Labrador is a geographic and cultural region within the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It comprises the mainland portion of the province, separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle, it is northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada. Labrador occupies the eastern part of the Labrador Peninsula, it is bordered to the south by the Canadian province of Quebec. Labrador shares a small land border with the Canadian territory of Nunavut on Killiniq Island. Though Labrador covers 71 percent of the province's land area, it has only 8 percent of the province's population; the aboriginal peoples of Labrador include the Northern Inuit of Nunatsiavut, the Southern Inuit-Métis of Nunatukavut, the Innu. Many of the non-aboriginal population in Labrador did not permanently settle in Labrador until the natural resource developments of the 1940s and 1950s. Before the 1950s, few non-aboriginal people lived in Labrador year-round; the few European immigrants who worked seasonally for foreign merchants and brought their families were known as settlers.
Labrador is named after João Fernandes Lavrador, a Portuguese explorer who sailed along the coasts of the Peninsula in 1498–99. Lavrador in Portuguese means "farmer". Either in Spanish does. Labrador has a triangular shape that encompasses the easternmost section of the Canadian Shield, a sweeping geographical region of thin soil and abundant mineral resources, its western border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands that drain into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, while lands that drain into Hudson Bay are part of Quebec. Northern Labrador's climate is classified as polar, while Southern Labrador's climate is classified as subarctic. Labrador can be divided into four geographical regions: the North Coast, Central Labrador, Western Labrador, the South Coast; each of those regions is described below. From Cape Chidley to Hamilton Inlet, the long, northern tip of Labrador holds the Torngat Mountains, named after an Inuit spirit believed to inhabit them; the mountains stretch along the coast from Port Manvers to Cape Chidley, the northernmost point of Labrador.
The Torngat Mountain range is home to Mount Caubvick, the highest point in the province. This area is predominantly Inuit, with the small Innu community of Natuashish being the exception; the north coast is the most isolated region of Labrador, with snowmobiles and planes being the only modern modes of transportation. The largest community in this region is Nain. Nunatsiavut is an Inuit self-government region in Labrador created on June 23, 2000; the Settlement area comprises the majority of Labrador's North Coast, while the land-use area includes land farther to the interior and in Central Labrador. Nain is the administrative center of Nunatsiavut. Central Labrador extends from the shores of Lake Melville into the interior, it contains the largest river in Labrador and one of the largest in Canada. The hydroelectric dam at Churchill Falls is the second-largest underground power station in the world. Most of the supply is bought by Hydro-Québec under a long-term contract; the Lower Churchill Project will develop the remaining potential of the river and supply it to provincial consumers.
Known as "the heart of the Big Land", the area's population comprises people from all groups and regions of Labrador. Central Labrador is home to Happy Valley – Goose Bay. Once a refueling point for plane convoys to Europe during World War II, CFB Goose Bay is now operated as a NATO tactical flight training site, it was an alternate landing zone for the United States' Space Shuttle. Other major communities in the area are the large reserve known as Sheshatshiu; the highlands above the Churchill Falls were once an ancient hunting ground for the Innu First Nations and settled trappers of Labrador. After the construction of the hydroelectric dam at Churchill Falls in 1970, the Smallwood Reservoir has flooded much of the old hunting land, it submerged trapping cabins. Western Labrador is home to the Iron Ore Company of Canada, which operates a large iron ore mine in Labrador City. Together with the small community of Wabush, the two towns are known as "Labrador West". From Hamilton Inlet to Cape Charles/St.
Lewis, NunatuKavut is the territory of the Central-Southern Labrador Inuit known as the Labrador Métis. The region is peppered with tiny Inuit fishing communities. From Cape Charles to the Quebec/Labrador coastal border. Like NunatuKavut, the straits is known for its Labrador sea grass and the multitude of icebergs that pass by the coast via the Labrador Current. Red Bay is known as one of the best examples of a preserved 16th-century Basque whaling station, it is the location of four 16th-century Spanish galleons. The lighthouse at Point Amour is the second-largest lighthouse in Canada. MV Apollo, a passenger ferry carrying customers between the mainland and St. Barbe on the island of Newfoundland, is based in Blanc Sablon, Quebec near the Quebec/Labrador border. L'Anse-au-Clair is a small town on the Labrador side of the border. Most of Labrador uses Atlantic Time; the southeastern tip nearest Newfoundland uses Newfoundland Time to stay coordinated with the more populous part of the province. Early settlement in Labrador was tied to the sea as demonstrated by the Montagnais and Inuit, although these peoples made significant forays throughout the interior.
It is believed that the Norsemen were the first Europeans to sight Labrador around 1000 AD, but no Norse remains have
The Kiglapait Mountains lie east of Nain, in northern Labrador, south of the Torngat and Kaumajet Mountains. Not as high as those ranges, they still boast rugged terrain and many peaks with high prominence values; the name means "dog-tooth." "Kiglapait Mountains 2500-foot Peaks". Peakbagger.com. Photo gallery, Aerial photos of Kiglapait Mountains by Doc Searls
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The Torngat Mountains are a mountain range on the Labrador Peninsula at the northern tip of Newfoundland and Labrador and eastern Quebec. They are part of the Arctic Cordillera; the mountains form a peninsula. The Torngat Mountains have a substantial geographical extent. About 56% of the range is located in Quebec, 44% is in Labrador, the remainder, less than 1%, is located on Killiniq Island in Nunavut. At least 2% of the mountain chain is under water, poorly surveyed; the Torngat Mountains cover 30,067 square kilometres, including lowland areas and extend over 300 km from Cape Chidley in the north to Hebron Fjord in the south. The Torngat Mountains have the highest peaks of eastern continental Canada; the highest point is Mount Caubvick at 1,652 m. There are no trees in the Torngat Mountains because the mountains lie in an arctic tundra climate and are therefore above the tree line. Permafrost is continuous on the Quebec side of the border, it is extensive but discontinuous on the eastern Atlantic side.
The terrain is predominantly rocky desert. Precambrian gneisses that comprise the Torngat Mountains are among the oldest on Earth and have been dated at 3.6 to 3.9 billion years old. Geologists recognize the gneisses of the Torngats as a part of the Canadian Shield or Laurentian Upland, composing the old North American Craton, split from the continent of Rodinia 750 million years ago to form the geologic core of North America. However, the mountain-building or orogeny of the Torngats took place much more and is characteristic of the folding and faulting that defines the series of geological events known as Arctic Cordillera. This, according to some, makes the Torngats, as mountains, "distinct compared to the surrounding Precambrian Canadian Shield," though they are composed of shield rock. Evidence of this dramatic cordilleran folding and faulting characterizing the Torngat Mountains can be seen distinctly in rocks where the North American Craton long ago collided with the Nain Craton exposed in cross-section by glacial scouring at Saglek Fjord.
The ranges of the Torngat Mountains are separated by deep fjords and finger lakes surrounded by sheer rock walls. The fjords were produced by glaciation; the Laurentide ice sheet covered most of the mountains at least once, however during the last ice age the coverage was more limited. There are over 100 active small mountain glaciers in the Torngat Mountains with a total of about 195 ice masses in the region. Caribou travel through the Torngat Mountains, polar bears roam along the coast. Numerous species of vegetation common to the Arctic region of Canada are found in the Torngat Mountains; the name Torngat is derived from an Inuktitut word meaning place of spirits, sometimes interpreted as place of evil spirits. The Torngat Mountains National Park Reserve was announced on 1 December 2005, it aims to protect wildlife. In the CBC Series Geological Journey the Torngat mountains are featured. Notably, a billion-year-old coal seam was discovered in the Torngat mountains on the Newfoundland Coast as part of the filming of the series.
Backcountry Magazine ran a feature story written by Drew Pogge in 2009 on steep skiing in the Torngat Mountains, notably first descents in Nachvak and Saglek fjords, as well as on the Caubvick massif. Arctic Cordillera List of mountain ranges Torngat Mountains National Park Torngat Mountains Great photos of the mountain range Statistics Canada Principal heights by range or region Tales from the Torngats, August 2004 Alexander Forbes Collection: Aerial photo survey of Labrador from 1931, 1932, 1935 expeditions - University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries Digital Collections Torngat Mountains: Canada's newest national park
The Lewis Hills is a section of the Long Range Mountains located on the west coast of Newfoundland, along the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. An ophiolite and Peridotite complex, the Lewis Hills is the southernmost of four such complexes located within the Humber Arm Allochthon, a world-renowned geological area, it is located in an area stretching between the town of Stephenville in the south and the city of Corner Brook in the north. The Lewis Hills is an excellent backcountry wilderness hiking destination; the most accessible day-hiking route to the Lewis Hills is by the International Appalachian Trail, with the southern trail head located at the end of Cold Brook Road, the northern trail head at the end of Logger School Road At 814 m above sea level, the highest elevation on Newfoundland is The Cabox located in the Lewis Hills at 48°49′59″N 58°29′03″W
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2018, the province's population was estimated at 525,073. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland, of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula; the province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.0% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2016 census. Newfoundland was home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, the indigenous languages Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are spoken. Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.
A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland". On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's name to Newfoundland and Labrador; the name "New founde lande" was uttered by King Henry VII in reference to the land explored by the Cabots. In Portuguese it is Terra Nova, which means "new land", the French name for the Province's island region; the name "Terra Nova" is in wide use on the island. The influence of early Portuguese exploration is reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Labrador's name in the Inuttitut language is Nunatsuak, meaning "the big land". Newfoundland's Inuttitut name is Ikkarumikluak meaning "place of many shoals".
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, is at the north-eastern corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical parts: Labrador, a large area of mainland Canada, Newfoundland, an island in the Atlantic Ocean; the province includes over 7,000 tiny islands. Newfoundland is triangular; each side is about 400 km long, its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its neighbouring small islands have an area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N. Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belongs to Quebec. Most of Labrador's southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude. Labrador's extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador's area is 294,330 km2. Together and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada's area, with a total area of 405,720 km2.
Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, as such has been designated a World Heritage Site; the Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains. The north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate, while most of Newfoundland has a humid continental climate: cool summer subtype. Newfoundland and Labrador has a wide range of climates and weather, due to its geography; the island of Newfoundland spans 5 degrees of latitude, comparable to the Great Lakes.
The province has been divided into six climate types, but broadly Newfoundland has a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 km from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate. Monthly average temperatures and snowfall for four places are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. Climate data for 56 places in the province is available from Environment Canada; the data for the graphs is the average over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount that fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground; this distinction is important for St. John's, where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain, so no snow remains on the ground.
The Cabox is a mountain located in western Newfoundland, near the coastal city of Corner Brook and is the highest peak on the island of Newfoundland. It is 812 m high and is the central peak of the Lewis Hills of the Long Range Mountains, which are a range in the Appalachian Mountains. Mountain peaks of Canada