes, recreational activities, leisure or competitive athletics such as swimming teams. Hot tubs and spas are pools filled with hot water, used for relaxation or hydrotherapy, are common in homes and health clubs. Special swimming pools are used for diving, specialized water sports, physical therapy as well as for the training of lifeguards and astronauts.
Swimming pools may be unheated. The "Great Bath" at the site of Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan was most the first swimming pool, dug during the 3rd millennium BC; this pool is 12 by 7 metres, is lined with bricks, was covered with a tar-based sealant. Ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training in the palaestras, for nautical games and for military exercises. Roman emperors had private swimming pools in which fish were kept, hence one of the Latin words for a pool was piscina; the first heated swimming pool was built by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in the 1st century BC. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman considered one of the first patrons of arts. Ancient Sinhalese built pairs of pools called "Kuttam Pokuna" in the kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC, they were decorated with flights of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance, scroll design. Swimming pools became popular in Britain in the mid-19th century; as early as 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards existed in England.
The Maidstone Swimming Club in Maidstone, Kent is believed to be the oldest surviving swimming club in Britain. It was formed in 1844, in response to concerns over drownings in the River Medway since would-be rescuers would drown because they themselves could not swim to safety; the club used to swim in the River Medway, would hold races, diving competitions and water polo matches. The South East Gazette July 1844 reported an aquatic breakfast party: coffee and biscuits were served on a floating raft in the river; the coffee was kept hot over a fire. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of 150 spectators; the Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869 in England, the Oxford Swimming Club in 1909. The presence of indoor baths in the cobbled area of Merton Street might have persuaded the less hardy of the aquatic brigade to join. So, bathers became swimmers, bathing pools became swimming pools.. In 1939, Oxford created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley.
The modern Olympic Games started in 1896 and included swimming races, after which the popularity of swimming pools began to spread. In the US, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia clubhouse boasts one of the world's first modern above-ground swimming pools; the first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean liner was installed on the White Star Line's Adriatic in 1906. The oldest known public swimming pool in America, Underwood Pool, is located in Belmont, Massachusetts. Interest in competitive swimming grew following World War I. Standards improved and training became essential. Home swimming pools became popular in the United States after World War II and the publicity given to swimming sports by Hollywood films such as Esther Williams' Million Dollar Mermaid made a home pool a desirable status symbol. More than 50 years the home or residential swimming pool is a common sight; some small nations enjoy a thriving swimming pool industry. A two-storey, white concrete swimming pool building composed of horizontal cubic volumes built in 1959 at the Royal Roads Military College is on the Registry of Historic Places of Canada.
According to the Guinness World Records, the largest swimming pool in the world is San Alfonso del Mar Seawater pool in Algarrobo, Chile. It has an area of 8 ha. At its deepest, it is 3.5 m deep. It was completed in December 2006; the largest indoor wave pool in North America is at the West Edmonton Mall and the largest indoor pool is at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab in the Sonny Carter Training Facility at NASA JSC in Houston. In 2014, the Y-40 swimming pool at the Hotel Terme Millepini in Padua, Italy became the deepest indoor pool, certified by the Guinness Book of World Records The recreational diving center Nemo 33 near Brussels, Belgium held the record until the Y-40 was completed; the Fleishhacker Pool in San Francisco was the largest heated outdoor swimming pool in the United States. Opened on 23 April 1925, it measured 1,000 by 150 ft and was so large that the lifeguards required kayaks for patrol, it was closed in 1971 due to low patronage. In Europe, the largest swimming pool opened in 1934 in Elbląg, providing a water area of 33,500 square metres (3
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design is one of the most popular green building certification programs used worldwide. Developed by the non-profit U. S. Green Building Council it includes a set of rating systems for the design, construction and maintenance of green buildings and neighborhoods that aims to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently. Development of LEED began in 1993, spearheaded by Natural Resources Defense Council senior scientist Robert K. Watson; as founding chairman of the LEED Steering Committee, Watson led a broad-based consensus process until 2007, bringing together non-profit organizations, government agencies, engineers, builders, product manufacturers and other industry leaders. The LEED initiative was supported by a strong USGBC Board of Directors, chaired by Steven Winter from 1999 to 2003, active staff, including Nigel Howard. At that time, USGBC’s Senior Vice President of LEED, Scot Horst, became chair of the LEED Steering Committee before joining USGBC staff.
Early LEED committee members included USGBC co-founder Mike Italiano, architects Bill Reed and Sandy Mendler, builders Gerard Heiber and Myron Kibbe, engineer Richard Bourne. As interest in LEED grew, in 1996, engineers Tom Paladino and Lynn Barker co-chaired the newly formed LEED technical committee. From 1994 to 2015, LEED grew from one standard for new construction to a comprehensive system of interrelated standards covering aspects from the design and construction to the maintenance and operation of buildings. LEED has grown from six volunteers on one committee to 119,924 staff and professionals. LEED standards have been applied to 83,452 registered and certified LEED projects worldwide, covering around 13.8 billion square feet. Many U. S. federal agencies and states and local governments require or reward LEED certification. However, four states have banned the use of LEED in new public buildings, preferring other industry standards that the USGBC considers too lax. Unlike model building codes, such as the International Building Code, only members of the USGBC and specific "in-house" committees may add to, subtract from, or edit the standard, subject to an internal review process.
Proposals to modify the LEED standards are offered and publicly reviewed by USGBC's member organizations, which number 12,216. USGBC's Green Business Certification Inc. offers various accreditation to people who demonstrate knowledge of the LEED rating system, including LEED Accredited Professional, LEED Green Associate, since 2011, LEED Fellows, the highest designation for LEED professionals. GBCI certifies projects pursuing LEED. LEED has evolved since 1998 to more represent and incorporate emerging green building technologies; the pilot version, LEED New Construction v1.0, led to LEED NCv2.0, LEED NCv2.2 in 2005, LEED 2009 in 2009. LEED v4 was introduced in November, 2013; until October 31, 2016, new projects could choose between LEED 2009 and LEED v4. New projects registering after October 31, 2016 have been required to use LEED v4. LEED 2009 encompasses ten rating systems for the design and operation of buildings and neighborhoods. Five overarching categories correspond to the specialties available under the LEED professional program.
That suite consists of: Green Building Design & Construction LEED for New Construction LEED for Core & Shell LEED for Schools LEED for Retail: New Construction and Major Renovations LEED for HealthcareGreen Interior Design & Construction LEED for Commercial Interiors LEED for Retail: Commercial InteriorsGreen Building Operations & Maintenance LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & MaintenanceGreen Neighborhood Development LEED for Neighborhood DevelopmentGreen Home Design and Construction LEED for Homes LEED forms the basis for other sustainability rating systems such as the Environmental Protection Agency's Labs21. To make it easier to follow LEED requirements, in 2009 USGBC helped BuildingGreen develop LEEDuser, a guide to the LEED certification process and applying for LEED credits written by professionals in the field. After four years of development, aligning credit across all LEED rating systems and weighing credits based on environmental priority, USGBC launched LEED v3, which consists of a new continuous development process, a new version of LEED Online, a revised third-party certification program and a new suite of rating systems known as LEED 2009.
Under LEED 2009, there are 100 possible base points distributed across six credit categories: "Sustainable Sites", "Water Efficiency", "Energy and Atmosphere", "Materials and Resources", "Indoor Environmental Quality", "Innovation in Design". Up to 10 additional points may be earned: four additional points may be received for Regional Priority Credits, six additional points for Innovation in Design. Buildings can qualify for four levels of certification: Certified: 40–49 points Silver: 50-59 points Gold: 60-79 points Platinum: 80 points and above The LEED 2009 performance credit system aims to allocate points "based on the potential environmental impacts and human benefits of each credit." These are weighed using the environmental impact categories of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Tools for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts. and the environmental-impact weighting
Community centres or community centers are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community. Community centres can be religious in nature, such as Christian, Islamic, or Jewish community centres, or can be secular, such as youth clubs. Community centres perform many the following functions in its community; as the place for all-community celebrations at various occasions and traditions. As the place for public meetings of the citizens on various issues; as the place where politicians or other official leaders come to meet the citizens and ask for their opinions, support or votes. As a place where community members meet each other socially; as a place housing local clubs and volunteer activities. As a place that community members, can rent cheaply when a private family function or party is too big for their own home.
For instance the non-religious parts of weddings, funerals etc. As a place that retells local history; as a place where local non-government activities are organised. As a place where indoor circuses can entertain the paying public; as a place of relief in instances of community tragedies. Around the world there appear to be four common ways in which the operation of the kind of community centre are owned and organised. In the following description "Government" may refer to the ordinary secular government or to a dominant religious organisation such as the Roman Catholic Church. Community owned: The centre is directly owned and run by the local community through an organization separate from the official governmental institutions of the area, but with the full knowledge and sometimes funding from government institutions. Example:. Government owned: The centre is a public government facility, though it is used for non-government community activities and may have some kind of local leadership elected from its community.
Example:. Kominkan Sponsored: A rich citizen or commercial corporation owns the place and donates its use to the community for reasons of charity or public relations. Example:; each individual community centre has its own peculiar origin and history, though some variants seem to be common. Built as such. Buildings have been erected to function as community centres at least as far back as the 1880 even earlier. Disused public building; when an official government building is no longer needed for its original purpose, it is sometimes offered to the community as gift, loan or sale. Disused commercial building; when a commercial building of some local importance is no longer used, it is sometimes sold or donated to the community. Building that served many of the community centre purposes in addition to a different primary use, acquired so it could continue these functions after its primary use subsided. Early forms of community centres in the United States were based in schools providing facilities to inner city communities out of school hours.
An early celebrated example of this is to be found in Rochester, New York from 1907. Edward J. Ward, a Presbyterian minister, joined the Extension Department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, organizing the Wisconsin Bureau of Civic and Social Development. By 1911 they organized a country-wide conference on schools as social centres. Despite concerns expressed by politicians and public officials that they might provide a focus for alternative political and social activity, the idea was successful. In 1916, with the foundation of the National Community Center Association, the term Community Center was used in the US. By 1918 there were community centres in 107 US cities, in 240 cities by 1924. By 1930 there were nearly 500 centres with more than four million people attending; the first of these was Public School 63, located in the Lower East Side. Clinton Child's, one of the organizers, described it as "A Community organized about some centre for its own political and social welfare and expression.
In the UK many villages and towns have their own Community Centre, although nearby schools may offer their assembly or dining hall after school for Community Centre activities. For example, local schools near Ouston may host dance, or sporting activities provided by a local community centre. Parks are considered community centres. Another pioneer of community centres was Mary Parker Follett, who saw community centres as playing a major part in her concept of community development and democracy seen through individuals organizing themselves into neighbourhood groups, attending to people's needs and aspirations; this can include parks. In the United Kingdom, the oldest community centre is that, established in 1901 in Thringstone, Leiceste
Mississauga Library System
The Mississauga Library System is the public library system of Mississauga, Ontario. The system has 18 branches, consisting of the Mississauga Central Library and 17 smaller neighbourhood libraries; the Library offers many services and programs such as story times, March Break activities and a telephone dial-a-story service. Resources range from advice to parents on choosing books to internet resources for kids. Information and reference services Access to full text databases Community information Internet access Reader's advisory services Programs for children and adults Delivery to homebound individuals Interlibrary loan Free downloadable audiobooks e-books Exam proctoring The Mississauga Central Library is located at 301 Burnhamthorpe Road West, adjacent to the Mississauga Civic Centre, it is the largest branch of the Mississauga Library System, containing four floors of materials and a further floor for silent study, has functioned as the main library for the system since its opening in 1991.
Ontario Public Libraries Ask Ontario Official website
Squash is a ball sport played by two or four players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball. The players must alternate in striking the ball with their racquet and hit the ball onto the playable surfaces of the four walls of the court; the game was called squash rackets, a reference to the "squashable" soft ball used in the game. The governing body of Squash, the World Squash Federation is recognised by the International Olympic Committee, but the sport is not part of the Olympic Games, despite a number of applications. Supporters continue to lobby for its incorporation in a future Olympic program; the use of stringed rackets is shared with real tennis, which dates from the late sixteenth century, though is more directly descended from the game of rackets from England. In "rackets", instead of hitting over a net as in sports such as tennis, players hit a squeezable ball against walls. Squash was invented in Harrow School out of the older game rackets around 1830 before the game spread to other schools becoming an international sport.
The first courts built at this school were rather dangerous because they were near water pipes, buttresses and ledges. The school soon built four outside courts. Natural rubber was the material of choice for the ball. Students modified their rackets to have a smaller reach to play in these cramped conditions; the rackets have changed in a similar way to those used in tennis. Squash rackets used to be made out of laminated timber. In the 1980s, construction shifted to lighter materials with small additions of components like Kevlar and titanium. Natural "gut" strings were replaced with synthetic strings. In the 19th century the game increased in popularity with various schools and private citizens building squash courts, but with no set dimensions; the first squash court in North America appeared at St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire in 1884. In 1904 in Philadelphia, the earliest national association of squash in the world was formed as the United States Squash rackets Association, now known as U.
S. Squash. In April 1907 the Tennis, rackets & Fives Association set up a sub committee to set standards for squash; the sport soon formed, combining the three sports together called “Squash”. In 1912, the RMS Titanic had a squash court in first class; the 1st-Class Squash Court was situated on G-Deck and the Spectators Viewing Gallery was on the deck above on F-Deck. To use the Court cost 50 cents in 1912. Passengers could use the court for 1 hour, it was not until 1923 that the Royal Automobile Club hosted a meeting to further discuss the rules and regulations and another five years elapsed before the Squash rackets Association was formed to set standards for squash in Great Britain. Standard rackets are governed by the rules of the game. Traditionally they were made with a small strung area using natural gut strings. After a rule change in the mid-1980s, they are now always made of composite materials or metals with synthetic strings. Modern rackets have maximum dimensions of 686 mm long and 215 mm wide, with a maximum strung area of 500 square centimetres.
The permitted maximum weight is 255 grams. Squash balls are between 39.5 and 40.5 mm in diameter, have a weight of 23 to 25 grams. They are made with two pieces of rubber compound, glued together to form a hollow sphere and buffed to a matte finish. Different balls are provided for varying temperature and atmospheric conditions and standards of play: more experienced players use slow balls that have less bounce than those used by less experienced players. Depending on its specific rubber composition, a squash ball has the property that it bounces more at higher temperatures. Squash balls must be hit dozens of times to warm them up at the beginning of a session. Small colored dots on the ball indicate its dynamic level, thus the standard of play for which it is suited; the recognized speed colors indicating the degree of dynamism are: Some ball manufacturers such as Dunlop use a different method of grading balls based on experience. They still have the equivalent dot rating, but are named to help choose a ball, appropriate for one's skill level.
The four different ball types are Intro, Progress and Pro. The "double-yellow dot" ball, introduced in 2000, is the competition standard, replacing the earlier "yellow-dot" ball. There is an "orange dot" ball for use at high altitudes. Players wear comfortable sports clothing. In competition, men wear shorts and a T-shirt, tank top or a polo shirt. Women wear a skirt or skort and a T-shirt or a tank top, or a sports dress; the National Institutes of Health recommends wearing goggles with polycarbonate lenses. Many squash venues mandate the use of eye protection and some association rules require that all juniors and doubles players must wear eye protection; the squash court is a playing surface surrounded by four walls. The court surface contains a front line separating the front and back of the court and a half court line, separating the left and right hand sides of the back portion of the court, creating three'boxes': the front half, the back left quarter and the back right quarter. Both the back two boxes
Meadowvale is a large suburban district located in the northwestern part of Mississauga, Canada, just west of Toronto. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Meadowvale Village in Toronto Township was established nearby and named for the meadows along the Credit River. By the 1970s the village would diminish with the current area to the west selected to be the site of a "new town" for the newly incorporated City of Mississauga and took the Meadowvale name; this newer section comprises the bulk of the district today. Meadowvale is located at 43°45′0″N 79°48′0″W; the community is situated near the Credit River. Mixed forest is located along the Credit River valley which covers most of the central part of the district. Another creek named Levi Creek runs to the south and southwest and is a tributary of the Credit lying to the south; the rough boundaries of Meadowvale are: Mavis Road, Highway 401, Britannia Road. Meadowvale has two lakes and Wabukayne, both of which were man-made. A system of parks and trails connects the two lakes.
Population of Meadowvale as a whole 1996: 63,095 2001: 84,225 2006: 99,700 2009: 104,540 For planning purposes the city of Mississauga is divided into 24 districts. Here are the estimated 2009 populations for districts which comprise the area known as Meadowvale. Meadowvale 43,500 Lisgar 34,500 Meadowvale Village 26,500 Percentage visible minority population1996: 22.6% 2001: 31.6% 2009: 46.6% Breakdown of visible minority population as of 2009 South Asian 24.3% Black 11.7% Chinese 6.4% Filipino 5.2% Arab/West Asian 3.8% Latin American 3.2% Meadowvale Village was established in 1819 by Irish immigrants from New York state lead by John Beatty. In the village's early years, the main industry was milling, with the mills drawing power from the Credit River. Gooderham and Worts owned and operated many businesses in the village in the 1860s and 1870s, including a mill; the historic village was named for the meadows along the Credit River. The village was frequented by Group of Seven artists A. Y. Jackson and A.
J. Casson whom painted nearby scenes. Casson frequented the area. There are some traces of the former village including Old Derry Road Bridge over Credit River, Commercial Hotel, Millworker Houses, Meadowvale Village Hall and Exous Apostolic Church on Second Line West; the current community of Meadowvale was created. The multi-lane, controlled access MacDonald-Cartier Freeway known as Kings Highway 401, was opened south of Meadowvale Village in 1959. In 1968, Meadowvale was incorporated into the new Town of Mississauga. In the 1970s, farmland west of the original Meadowvale Village was developed into a series of subdivisions that make up much of present-day Meadowvale; this area has continued to expand since, now fills most of the northwest corner of Mississauga. Meadowvale Village remains and is located adjacent to the largest business park area in Mississauga, with the second largest being located in between Meadowvale Village and Meadowvale along the Highway 401 corridor, where numerous major corporations have located their offices and research and development facilities, including: Wal-Mart Canada - Retailer Chrysler Canada - Car Siemens - Electronics GlaxoSmithKline - Pharmaceuticals Magna International - Auto Parts Microsoft - Software Tech Data - Computer parts distributor Biovail - Bio-medical DuPont - Chemicals Fujitsu - Computer Mitutoyo - Measuring Equipment Sandvik - Materials and Metallurgy FANUC Robotics - CNC controllers Snap-on - Tools Purolator Courier - Courier Royal Bank of Canada - Bank Maple Leaf Foods - Food Manufacturer Tech Data - IT components distributor Mary Kay - Cosmetics Royal LePage Meadowtowne Realty D-Link - Computer/Networking Parts Vivid Entertainment - Adult services Ashley Madison - Dating WebsiteIn recognition of its many historical buildings, Meadowvale Village was recognized as Ontario’s first Heritage Conservation District in 1980.
To reduce traffic through the village, the Derry Road by-pass was built in the mid-1990s. Located about one kilometre north of the Old Derry Road, the new Derry Road is a major east-west traffic artery running from Mississauga Road to Mavis Road. In June 2006, Meadowvale found itself in an international media spotlight, as a number of former Meadowvale Secondary School students were among those charged in an alleged terror plot to bomb well-known Canadian buildings and assassinate political leaders. Meadowvale is accessed via Highway 401 via Winston Churchill Boulevard, Mississauga Road, or Mavis Road; the tolled Highway 407 bypasses Meadowvale along its northern border before continuing south to Oakville and east to Brampton. Winston Churchill Blvd. Erin Mills Parkway and Mavis Road are major north-south roads that connect Meadowvale to the rest of Mississauga and neighbouring Brampton. Derry and Britannia Roads are major east-west roads. Meadowvale GO Station serves as a hub for GO Transit operations.
It is an intersection point for GO Transit in the north west of the GTA. The station is serviced by three bus lines; the station offers express hourly service to the two largest transit hubs in the GTA, York University and Union Station. The station is located along the Milton Line rail line, which offers rush hour train service to downtown in the morning and from downtown in the evening. Bus service is provided during non-rush hour periods. York University Express along Highway 407. With some service via Bramalea GO Station and Highway 407 & Hurontario. Milton 401 service - Milton via Meadowvale to Yorkdale a