International Astronomical Union
The International Astronomical Union is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy. Among other activities, it acts as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations and names to celestial bodies and any surface features on them; the IAU is a member of the International Council for Science. Its main objective is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation; the IAU maintains friendly relations with organizations that include amateur astronomers in their membership. The IAU has its head office on the second floor of the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris in the 14th arrondissement of Paris. Working groups include the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature, which maintains the astronomical naming conventions and planetary nomenclature for planetary bodies, the Working Group on Star Names, which catalogs and standardizes proper names for stars.
The IAU is responsible for the system of astronomical telegrams which are produced and distributed on its behalf by the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. The Minor Planet Center operates under the IAU, is a "clearinghouse" for all non-planetary or non-moon bodies in the Solar System; the Working Group for Meteor Shower Nomenclature and the Meteor Data Center coordinate the nomenclature of meteor showers. The IAU was founded on 28 July 1919, at the Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council held in Brussels, Belgium. Two subsidiaries of the IAU were created at this assembly: the International Time Commission seated at the International Time Bureau in Paris and the International Central Bureau of Astronomical Telegrams seated in Copenhagen, Denmark; the 7 initial member states were Belgium, France, Great Britain, Greece and the United States, soon to be followed by Italy and Mexico. The first executive committee consisted of Benjamin Baillaud, Alfred Fowler, four vice presidents: William Campbell, Frank Dyson, Georges Lecointe, Annibale Riccò.
Thirty-two Commissions were appointed at the Brussels meeting and focused on topics ranging from relativity to minor planets. The reports of these 32 Commissions formed the main substance of the first General Assembly, which took place in Rome, Italy, 2–10 May 1922. By the end of the first General Assembly, ten additional nations had joined the Union, bringing the total membership to 19 countries. Although the Union was formed eight months after the end of World War I, international collaboration in astronomy had been strong in the pre-war era; the first 50 years of the Union's history are well documented. Subsequent history is recorded in the form of reminiscences of past IAU Presidents and General Secretaries. Twelve of the fourteen past General Secretaries in the period 1964-2006 contributed their recollections of the Union's history in IAU Information Bulletin No. 100. Six past IAU Presidents in the period 1976–2003 contributed their recollections in IAU Information Bulletin No. 104. The IAU includes a total of 12,664 individual members who are professional astronomers from 96 countries worldwide.
83% of all individual members are male, while 17% are female, among them the union's former president, Mexican astronomer Silvia Torres-Peimbert. Membership includes 79 national members, professional astronomical communities representing their country's affiliation with the IAU. National members include the Australian Academy of Science, the Chinese Astronomical Society, the French Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Science Academy, the National Academies, the National Research Foundation of South Africa, the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, KACST, the Council of German Observatories, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Science Council of Japan, among many others; the sovereign body of the IAU is its General Assembly. The Assembly determines IAU policy, approves the Statutes and By-Laws of the Union and elects various committees; the right to vote on matters brought before the Assembly varies according to the type of business under discussion.
The Statutes consider such business to be divided into two categories: issues of a "primarily scientific nature", upon which voting is restricted to individual members, all other matters, upon which voting is restricted to the representatives of national members. On budget matters, votes are weighted according to the relative subscription levels of the national members. A second category vote requires a turnout of at least two-thirds of national members in order to be valid. An absolute majority is sufficient for approval in any vote, except for Statute revision which requires a two-thirds majority. An equality of votes is resolved by the vote of the President of the Union. Since 1922, the IAU General Assembly meets every three years, with the ex
Jean Reinhardt stage name Django Reinhardt, was a Belgian-born Romani-French jazz guitarist and composer, regarded as one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century. He remains the most significant. With violinist Stéphane Grappelli, Reinhardt formed the Paris-based Quintette du Hot Club de France in 1934; the group was among the first to play jazz. Reinhardt recorded in France with many visiting American musicians, including Coleman Hawkins and Benny Carter, toured the United States with Duke Ellington's orchestra in 1946, he died of a stroke at the age of 43. Reinhardt's most popular compositions have become standards within gypsy jazz, including "Minor Swing", "Daphne", "Belleville", "Djangology", "Swing'42", "Nuages". Jazz guitarist Frank Vignola claims that nearly every major popular-music guitarist in the world has been influenced by Reinhardt. Over the last few decades, annual Django festivals have been held throughout Europe and the U. S. and a biography has been written about his life.
In February 2017, the Berlin International Film Festival held the world premiere of the French film, Django. Reinhardt was born on 23 January 1910 in Liberchies, Pont-à-Celles, into a Belgian family of Manouche Romani descent, his father was Jean Eugene Weiss, but domiciled in Paris with his wife, he went by Jean-Baptiste Reinhardt, his wife's surname, to avoid French military conscription. His mother, Laurence Reinhardt, was a dancer; the birth certificate refers to "Jean Reinhart, son of Jean Baptiste Reinhart and Laurence Reinhart, domiciled in Paris". A number of authors have repeated the claim that Reinhardt's nickname, Django, is Romani for "I awake". Reinhardt spent most of his youth in Romani encampments close to Paris, where he started playing the violin and guitar, he became adept at stealing chickens, viewed as a noble skill by the Romani, because part of their means of survival on the road was to steal from the non-Gypsy world around them. His father played music in a family band comprising himself and seven brothers.
Reinhardt was attracted to music at an early age. At the age of 12 he received a banjo-guitar as a gift, he learned to play, mimicking the fingerings of musicians he watched, who would have included local virtuoso players of the day such as Jean "Poulette" Castro and Auguste "Gusti" Malha, as well as from his uncle Guiligou, who played violin and guitar. Reinhardt was able to make a living playing music by the time he was 15, he acquired the rudiments of literacy only in adult life. At the age of 17 Reinhardt married Florine "Bella" Mayer, a girl from the same gypsy settlement, according to gypsy custom; the following year he recorded for the first time. On these recordings, made in 1928, Reinhardt plays the "banjo" accompanying the accordionists Maurice Alexander, Jean Vaissade and Victor Marceau, the singer Maurice Chaumel, his name was now drawing international attention, such as from British bandleader Jack Hylton, who came to France just to hear him play. Hylton offered him a job on the spot, Reinhardt accepted.
Before he had a chance to start with the band, Reinhardt nearly died. On the night of 2 November 1928, Reinhardt was going to bed in the wagon that he and his wife shared in the gypsy caravan, he knocked over a candle, which ignited the flammable celluloid that his wife used to make artificial flowers. The wagon was engulfed in flames; the couple escaped. During his 18 month hospitalization, doctors recommended amputation for his badly damaged right leg. Reinhardt refused the surgery and was able to walk with the aid of a cane. More crucial to his music, the fourth and fifth fingers of Reinhardt’s left hand were badly burned. Doctors believed. Reinhardt applied himself to intensely relearning his craft, making use of a new guitar bought for him by his brother, Joseph Reinhardt, an accomplished guitarist. While he never regained the use of those two fingers, Reinhardt regained his musical mastery by focusing on his left index and middle fingers, using the two injured fingers only for chord work. Within a year of the fire, in 1929, Bella Mayer gave birth to Henri "Lousson" Reinhardt.
Soon thereafter, the couple split up. The son took the surname of his mother's new husband; as Lousson Baumgartner, the son himself became an accomplished musician who would go on to record with his biological father. After parting from his wife and son, Reinhardt traveled throughout France, getting occasional jobs playing music at small clubs, he had no definite goals, living a hand-to-mouth existence spending his earnings as as he made them. Accompanying him on his travels was his new girlfriend, Sophie Ziegler. Nicknamed "Naguine," she and Reinhardt were distant cousins. During the years after the fire, Reinhardt was rehabilitating and experimenting on the guitar that his brother had given him. After having played a broad spectrum of music, he was introduced to American jazz by an acquaintance, Émile Savitry, whose record collection included such musical luminaries as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington. Hearing their music triggered in Reinhardt a vision and goal of bec
Hong Daeyong, styled Damheon was a philosopher and mathematician of the late Joseon Kingdom. Hong was an early leader of the Profitable Usage and Benefiting the People school of thought, it worked to promote the industrialization of his country and the development of trade by positively introducing Western technologies to Joseon Korea. Hong was a friend of Park Ji-won, another leader of the Profitable Usage school. Hong Daeyong was born in 1731 in South Chungcheong Province. In his early days, Hong was educated by Kim One-hang of Seock-sil Seowon. During this period, traditional Neo-Confucianism formed the basis of his academic world. In 1765, Hong followed his uncle Hong Eock, in Joseon missions to Imperial China. In China, Hong witnessed a brilliant development of experienced culture shock. After returning to Joseon, Hong insisted enhancing the national prosperity. Hong was interested in astronomy and mathematics, he maintained the rotundity of Earth's rotation. Traditional Confucianists regard that the sky is globular and the ground is square so they couldn't understand Hong's idea.
He excluded the Anthropocentrism. Hong thought. After being failed Imperial examination a few times, Hong gave up examination and was absorbed in astronomy research, he wrote Catechism of Eusan mountain, which contains the concepts of Earth's rotation and the equality among species and the infinity of outer space. In mathematics, Hong wrote Usage of Mathematics, and he wrote Travel Essay of Yanjing in 1766, a travel journal about his China travel. In 1774, Hong was recommended for a mentor of Crown Prince. Hong discussed many themes with crown prince. Although Crown Prince was satisfied with Hong's studies and polymathy, Hong found their difference of views among several topics and the conservatism of Prince. Crown prince demanded Hong to go into government service and be his own staff members, but Hong indicated his refusal in a roundabout way. Hong wrote Journal as the Mentor of Crown Prince. After crown prince ascended the throne following the passing of the King Yeongjo, Hong was appointed to local county governor.
In there he tried to test his progressive ideas in local society. However, his mother's health condition deteriorated in 1782, so Hong abandoned a service and came back to Seoul. In 1783, mother regained her health, he wouldn't make it by morning, breathed his last breath the next day. It was 23 October 1783 as 17 November 1783. Hong's works, including Catechism of Ui mountain and Usage of Mathematics, Journal as the Mentor of Crown Prince were compiled to collection, Books of Relaxed House, his practical Confucian ideas were succeeded by Park Ji-won and Park's disciples, but his scientific thought and research were succeeded by nobody. Books of Relaxed House Catechism of Ui Mountain Journal as the Mentor of Crown Prince
Naruto Strait is a strait between Awaji Island and Shikoku in Japan. It connects the eastern part of the Inland Sea and the Kii Channel. A famous feature of the strait is the Naruto whirlpools. Ōnaruto Bridge, the southern part of the Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway, crosses over it. Interactive satellite photos of the site