Truth is most used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard. Truth is sometimes defined in modern contexts as an idea of "truth to self", or authenticity. Truth is held to be opposite to falsehood, correspondingly, can suggest a logical, factual, or ethical meaning; the concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy, art and science. Most human activities depend upon the concept, where its nature as a concept is assumed rather than being a subject of discussion; some philosophers view the concept of truth as basic, unable to be explained in any terms that are more understood than the concept of truth itself. To some, truth is viewed as the correspondence of language or thought to an independent reality, in what is sometimes called the correspondence theory of truth. Various theories and views of truth continue to be debated among scholars and theologians. Language is a means; the method used to determine whether something is a truth is termed a criterion of truth.
There are varying stances on such questions as what constitutes truth: what things are truthbearers capable of being true or false. The English word truth is derived from Old English tríewþ, tréowþ, trýwþ, Middle English trewþe, cognate to Old High German triuwida, Old Norse tryggð. Like troth, it is a -th nominalisation of the adjective true; the English word true is from Old English tríewe, tréowe, cognate to Old Saxon trûui, Old High German triuwu, Old Norse tryggr, Gothic triggws, all from a Proto-Germanic *trewwj- "having good faith" ultimately from PIE *dru- "tree", on the notion of "steadfast as an oak". Old Norse trú, "word of honour. Thus,'truth' involves both the quality of "faithfulness, loyalty, veracity", that of "agreement with fact or reality", in Anglo-Saxon expressed by sōþ. All Germanic languages besides English have introduced a terminological distinction between truth "fidelity" and truth "factuality". To express "factuality", North Germanic opted for nouns derived from sanna "to assert, affirm", while continental West Germanic opted for continuations of wâra "faith, pact".
Romance languages use terms following the Latin veritas, while the Greek aletheia, Russian pravda and South Slavic istina have separate etymological origins. The question of what is a proper basis for deciding how words, symbols and beliefs may properly be considered true, whether by a single person or an entire society, is dealt with by the five most prevalent substantive theories of truth listed below; each presents perspectives that are shared by published scholars. Theories other than the most prevalent substantive theories are discussed. More developed "deflationary" or "minimalist" theories of truth have emerged as possible alternatives to the most prevalent substantive theories. Minimalist reasoning centres around the notion that the application of a term like true to a statement does not assert anything significant about it, for instance, anything about its nature. Minimalist reasoning realises truth as a label utilised in general discourse to express agreement, to stress claims, or to form general assumptions.
Correspondence theories emphasise that true beliefs and true statements correspond to the actual state of affairs. This type of theory stresses a relationship between thoughts or statements on one hand, things or objects on the other, it is a traditional model tracing its origins to ancient Greek philosophers such as Socrates and Aristotle. This class of theories holds that the truth or the falsity of a representation is determined in principle by how it relates to "things", by whether it describes those "things." A classic example of correspondence theory is the statement by the thirteenth century philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas: "Veritas est adaequatio rei et intellectus", which Aquinas attributed to the ninth century Neoplatonist Isaac Israeli. Aquinas restated the theory as: "A judgment is said to be true when it conforms to the external reality". Correspondence theory centres around the assumption that truth is a matter of copying what is known as "objective reality" and representing it in thoughts and other symbols.
Many modern theorists have stated that this ideal cannot be achieved without analysing additional factors. For example, language plays a role in that all languages have words to represent concepts that are undefined in other languages; the German word Zeitgeist is one such example: one who speaks or understands the language may "know" what it means, but any translation of the word fails to capture its full meaning. Thus, some words add an additional parameter to the construction of an accurate truth predicate. Among the philosophers who grappled with this problem is Alfred Tarski, whose semantic theory is summarized further below in this article. Proponents of several of the theories below have gone further to a
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. General definitions of music include common elements such as pitch, rhythm and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Different styles or types of music may de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; the word derives from Greek μουσική. See glossary of musical terminology. In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music, the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."The creation, performance and the definition of music vary according to culture and social context.
Indeed, throughout history, some new forms or styles of music have been criticized as "not being music", including Beethoven's Grosse Fuge string quartet in 1825, early jazz in the beginning of the 1900s and hardcore punk in the 1980s. There are many types of music, including popular music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies and work songs such as chanteys. Music ranges from organized compositions–such as Classical music symphonies from the 1700s and 1800s, through to spontaneously played improvisational music such as jazz, avant-garde styles of chance-based contemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries. Music can be divided into genres and genres can be further divided into subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are subtle, sometimes open to personal interpretation, controversial. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between heavy metal. Within the arts, music may be classified as a fine art or as an auditory art.
Music may be played or sung and heard live at a rock concert or orchestra performance, heard live as part of a dramatic work, or it may be recorded and listened to on a radio, MP3 player, CD player, smartphone or as film score or TV show. In many cultures, music is an important part of people's way of life, as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of passage ceremonies, social activities and cultural activities ranging from amateur karaoke singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir. People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, or work as a professional musician or singer; the music industry includes the individuals who create new songs and musical pieces, individuals who perform music, individuals who record music, individuals who organize concert tours, individuals who sell recordings, sheet music, scores to customers. The word derives from Greek μουσική. In Greek mythology, the nine Muses were the goddesses who inspired literature and the arts and who were the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, song-lyrics, myths in the Greek culture.
According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the term "music" is derived from "mid-13c. Musike, from Old French musique and directly from Latin musica "the art of music," including poetry." This is derived from the "... Greek mousike " of the Muses," from fem. of mousikos "pertaining to the Muses," from Mousa "Muse". Modern spelling from 1630s. In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, but music and lyric poetry." Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. When music was only available through sheet music scores, such as during the Classical and Romantic eras, music lovers would buy the sheet music of their favourite pieces and songs so that they could perform them at home on the piano. With the advent of sound recording, records of popular songs, rather than sheet music became the dominant way that music lovers would enjoy their favourite songs. With the advent of home tape recorders in the 1980s and digital music in the 1990s, music lovers could make tapes or playlists of their favourite songs and take them with them on a portable cassette player or MP3 player.
Some music lovers create mix tapes of their favorite songs, which serve as a "self-portrait, a gesture of friendship, prescription for an ideal party... an environment consisting of what is most ardently loved."Amateur musicians can compose or perf
Discipline (Janet Jackson album)
Discipline is the tenth studio album by American recording artist Janet Jackson, released by Island Records on February 26, 2008. It is her only album released on Island Records, after her five-album deal with Virgin Records America was fulfilled with the release of 20 Y. O. Jackson worked with producers such as Darkchild, Ne-Yo, Shea Taylor, Johntá Austin, Jermaine Dupri, Tricky Stewart, The-Dream on the album. Jackson's long-time producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, did not contribute to the project; the album was executive produced by Jackson. The album experimented with the electropop and dance-pop genres, contained R&B and hip hop orientated tracks. Four singles were released from the album; the song reached number nineteen on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, becoming Jackson's best-charting single since 2001's "Someone to Call My Lover". The album's singles did not share the success of "Feedback"; the deluxe version of Discipline contained a DVD documenting the production and promotion of the album and music videos.
The album received positive reviews, with critics arguing that it was an improvement on Jackson's two previous albums. Despite positive reviews it became one of her least successful albums, it debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200, becoming her sixth to top the chart and it was her first album to reach number one in the United States after 2001's All for You. However, sales of the album fell, by June the album's promotion had ended. Jackson started her Rock Witchu Tour—with the support of Live Nation—in early September to positive reviews but by the end of that month Jackson parted with her record label due to the album's commercial failure. In July 2007, it was announced that Jackson had signed a recording contract with Island Records, after her five-album deal with Virgin Records America was fulfilled with the release of her album 20 Y. O. Jackson's tenth studio album, an acknowledgment of Jackson's commitment and dedication to her career, was released on February 26, 2008 under the supervision of label head L. A. Reid.
Jackson commented, "I wanted to name the album Discipline because it has a lot of different meanings for me but the most important would be work—to have done this for as long as I have... And to have had the success that I've had—not excluding God by any means—but it takes a great deal of focus."Jackson worked with producers such as Rodney Jerkins, Jermaine Dupri, Ne-Yo, Shea Taylor, Johntá Austin, Tricky Stewart, The-Dream. Jackson's long-time producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, did not contribute to the project; the album was executive produced by Jackson. She did not write or co-write any songs on the album, a departure from her usual practice of co-writing and producing all of the songs on her albums; the song "So Much Betta" contains sampled portions of the track "Daftendirekt" by the French house music duo Daft Punk. The deluxe edition included a DVD entitled The Making of Discipline; the DVD is split into five chapters that documents the production of the album, its promotion, the "Feedback" music video.
The first chapter entitled "Photo Shoots", shows Jackson creating a new image for the album and adopting different looks for different markets. She spent two days working on photos for the cover and credit booklet, revealing that she still feels uncomfortable in front of the camera despite two decades in the music industry. In the second chapter, "The Studio", Jackson expressed her opinion on recording work, stating that although she enjoyed the experience, it was, at times, tedious, she discusses further how her songs are built up in layers and parts, from melodies and background vocals or sounds. The third chapter, "Rehearsals", shows the rehearsals of the dance routine for the "Feedback" music video; the DVD reveals that the eight dancers had been practicing for over a week before they started working with Jackson. The dancers had three days to rehearse with Jackson and a further two days to complete the video. Jackson described the video as a metaphor for sexual tension; the fourth chapter, "Behind the Video", shows the making of the video itself.
Jackson told the director that she wanted a futuristic, moody concept, he came up with the idea of jumping between planets. The final chapter is the lead music video in its entirety. On March 31, 2008 an edition of Discipline in environmentally friendly packaging was released through Wal-Mart stores as part of a green promotion; the album's first single "Feedback", was released as a digital download in December 2007. In the US, the song reached number nineteen on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, number thirty-nine on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, number twenty-three on the Pop 100, becoming Jackson's best-charting single since "Someone to Call My Lover" in 2001; the song was successful in Canada and South Africa where it peaked at number three and eight respectively. Due to a rushed release and no international promotion, the song failed to chart in European countries, peaking at number thirty-six in France and thirty two in Ireland and reaching the top 5 in Greece. Subsequent singles were promoted and released in the US.
"Rock with U", the second single, was released on February 5, 2008. A music video was released, with the song peaking at number twenty on the Billboard Dance Club Play Singles chart and at number 4 on the UK R&B charts. Following Jackson's departure from Island Records two more promotional singles, "Luv" and "Can't B Good", were issued to select radio formats. "Luv", the first promotional single, was released on Fe
The Meaning (album)
The Meaning is one of two albums rapper Layzie Bone released on February 22, 2011. He released this on RBC Records with The Definition. Track list confirmed by amazon.com
Ontology is the philosophical study of being. More broadly, it studies concepts that directly relate to being, in particular becoming, reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, subdivided according to similarities and differences; the compound word ontology combines onto- and -logia. See classical compounds for this type of word formation. While the etymology is Greek, the oldest extant record of the word itself, the New Latin form ontologia, appeared in 1606 in the work Ogdoas Scholastica by Jacob Lorhard and in 1613 in the Lexicon philosophicum by Rudolf Göckel; the first occurrence in English of ontology as recorded by the OED came in a work by Gideon Harvey: Archelogia philosophica nova. Containing Philosophy in general, Metaphysicks or Ontology, Dynamilogy or a Discourse of Power, Religio Philosophi or Natural Theology, Physicks or Natural philosophy, Thomson, 1663.
The word was first used in its Latin form by philosophers based on the Latin roots, which themselves are based on the Greek. Leibniz is the only one of the great philosophers of the 17th century to have used the term ontology; some philosophers, notably in the traditions of the Platonic school, contend that all nouns refer to existent entities. Other philosophers contend that nouns do not always name entities, but that some provide a kind of shorthand for reference to a collection either of objects or of events. In this latter view, instead of referring to an entity, refers to a collection of mental events experienced by a person. Between these poles of realism and nominalism stand a variety of other positions. Principal questions of ontology include: "What can be said to exist?" "What is a thing?" "Into what categories, if any, can we sort existing things?" "What are the meanings of being?" "What are the various modes of being of entities?"Various philosophers have provided different answers to these questions.
One common approach involves dividing the extant subjects and predicates into groups called categories. Such lists of categories differ from one another, it is through the co-ordination of different categorical schemes that ontology relates to such fields as library science and artificial intelligence; such an understanding of ontological categories, however, is taxonomic, classificatory. Aristotle's categories are the ways in which a being may be addressed as a being, such as: what it is how it is how much it is where it is Further examples of ontological questions include: What is existence, i.e. what does it mean for a being to be? Is existence a property? Is existence a genus or general class, divided up by specific differences? Which entities, if any, are fundamental? Are all entities objects? How do the properties of an object relate to the object itself? Do physical properties exist? What features are the essential, as opposed to accidental attributes of a given object? How many levels of existence or ontological levels are there?
And what constitutes a "level"? What is a physical object? Can one give an account of what it means to say that a physical object exists? Can one give an account of what it means to say that a non-physical entity exists? What constitutes the identity of an object? When does an object go out of existence, as opposed to changing? Do beings exist other than in the modes of objectivity and subjectivity, i.e. is the subject/object split of modern philosophy inevitable? Essential ontological dichotomies include: universals and particulars substance and accident abstract and concrete objects essence and existence determinism and indeterminism monism and dualism idealism and materialism Philosophers can classify ontologies in various ways, using criteria such as the degree of abstraction and field of application: Upper ontology: concepts supporting development of an ontology, meta-ontology Domain ontology: concepts relevant to a particular topic, domain of discourse, or area of interest, for example, to information technology or to computer languages, or to particular branches of science Interface ontology: concepts relevant to the juncture of two disciplines Process ontology: inputs, constraints, sequencing information, involved in business or engineering processes Ontology features in the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy from the first millennium BCE.
The concept of guṇa which describes the three properties present in differing proportions in all existing things, is a notable concept of this school. In the Greek philosophical tradition, Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of existence. In the prologue or proem to his poem On Nature he describes two views of existence. Our opinions about truth must be false and deceitful. Most of western philosophy — including the fundamental concepts of falsifiability — has emerged from this view; this posits that
Meaning of life
The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general. Many other related questions include: "Why are we here?", "What is life all about?", or "What is the purpose of existence?" There have been a large number of proposed answers to these questions from many different cultural and ideological backgrounds. The search for life's meaning has produced much philosophical, scientific and metaphysical speculation throughout history. Different people and cultures believe different things for the answer to this question; the meaning of life as we perceive it is derived from philosophical and religious contemplation of, scientific inquiries about existence, social ties and happiness. Many other issues are involved, such as symbolic meaning, value, ethics and evil, free will, the existence of one or multiple gods, conceptions of God, the soul, the afterlife. Scientific contributions focus on describing related empirical facts about the universe, exploring the context and parameters concerning the "how" of life.
Science studies and can provide recommendations for the pursuit of well-being and a related conception of morality. An alternative, humanistic approach poses the question, "What is the meaning of my life?" Questions about the meaning of life have been expressed in a broad variety of ways, including the following: What is the meaning of life? What's it all about? Who are we? Why are we here? What are we here for? What is the origin of life? What is the nature of life? What is the nature of reality? What is the purpose of life? What is the purpose of one's life? What is the significance of life? – see § Psychological significance and value in life What is meaningful and valuable in life? What is the value of life? What is the reason to live? What are we living for? These questions have resulted in a wide range of competing answers and arguments, from scientific theories, to philosophical and spiritual explanations. Many members of the scientific community and philosophy of science communities think that science can provide the relevant context, set of parameters necessary for dealing with topics related to the meaning of life.
In their view, science can offer a wide range of insights on topics ranging from the science of happiness to death anxiety. Scientific inquiry facilitates this through nomological investigation into various aspects of life and reality, such as the Big Bang, the origin of life, evolution, by studying the objective factors which correlate with the subjective experience of meaning and happiness. Researchers in positive psychology study empirical factors that lead to life satisfaction, full engagement in activities, making a fuller contribution by utilizing one's personal strengths, meaning based on investing in something larger than the self. Large-data studies of flow experiences have suggested that humans experience meaning and fulfillment when mastering challenging tasks, that the experience comes from the way tasks are approached and performed rather than the particular choice of task. For example, flow experiences can be obtained by prisoners in concentration camps with minimal facilities, occur only more in billionaires.
A classic example is of two workers on an boring production line in a factory. One treats the work as a tedious chore while the other turns it into a game to see how fast she can make each unit, achieves flow in the process. Neuroscience describes reward and motivation in terms of neurotransmitter activity in the limbic system and the ventral tegmental area in particular. If one believes that the meaning of life is to maximize pleasure and to ease general life this allows normative predictions about how to act to achieve this; some ethical naturalists advocate a science of morality—the empirical pursuit of flourishing for all conscious creatures. Experimental philosophy and neuroethics research collects data about human ethical decisions in controlled scenarios such as trolley problems, it has shown that many types of ethical judgment are universal across cultures, suggesting that they may be innate, whilst others are culture specific. The findings show actual human ethical reasoning to be at odds with most logical philosophical theories, for example showing distinctions between action by cause and action by omission which would be absent from utility based theories.
Cognitive science has theorized about differences between conservative and liberal ethics and how they may be based on different metaphors from family life such as strong fathers vs nurturing mother models. Neurotheology is a controversial field which tries to find neural correlates and mechanisms of religious experience; some researchers have suggested that the human brain has innate mechanisms for such experiences and that living without using them for their evolved purposes may be a cause of imbalance. Studies have reported conflicted results on correlating happiness with religious belief and it is difficult to find unbiased meta-analyses. Sociology examines value at a social level using theoretical constructs such as value theory, anomie, etc. One value system suggested by social psychologists, broadly called Terror Management Theory, states that human meaning is derived from a fundamental fear of death, values are selected when they allow us to escape the mental reminder of death. Alongside this, there are a number of theories about the way in which humans evaluate the positive and negative aspects of their existence and thus the value and meaning they place on their lives.
For example, depressive realism posits an exaggerated positivity in all except