A poppet valve is a valve used to control the timing and quantity of gas or vapour flow into an engine. It consists of a hole round or oval, a tapered plug a disk shape on the end of a shaft called a valve stem; the portion of the hole where the plug meets with it is referred to as the'seat' or'valve seat'. The shaft guides the plug portion by sliding through a valve guide. In exhaust applications a pressure differential helps to seal the valve and in intake valves a pressure differential helps open it; the poppet valve was most invented in 1833 by E. A. G. Young of the Newcastle and Frenchtown Railroad. Young patented his idea but the Patent Office fire of 1836 destroyed all records of it; the word poppet shares etymology with "puppet": it is from the Middle English popet, from Middle French poupette, a diminutive of poupée. The use of the word poppet to describe a valve comes from the same word applied to marionettes, which – like the poppet valve – move bodily in response to remote motion transmitted linearly.
In the past, "puppet valve" was a synonym for poppet valve. The valve stem moves up and down inside the passage called guide, fitted in the engine-block; the head of the valve called valve face, is ground to a 45 degree angle, so as to fit properly on the valve seat in the block and prevent leakage The poppet valve is fundamentally different from slide and oscillating valves. The main advantage of the poppet valve is that it has no movement on the seat, thus requiring no lubrication. In most cases it is beneficial to have a "balanced poppet" in a direct-acting valve. Less force is needed to move the poppet because all forces on the poppet are nullified by equal and opposite forces; the solenoid coil has to counteract only the spring forcePoppet valves are used in many industrial processes, from controlling the flow of milk to isolating sterile air in the semiconductor industry. However, they are most well known for their use in internal combustion and steam engines, as described below. Presta and Schrader valves used on pneumatic tyres are examples of poppet valves.
The Presta valve has no spring and relies on a pressure differential for opening and closing while being inflated. Poppet valves are employed extensively in the launching of torpedoes from submarines. Many systems use compressed air to expel the torpedo from the tube, the poppet valve recovers large quantity of this air in order to reduce the tell-tale cloud of bubbles that might otherwise betray the boat's submerged position. Poppet valves are used in most piston engines to open and close the intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder head; the valve is a flat disk of metal with a long rod known as the'valve stem' attached to one side. In early internal combustion engines it was common that the inlet valve was'automatic', i.e. opened by the suction in the engine and returned by a light spring. The exhaust valve had to be mechanically driven to open it against the pressure in the cylinder. Use of automatic valves simplified the mechanism but "valve float" limited the speed at which the engine could run, by about 1905 mechanically operated inlet valves were adopted for vehicle engines.
Mechanical operation is by pressing on the end of the valve stem, with a spring being used to return the valve to the closed position. At high revolutions per minute, the inertia of the spring means it cannot respond enough to return the valve to its seat between cycles, leading to "valve float" known as "valve bounce". In this situation desmodromic valves can be used which, being closed by a positive mechanical action instead of by a spring, are able to cycle at the high speeds required in, for instance and auto racing engines; the engine operates the valves by pushing on the stems with cams and cam followers. The shape and position of the cam determines the valve lift and when and how the valve is opened; the cams are placed on a fixed camshaft, geared to the crankshaft, running at half crankshaft speed in a four-stroke engine. On high-performance engines, the camshaft is movable and the cams have a varying height so, by axially moving the camshaft in relation with the engine RPM, the valve lift varies.
See variable valve timing. For certain applications the valve stem and disk are made of different steel alloys, or the valve stem may be hollow and filled with sodium to improve heat transport and transfer. Although a better heat conductor, an aluminium cylinder head requires steel valve seat inserts, where a cast iron cylinder head would have employed integral valve seats in the past; because the valve stem extends into lubrication in the cam chamber, it must be sealed against blow-by to prevent cylinder gases from escaping into the crankcase though the stem to valve clearance is small 0.04-0.06 mm, so a rubber lip-type seal is used to ensure that excessive oil is not drawn in from the crankcase on the induction stroke, that exhaust gas does not enter the crankcase on the exhaust stroke. Worn valve guides and/or defective oil seals can be diagnosed by a puff of blue smoke from the exhaust pipe on releasing the accelerator pedal after allowing the engine to overrun, when there is high manifold vacuum.
Such a condition occurs. In multi-valve engines, the conventional two-valves-per-cylinder setup is complemented by a minimum of an extra intake valve (three-valve cylinder hea
An aircraft engine is a component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines, except for small multicopter UAVs which are always electric aircraft. In commercial aviation, the major players in the manufacturing of turbofan engines are Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, CFM International. A major entrant into the market launched in 2016 when Aeroengine Corporation of China was formed by organizing smaller companies engaged in designing and manufacturing aircraft engines into a new state owned behemoth of 96,000 employees. In general aviation, the dominant manufacturer of turboprop engines has been Whitney. General Electric announced in 2015 entrance into the market. 1848: John Stringfellow made a steam engine for a 10-foot wingspan model aircraft which achieved the first powered flight, albeit with negligible payload. 1903: Charlie Taylor built an inline aeroengine for the Wright Flyer.
1903: Manly-Balzer engine sets standards for radial engines. 1906: Léon Levavasseur produces a successful water-cooled V8 engine for aircraft use. 1908: René Lorin patents a design for the ramjet engine. 1908: Louis Seguin designed the Gnome Omega, the world's first rotary engine to be produced in quantity. In 1909 a Gnome powered Farman III aircraft won the prize for the greatest non-stop distance flown at the Reims Grande Semaine d'Aviation setting a world record for endurance of 180 kilometres. 1910: Coandă-1910, an unsuccessful ducted fan aircraft exhibited at Paris Aero Salon, powered by a piston engine. The aircraft never flew, but a patent was filed for routing exhaust gases into the duct to augment thrust. 1914: Auguste Rateau suggests using exhaust-powered compressor – a turbocharger – to improve high-altitude performance. VI heavy bomber becomes the earliest known supercharger-equipped aircraft to fly, with a Mercedes D. II straight-six engine in the central fuselage driving a Brown-Boveri mechanical supercharger for the R.30/16's four Mercedes D.
IVa engines. 1918: Sanford Alexander Moss picks up Rateau's idea and creates the first successful turbocharger 1926: Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IV, the first series-produced supercharged engine for aircraft use. 1930: Frank Whittle submitted his first patent for a turbojet engine. June 1939: Heinkel He 176 is the first successful aircraft to fly powered by a liquid-fueled rocket engine. August 1939: Heinkel HeS 3 turbojet propels the pioneering German Heinkel He 178 aircraft. 1940: Jendrassik Cs-1, the world's first run of a turboprop engine. It is not put into service. 1943 Daimler-Benz DB 670, first turbofan runs 1944: Messerschmitt Me 163B Komet, the world's first rocket-propelled combat aircraft deployed. 1945: First turboprop-powered aircraft flies, a modified Gloster Meteor with two Rolls-Royce Trent engines. 1947: Bell X-1 rocket-propelled aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. 1948: 100 shp 782, the first turboshaft engine to be applied to aircraft use. 1949: Leduc 010, the world's first ramjet-powered aircraft flight.
1950: Rolls-Royce Conway, the world's first production turbofan, enters service. 1968: General Electric TF39 high bypass turbofan enters service delivering greater thrust and much better efficiency. 2002: HyShot scramjet flew in dive. 2004: NASA X-43, the first scramjet to maintain altitude. In this entry, for clarity, the term "inline engine" refers only to engines with a single row of cylinders, as used in automotive language, but in aviation terms, the phrase "inline engine" covers V-type and opposed engines, is not limited to engines with a single row of cylinders; this is to differentiate them from radial engines. A straight engine has an number of cylinders, but there are instances of three- and five-cylinder engines; the greatest advantage of an inline engine is that it allows the aircraft to be designed with a low frontal area to minimize drag. If the engine crankshaft is located above the cylinders, it is called an inverted inline engine: this allows the propeller to be mounted high up to increase ground clearance, enabling shorter landing gear.
The disadvantages of an inline engine include a poor power-to-weight ratio, because the crankcase and crankshaft are long and thus heavy. An in-line engine may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled, but liquid-cooling is more common because it is difficult to get enough air-flow to cool the rear cylinders directly. Inline engines were common in early aircraft. However, the inherent disadvantages of the design soon became apparent, the inline design was abandoned, becoming a rarity in modern aviation. For other configurations of aviation inline engine, such as U-engines, H-engines, etc.. See Inline engine. Cylinders in this engine are arranged in two in-line banks tilted 60–90 degrees apart from each other and driving a common crankshaft; the vast majority of V engines are water-cooled. The V design provides a higher power-to-weight ratio than an inline engine, while still providing a small frontal area; the most famous example of this design is the legendary Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, a 27-litre 60° V12 engine used in, among others, the Spitfires that played a major role in the Battle of Britain.
A horizontally opposed engine called a flat or boxer engine, ha
A connecting rod is a rigid member which connects a piston to a crank or crankshaft in a reciprocating engine. Together with the crank, it forms a simple mechanism that converts reciprocating motion into rotating motion. A connecting rod may convert rotating motion into reciprocating motion, its original use. Earlier mechanisms, such as the chain, could only impart pulling motion. Being rigid, a connecting rod may transmit either push or pull, allowing the rod to rotate the crank through both halves of a revolution. In a few two-stroke engines the connecting rod is only required to push. Today, the connecting rod is best known through its use in internal combustion piston engines, such as automobile engines; these are of a distinctly different design from earlier forms of connecting rod used in steam engines and steam locomotives. Evidence for the connecting rod appears in the late 3rd century Hierapolis sawmill in Roman Asia, it appears in two 6th century Byzantine-era saw mills excavated at Ephesus, Asia Minor and Gerasa, Roman Syria.
The crank and connecting rod mechanism of these Roman-era watermills converted the rotary motion of the waterwheel into the linear movement of the saw blades. Sometime between 1174 and 1206 in the Artuqid State, the Arab inventor and engineer Al-Jazari described a machine which incorporated the connecting rod with a crankshaft to pump water as part of a water-raising machine, though the device was complex. In Renaissance Italy, the earliest evidence of a − albeit mechanically misunderstood − compound crank and connecting-rod is found in the sketch books of Taccola. A sound understanding of the motion involved is displayed by the painter Pisanello who showed a piston-pump driven by a water-wheel and operated by two simple cranks and two connecting-rods. By the 16th century, evidence of cranks and connecting rods in the technological treatises and artwork of Renaissance Europe becomes abundant; the first steam engine, Newcomen's atmospheric engine, was single-acting: its piston only did work in one direction and so these used a chain rather than a connecting rod.
Their output rocked forth, rather than rotating continuously. Steam engines after this are double-acting: their internal pressure works on each side of the piston in turn; this requires a seal around the piston rod and so the hinge between the piston and connecting rod is placed outside the cylinder, in a large sliding bearing block called a crosshead. In a steam locomotive, the crank pins are mounted directly on one or more pairs of driving wheels, the axle of these wheels serves as the crankshaft; the connecting rods, run between the crank pins and crossheads, where they connect to the piston rods. Crossheads or trunk guides are used on large diesel engines manufactured for marine service; the connecting rods of smaller steam locomotives are of rectangular cross-section but, on small locomotives, marine-type rods of circular cross-section have been used. Stephen Lewin, who built both locomotive and marine engines, was a frequent user of round rods. Gresley's A4 Pacifics, such as Mallard, had an alloy steel connecting rod in the form of an I-beam with a web, only 0.375 in thick.
On Western Rivers steamboats, the connecting rods are properly called pitmans, are sometimes incorrectly referred to as pitman arms. In modern automotive internal combustion engines, the connecting rods are most made of steel for production engines, but can be made of T6-2024 and T651-7075 aluminum alloys or titanium for high-performance engines, or of cast iron for applications such as motor scooters, they are not rigidly fixed at either end, so that the angle between the connecting rod and the piston can change as the rod moves up and down and rotates around the crankshaft. Connecting rods in racing engines, may be called "billet" rods, if they are machined out of a solid billet of metal, rather than being cast or forged; the small end attaches to the piston pin, gudgeon pin or wrist pin, most press fit into the connecting rod but can swivel in the piston, a "floating wrist pin" design. The big end connects to the crankpin on the crank throw, in most engines running on replaceable bearing shells accessible via the connecting rod bolts which hold the bearing "cap" onto the big end.
There is a pinhole bored through the bearing on the big end of the connecting rod so that pressurized lubricating motor oil squirts out onto the thrust side of the cylinder wall to lubricate the travel of the pistons and piston rings. Most small two-stroke engines and some single cylinder four-stroke engines avoid the need for a pumped lubrication system by using a rolling-element bearing instead, however this requires the crankshaft to be pressed apart and back together in order to replace a connecting rod. A major source of engine wear is the sideways force exerted on the piston through the connecting rod by the crankshaft, which wears the cylinder into an oval cross-section rather than circular, making it impossible for piston rings to seal against the cylinder walls. Geometrically, it can be seen that longer connecting rods will reduce the amount of this sideways force, therefore lead to longer engine life
A spark plug is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine. A spark plug has a metal threaded shell, electrically isolated from a central electrode by a porcelain insulator; the central electrode, which may contain a resistor, is connected by a insulated wire to the output terminal of an ignition coil or magneto. The spark plug's metal shell is screwed into the engine's cylinder head and thus electrically grounded; the central electrode protrudes through the porcelain insulator into the combustion chamber, forming one or more spark gaps between the inner end of the central electrode and one or more protuberances or structures attached to the inner end of the threaded shell and designated the side, earth, or ground electrode. Spark plugs may be used for other purposes. Spark plugs may be used in other applications such as furnaces wherein a combustible fuel/air mixture must be ignited.
In this case, they are sometimes referred to as flame igniters. In 1860 Étienne Lenoir used an electric spark plug in his gas engine, the first internal combustion piston engine. Lenoir is credited with the invention of the spark plug; some sources credit Edmond Berger, an African American believed to have immigrated from Togo, with creating a spark plug in early 1839, though records show he did not receive a patent for his device. Early patents for spark plugs included those by Nikola Tesla, Frederick Richard Simms and Robert Bosch. Only the invention of the first commercially viable high-voltage spark plug as part of a magneto-based ignition system by Robert Bosch's engineer Gottlob Honold in 1902 made possible the development of the spark-ignition engine. Subsequent manufacturing improvements can be credited to Albert Champion, to the Lodge brothers, sons of Sir Oliver Lodge, who developed and manufactured their father's idea and to Kenelm Lee Guinness, of the Guinness brewing family, who developed the KLG brand.
Helen Blair Bartlett played a vital role in making the insulator in 1930. The plug is connected to the high voltage generated by magneto; as current flows from the coil, a voltage develops between the central and side electrodes. No current can flow because the fuel and air in the gap is an insulator, but as the voltage rises further it begins to change the structure of the gases between the electrodes. Once the voltage exceeds the dielectric strength of the gases, the gases become ionized; the ionized gas allows current to flow across the gap. Spark plugs require voltage of 12,000–25,000 volts or more to "fire" properly, although it can go up to 45,000 volts, they supply higher current during the discharge process, resulting in a hotter and longer-duration spark. As the current of electrons surges across the gap, it raises the temperature of the spark channel to 60,000 K; the intense heat in the spark channel causes the ionized gas to expand quickly, like a small explosion. This is the "click" heard when observing a spark, similar to thunder.
The heat and pressure force the gases to react with each other, at the end of the spark event there should be a small ball of fire in the spark gap as the gases burn on their own. The size of this fireball, or kernel, depends on the exact composition of the mixture between the electrodes and the level of combustion chamber turbulence at the time of the spark. A small kernel will make the engine run as though the ignition timing was retarded, a large one as though the timing was advanced. A spark plug is composed of a shell and the central conductor, it passes through the wall of the combustion chamber and therefore must seal the combustion chamber against high pressures and temperatures without deteriorating over long periods of time and extended use. Spark plugs are specified by size, either thread or nut, sealing type, spark gap. Common thread sizes in Europe are 10 mm, 14 mm, 18 mm. In the United States, common thread sizes are 12 mm, 14 mm and 18 mm; the top of the spark plug contains a terminal to connect to the ignition system.
Over of the years variations in the terminal configuration have been introduced by manufacturers. The exact terminal construction varies depending on the use of the spark plug. Most passenger car spark plug wires snap onto the terminal of the plug, but some wires have eyelet connectors which are fastened onto the plug under a nut; the standard solid non-removable nut SAE configuration is common for many trucks. Plugs which are used for these applications have the end of the terminal serve a double purpose as the nut on a thin threaded shaft so that they can be used for either type of connection; this type of spark plug has a removable nut or knurl, which enables its users to attach them to two different kinds of spark plug boots. Some spark plugs have a bare thread, a common type for motorcycles and ATVs. In recent years, a cup-style terminal has been introduced, which allows for a longer ceramic insulator in the same confined space; the main part of t
Alternators are used in modern automobiles to charge the battery and to power the electrical system when its engine is running. Until the 1960s, automobiles used DC dynamo generators with commutators. With the availability of affordable silicon diode rectifiers, alternators were used instead; this was encouraged by the increasing electrical power required for cars in this period, with increasing loads from larger headlamps, electric wipers, heated rear windows and other accessories. The modern type of vehicle alternators were first used by the military from WWII, to power radio equipment on specialist vehicles. Post-war, other vehicles with high electrical demands, such as ambulances and radio taxis, could be fitted with optional alternators. Alternators were first introduced as standard equipment on a production car by the Chrysler Corporation on the Valiant in 1960, several years ahead of Ford and General Motors; some early automobiles, like the Ford Model T, used a different sort of alternator system: an engine-driven magneto which generated low-voltage alternating current, supplied to trembler coils, which provided the high voltage needed to generate ignition sparks.
Since such a magneto system only depended on the engine's motion to generate current, it could be used when starting a manually cranked engine, provided the crank was pulled so that the magneto would produce enough current for the coils to make good sparks. The Model T incorporated its magneto into the engine flywheel; the first Model Ts used the magneto for the trembler coil ignition. Beginning with the 1915 model year, Ford added electric headlights powered by the magneto; the magneto circuit was AC, with no battery included. Starting in the 1919 model year, Ford upgraded the Model T to include an electric starter, standard for some models and optional for others; this starter installation included a battery, charged by a conventional dynamo, the lights were now powered by the battery. However, the flywheel magneto still powered the ignition, since models without the starter had no battery, they continued to use magneto-powered lights. Alternators have several advantages over direct-current generators.
They are lighter, more rugged, can provide useful charge at idle speed. They use slip rings having extended brush life over a commutator; the brushes in an alternator carry only DC excitation current, a small fraction of the current carried by the brushes of a DC generator, which carry the generator's entire output. A set of rectifiers is required to convert AC to DC. To provide direct current with low ripple, a polyphase winding is used and the pole-pieces of the rotor are shaped. Automotive alternators are belt-driven at 5-10 times crankshaft speed; the alternator runs at various RPM. This is not a problem. Despite their names, both'DC generators' and'alternators' produce alternating current. In a so-called'DC generator', this AC current is generated in the rotating armature, converted to DC by the commutator and brushes. In an'alternator', the AC current is generated in the stationary stator, is converted to DC by the rectifiers. Typical passenger vehicle and light truck alternators use Lundell or'claw-pole' field construction.
This uses a shaped iron core on the rotor to produce a multi-pole field from a single coil winding. The poles of the rotor look like fingers of two hands interlocked with each other; the coil is mounted axially inside this and field current is supplied by slip rings and carbon brushes. These alternators have their field and stator windings cooled by axial airflow, produced by an external fan attached to the drive belt pulley. Modern vehicles now use the compact alternator layout; this has improved air cooling. Better cooling permits more power from a smaller machine; the casing now encloses the fan. Two fans are used, one at each end, the airflow is semi-radial, entering axially and leaving radially outwards; the stator windings now consist of a dense central band where the iron core and copper windings are packed, end bands where the windings are more exposed for better heat transfer. The closer core spacing from the rotor improves magnetic efficiency; the smaller, enclosed fans produce less noise at higher machine speeds.
Alternators can be water cooled in cars. Larger vehicles may have salient pole alternators similar to larger machines; the windings of a 3 phase alternator may be connected using either the Delta or Star connection regime set-up. Brushless versions of these type alternators are common in larger machinery such as highway trucks and earthmoving machinery. With two oversized shaft bearings as the only wearing parts, these can provide long and reliable service exceeding the engine overhaul intervals. Automotive alternators require a voltage regulator which operates by modulating the small field current to produce a constant voltage at the battery terminals. Early designs used. Intermediate designs incorporated the voltage regul
Formula One engines
Since its inception in 1947, Formula One has used a variety of engine regulations. "Formulas" limiting engine capacity had been used in Grand Prix racing on a regular basis since after World War I. The engine formulae are divided according to era. Formula One uses 1.6 litre four-stroke turbocharged 90 degree V6 reciprocating engines. The power a Formula One engine produces is generated by operating at a high rotational speed, up to 15,000 revolutions per minute; this contrasts with road car engines of a similar size which operate at less than 6,000 rpm. The basic configuration of a aspirated Formula One engine had not been modified since the 1967 Cosworth DFV and the mean effective pressure had stayed at around 14 bar MEP; until the mid-1980s Formula One engines were limited to around 12,000 rpm due to the traditional metal valve springs used to close the valves. The speed required to operate the engine valves at a higher rpm called for stiffer springs, which increased the power loss to drive the camshaft and the valves to the point where the loss nearly offset the power gain through the increase in rpm.
They were replaced by pneumatic valve springs introduced by Renault, which inherently have a rising rate that allowed them to have high spring rate at larger valve strokes without much increasing the driving power requirements at smaller strokes, thus lowering the overall power loss. Since the 1990s, all Formula One engine manufacturers used pneumatic valve springs with the pressurised air allowing engines to reach speeds of over 20,000 rpm. Formula One cars use short stroke engines. To operate at high engine speeds, the stroke must be short to prevent catastrophic failure from the connecting rod, under large stresses at these speeds. Having a short stroke means a large bore is required to reach a 1.6 litre displacement. This results in a less efficient combustion stroke at lower rpm; the stroke of a Formula One engine is 39.7 mm, less than half the 80 mm bore diameter, what is known as an over-square configuration. In addition to the use of pneumatic valve springs a Formula One engine's high rpm output has been made possible due to advances in metallurgy and design, allowing lighter pistons and connecting rods to withstand the accelerations necessary to attain such high speeds.
Improved design allows narrower connecting rod ends and so narrower main bearings. This permits higher rpm with less bearing-damaging heat build-up. For each stroke, the piston goes from a virtual stop to twice the mean speed back to zero; this occurs once for each of the four strokes in the cycle: one Intake, one Compression, one Power, one Exhaust. Maximum piston acceleration occurs at top dead center and is in the region of 95,000 m/s2, about 10,000 times standard gravity. Formula One engines have come through a variety of regulations and configurations through the years; this era used pre-war voiturette engine regulations, with 4.5 L atmospheric and 1.5 L supercharged engines. The Indianapolis 500 used pre-war Grand Prix regulations, with 4.5 L atmospheric and 3.0 L supercharged engines. The power range was up to 425 hp, though the BRM Type 15 of 1953 achieved 600 hp with a 1.5 L supercharged engine. In 1952 and 1953, the World Drivers' Championship was run to Formula 2 regulations, but the existing Formula One regulations remained in force and a number of Formula One races were still held in those years.
Naturally-aspirated engine size was reduced to 2.5 L and supercharged cars were limited to 750 cc. No constructor built a supercharged engine for the World Championship; the Indianapolis 500 continued to use old pre-war regulations. The power range was up to 290 hp. Introduced in 1961 amidst some criticism, the new reduced engine 1.5 L formula took control of F1 just as every team and manufacturer switched from front to mid-engined cars. Although these were underpowered, five years average power had increased by nearly 50% and lap times were better than in 1960; the old 2.5 L formula had been retained for International Formula racing, but this didn't achieve much success until the introduction of the Tasman Series in Australia and New Zealand during the winter season, leaving the 1.5 L cars as the fastest single seaters in Europe during this time. The power range was between 150 225 hp. In 1966, with sports cars capable of outrunning Formula 1 cars thanks to much larger and more powerful engines, the FIA increased engine capacity to 3.0 L atmospheric and 1.5 L compressed engines.
Although a few manufacturers had been clamouring for bigger engines, the transition wasn't smooth and 1966 was a transitional year, with 2.0 L versions of the BRM and Coventry-Climax V8 engines being used by several entrants. The appearance of the standard-produced Cosworth DFV in 1967 made it possible for small manufacturers to join the series with a chassis designed in-house. Compression devices were allowed for the first time since 1960, but it wasn't until 1977 that a company had the finance and interest of building one, when Renault debuted their new Gordini V6 Turbo at the British Grand Prix at Silverstone that year. In 1980 Renault proved that turbocharging was the way to go in order to stay competitive in Formula One. Following this, Ferrari introduced their all-new turbocha
Air-cooled engines rely on the circulation of air directly over hot parts of the engine to cool them. Most modern internal combustion engines are cooled by a closed circuit carrying liquid coolant through channels in the engine block and cylinder head, where the coolant absorbs heat, to a heat exchanger or radiator where the coolant releases heat into the air. Thus, while they are not cooled by the liquid, because of the liquid-coolant circuit they are known as water-cooled. In contrast, heat generated by an air-cooled engine is released directly into the air; this is facilitated with metal fins covering the outside of the Cylinder Head and cylinders which increase the surface area that air can act on. Air may be force fed with the use of a fan and shroud to achieve efficient cooling with high volumes of air or by natural air flow with well designed and angled fins. In all combustion engines, a great percentage of the heat generated escapes through the exhaust, not through either a liquid cooling system nor through the metal fins of an air-cooled engine.
About 8% of the heat energy finds its way into the oil, which although meant for lubrication plays a role in heat dissipation via a cooler. Many motorcycles use air cooling for the sake of reducing complexity. Few current production automobiles have air-cooled engines, but it was common for many high-volume vehicles. Examples of past air-cooled road vehicles, in chronological order, include: Franklin New Way - limited production run out from the "CLARKMOBILE" GM "copper-cooled" models of Chevrolet and Oakland Tatra all-wheel-drive military trucks. Tatra 11 and subsequent models Tatra T77 Tatra T87 Tatra T97 Tatra T600 Tatraplan Tatra T603 Tatra T613 Tatra T700 Crosley The East German Trabant Trabant 500 Trabant 600 Trabant 601 ZAZ Zaporozhets Fiat 500 Fiat 126 Porsche 356 VW-Porsche 914 Porsche 911 The Volkswagen Beetle, Type 2, SP2, Karmann Ghia, Type 3 all utilized the same air-cooled engine with various displacements. Volkswagen Type 2. Volkswagen Type 4 Volkswagen Gol Chevrolet Corvair Citroën 2CV.
Citroën GS and GSA Honda 1300 NSU Prinz Royal Enfield Motorcycles: The 350cc and 500cc Twinspark motorcycle engines are air-cooled Oltcit_Club T13/653, G11/631 and VO36/630 Most aviation piston engines are air-cooled. While water cooled engines were used from the early days of flight, air cooled engines were the dominant choice in aircraft. Following the Second World War and jet turbine powered aircraft have come to dominate flight regimes where water cooled piston engines offered the advantage of reduced drag. Today, piston engines are used in slower general aviation aircraft where the greater drag produced by air cooled engines is not a major disadvantage. Therefore, most aero engines produced. Today, most of the engines manufactured by Lycoming and Continental and used by major manufacturers of light aircraft Cirrus, Cessna and so on. Other engine manufactures using air-cooled engine technology are ULPower and Jabiru, more active in the Light-Sport Aircraft and ultralight aircraft market.
Rotax uses a combination of liquid-cooled cylinder heads. Some small diesel engines, e.g. those made by Lister Petter are air-cooled. The only big Euro 5 truck air-cooled engine is being produced by Tatra. Stationary or portable engines were commercially introduced early in the 1900s; the first commercial production was by the New Way Motor Company of Lansing, Michigan, US. The company produced air-cooled engines in single and twin cylinders in both horizontal and vertical cylinder format. Subsequent to their initial production, exported worldwide, other companies took up the advantages of this cooling method in small portable engines. Applications include mowers, outboard motors, pump sets, saw benches and auxiliary power plants and more. Sloan, Alfred P. McDonald, John, ed. My Years with General Motors, Garden City, NY, USA: Doubleday, LCCN 64011306, OCLC 802024. Republished in 1990 with a new introduction by Peter Drucker. Biermann, A. E.. "The design of fins for air-cooled cylinders". Report Nº 726.
NACA. P V Lamarque, "The design of cooling fins for Motor-Cycle Engines". Report of the Automobile Research Committee, Institution of Automobile Engineers Magazine, March 1943 issue, in "The Institution of Automobile Engineers. Proceedings XXXVII, Session 1942-1943, pp 99-134 and 309-312. Julius Mackerle, "Air-cooled Automotive Engines", Charles Griffin & Company Ltd. London 1972