Bankruptcy in the United States
In the United States, bankruptcy is governed by federal law referred to as the "Bankruptcy Code". The United States Constitution authorizes Congress to enact "uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States." Congress has exercised this authority several times since 1801, including through adoption of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978, as amended, codified in Title 11 of the United States Code and the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005. Some laws relevant to bankruptcy are found in other parts of the United States Code. For example, bankruptcy crimes are found in Title 18 of the United States Code. Tax implications of bankruptcy are found in Title 26 of the United States Code, the creation and jurisdiction of bankruptcy courts are found in Title 28 of the United States Code. Bankruptcy cases are filed in United States Bankruptcy Court, federal law governs procedure in bankruptcy cases. However, state laws are applied to determine how bankruptcy affects the property rights of debtors.
For example, law governing the validity of liens or rules protecting certain property from creditors, may derive from state law or federal law. Because state law plays a major role in many bankruptcy cases, it is unwise to generalize some bankruptcy issues across state lines. Before 1898, there were several short-lived federal bankruptcy laws in the U. S; the first was the Bankruptcy Act of 1800, repealed in 1803 and followed by the act of 1841, repealed in 1843, the act of 1867, amended in 1874 and repealed in 1878. The first modern Bankruptcy Act in America, sometimes called the "Nelson Act", was entered into force in 1898; the current Bankruptcy Code was enacted in 1978 by § 101 of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978, became effective on October 1, 1979. The current Code replaced the former Bankruptcy Act, the "Chandler Act" of 1938; the Chandler Act gave unprecedented authority to the Securities and Exchange Commission in the administration of bankruptcy filings. The current Code has been amended numerous times since 1978.
See the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005. Entities seeking relief under the Bankruptcy Code may file a petition for relief under a number of different chapters of the Code, depending on circumstances. Title 11 contains nine chapters; the other three chapters provide rules governing bankruptcy cases in general. A case is referred to by the chapter under which the petition is filed; these chapters are described below. Liquidation under a Chapter 7 filing is the most common form of bankruptcy. Liquidation involves the appointment of a trustee who collects the non-exempt property of the debtor, sells it and distributes the proceeds to the creditors; because each state allows for debtors to keep essential property, Chapter 7 cases are "no asset" cases, meaning that the bankrupt estate has no non-exempt assets to fund a distribution to creditors. Chapter 7 bankruptcy remains on a bankruptcy filer's credit report as part of credit history for 10 years. United States bankruptcy law changed in 2005 with the passage of BAPCPA, which made it more difficult for consumer debtors to file bankruptcy in general and Chapter 7 in particular.
Advocates of BAPCPA claimed that its passage would reduce losses to creditors such as credit card companies, that those creditors would pass on the savings to other borrowers in the form of lower interest rates. Critics assert that these claims turned out to be false, observing that although credit card company losses decreased after passage of the Act, prices charged to customers increased, credit card company profits increased. A Chapter 9 bankruptcy is available only to municipalities. Chapter 9 is a form of reorganization, not liquidation. Notable examples of municipal bankruptcies include that of Orange County and the bankruptcy of the city of Detroit, Michigan in 2013. Bankruptcy under Chapter 11, Chapter 12, or Chapter 13 is more complex reorganization and involves allowing the debtor to keep some or all of his or her property and to use future earnings to pay off creditors. Consumers file chapter 7 or chapter 13. Chapter 11 filings by individuals are rare. Chapter 12 is similar to Chapter 13 but is available only to "family farmers" and "family fisherman" in certain situations.
Chapter 12 has more generous terms for debtors than a comparable Chapter 13 case would have available. As as mid-2004 Chapter 12 was scheduled to expire, but in late 2004 it was renewed and made permanent; the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 added Chapter 15 and deals with cross-border insolvency: foreign companies with U. S. debts. As a threshold matter, bankruptcy cases are either involuntary. In voluntary bankruptcy cases, which account for the overwhelming majority of cases, debtors petition the bankruptcy court. With involuntary bankruptcy, rather than the debtor, file the petition in bankruptcy. Involuntary petitions are rare and are used in business settings to force a company into bankruptcy so that creditors can enforce their rights. Except in Chapter 9 cases, commencement of a bankruptcy case creates an "estate." The debtor's creditors must look to the assets of the estate for satisfaction of their claims. The estate consists of all property interests of the debtor at the time of case commencement, subject to certain e
Welfare is a type of government support for the citizens of that society. Welfare may be provided to people of any income level, as with social security, but it is intended to ensure that the poor can meet their basic human needs such as food and shelter. Welfare attempts to provide poor people with a minimal level of well-being either a free- or a subsidized-supply of certain goods and social services, such as healthcare and vocational training. A welfare state is a political system wherein the State assumes responsibility for the health and welfare of society; the system of social security in a welfare state provides social services, such as universal medical care, unemployment insurance for workers, financial aid, free post-secondary education for students, subsidized public housing, pensions, etc. In 1952, with the Social Security Convention, the International Labour Organization formally defined the social contingencies covered by social security; the first welfare state was Imperial Germany, where the Bismarck government introduced social security in the late 19th century.
In the early 20th century, Great Britain introduced social security around 1913, adopted the welfare state with the National Insurance Act 1946, during the Attlee government. In the countries of western Europe and Australasia, social welfare is provided by the government out of the national tax revenues, to a lesser extent by non-government organizations, charities. In the U. S. welfare program is the general term for government support of the well-being of poor people, the term social security refers to the US social insurance program for retired and disabled people. In other countries, the term social security has a broader definition, which refers to the economic security that a society offers when people are sick and unemployed. In the U. K. government use of the term welfare includes help for poor people and benefits, including specific social services such as help in finding employment. In the Roman Empire, the first emperor Augustus provided the Cura Annonae or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food every month.
Social welfare was enlarged by the Emperor Trajan. Trajan's program brought acclaim including Pliny the Younger; the Song dynasty government supported multiple programs which could be classified as social welfare, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, paupers' graveyards. According to economist Robert Henry Nelson, "The medieval Roman Catholic Church operated a far-reaching and comprehensive welfare system for the poor..."Early welfare programs in Europe included the English Poor Law of 1601, which gave parishes the responsibility for providing welfare payments to the poor. This system was modified by the 19th-century Poor Law Amendment Act, which introduced the system of workhouses. Public assistance programs were not called welfare until the early 20th century when the term was adopted to avoid the negative connotations that had become associated with older terms such as charity, it was predominantly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that an organized system of state welfare provision was introduced in many countries.
Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany, introduced one of the first welfare systems for the working classes. In Great Britain the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and David Lloyd George introduced the National Insurance system in 1911, a system expanded by Clement Attlee; the United States inherited England's poor house laws and has had a form of welfare since before it won its independence. During the Great Depression, when emergency relief measures were introduced under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Roosevelt's New Deal focused predominantly on a program of providing work and stimulating the economy through public spending on projects, rather than on cash payment. Modern welfare states include Germany, the Netherlands, as well as the Nordic countries, such as Iceland, Norway and Finland which employ a system known as the Nordic model. Esping-Andersen classified the most developed welfare state systems into three categories. In the Islamic world, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, has been collected by the government since the time of the Rashidun caliph Umar in the 7th century.
The taxes were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, orphans and the disabled. According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali, the government was expected to store up food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred; the World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on The Changing Nature of Work considers whether traditional social assistance models continue to be appropriate given that, in 2018, 8 in 10 people in developing countries still receive no social assistance while 6 in 10 work informally beyond the government's reach. Welfare can take a variety of forms, such as monetary payments and vouchers, or housing assistance. Welfare systems differ from country to country, but welfare is provided to individuals who are unemployed, those with illness or disability, the elderly, those with dependent children, veterans. A person's eligibility for welfare may be constrained by means testing or other conditions. Welfare is provided by governments or their agencies, by private organizations, or a combination of both.
Funding for welfare comes from general government revenue, but when d
Universal health care
Universal healthcare is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all residents of a particular country or region. It is organized around providing a specified package of benefits to all members of a society with the end goal of providing financial risk protection, improved access to health services, improved health outcomes. Universal healthcare does not imply coverage for all people for everything, only that all people have access to healthcare; some universal healthcare systems are government funded, while others are based on a requirement that all citizens purchase private health insurance. Universal healthcare can be determined by three critical dimensions:, covered, what services are covered, how much of the cost is covered, it is described by the World Health Organization as a situation where citizens can access health services without incurring financial hardship. The Director General of WHO describes universal health coverage as the “single most powerful concept that public health has to offer” since it unifies “services and delivers them in a comprehensive and integrated way”.
One of the goals with universal healthcare is to create a system of protection which provides equality of opportunity for people to enjoy the highest possible level of health. As part of Sustainable Development Goals, United Nations member states have agreed to work toward worldwide universal health coverage by 2030; the first move towards a national health insurance system was launched in Germany in 1883, with the Sickness Insurance Law. Industrial employers were mandated to provide injury and illness insurance for their low-wage workers, the system was funded and administered by employees and employers through "sick funds", which were drawn from deductions in workers' wages and from employers' contributions. Other countries soon began to follow suit. In the United Kingdom, the National Insurance Act 1911 provided coverage for primary care for wage earners, covering about one third of the population; the Russian Empire established a similar system in 1912, other industrialized countries began following suit.
By the 1930s, similar systems existed in all of Western and Central Europe. Japan introduced an employee health insurance law in 1927, expanding further upon it in 1935 and 1940. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Soviet Union established a public and centralized health care system in 1920. However, it was not a universal system at that point, as rural residents were not covered. In New Zealand, a universal health care system was created in a series of steps, from 1939 to 1941. In Australia, the state of Queensland introduced a free public hospital system in the 1940s. Following World War II, universal health care systems began to be set up around the world. On July 5, 1948, the United Kingdom launched its universal National Health Service. Universal health care was next introduced in the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Finland. Universal health insurance was introduced in Japan, in Canada through stages, starting with the province of Saskatchewan in 1962, followed by the rest of Canada from 1968 to 1972.
The Soviet Union extended universal health care to its rural residents in 1969. Italy introduced its Servizio Sanitario Nazionale in 1978. Universal health insurance was implemented in Australia beginning with the Medibank system which led to universal coverage under the Medicare system. From the 1970s to the 2000s, Southern and Western European countries began introducing universal coverage, most of them building upon previous health insurance programs to cover the whole population. For example, France built upon its 1928 national health insurance system, with subsequent legislation covering a larger and larger percentage of the population, until the remaining 1% of the population, uninsured received coverage in 2000. In addition, universal health coverage was introduced in some Asian countries, including South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia retained and reformed its universal health care system, as did other former Soviet nations and Eastern bloc countries.
Beyond the 1990s, many countries in Latin America, the Caribbean and the Asia-Pacific region, including developing countries, took steps to bring their populations under universal health coverage, including China which has the largest universal health care system in the world and Brazil's SUS which improved coverage up to 80% of the population. A 2012 study examined progress being made by these countries, focusing on nine in particular: Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam. Universal health care in most countries has been achieved by a mixed model of funding. General taxation revenue is the primary source of funding, but in many countries it is supplemented by specific levies or with the option of private payments for services beyond those covered by the public system. All European systems are financed through a mix of public and private contributions. Most universal health care systems are funded by tax revenue; some nations, such as Germany and Japan, employ a multipayer system in which health care is funded by private and public contributions.
However, much of the non-government funding is by contributions by employers and employees to regulated non-profit sickness funds. Contributions are compulsory and defined according to law
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United States. It is a federal aid program, administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, under the Food and Nutrition Service, though benefits are distributed by each U. S. state's Division of Children and Family Services. SNAP benefits supplied 40 million Americans in 2018. 9.2% of American households obtained SNAP benefits at some point during 2017, with 16.7% of all children living in households with SNAP benefits. Beneficiaries and costs increased with the Great Recession, peaked in 2013 and have declined through 2017 as the economy recovered, it is the largest nutrition program of the 15 administered by FNS and is a key component of the social safety net for low-income Americans. The amount of SNAP benefits received by a household depends on the household's size and expenses. For most of its history, the program used paper-denominated "stamps" or coupons – worth $1, $5, $10 – bound into booklets of various denominations, to be torn out individually and used in single-use exchange.
Because of their 1:1 value ratio with actual currency, the coupons were printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Their rectangular shape resembled a U. S. dollar bill, including intaglio printing on high-quality paper with watermarks. In the late 1990s, the Food Stamp Program was revamped, with some states phasing out actual stamps in favor of a specialized debit card system known as Electronic Benefit Transfer, provided by private contractors. EBT has been implemented in all states since June 2004; each month, SNAP benefits are directly deposited into the household's EBT card account. Households may use EBT to pay for food at supermarkets, convenience stores, other food retailers, including certain farmers' markets; the idea for the first food stamp program has been credited to various people, most notably Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace and the program's first administrator, Milo Perkins. Of the program, Perkins said, "We got a picture of a gorge, with farm surpluses on one cliff and under-nourished city folks with outstretched hands on the other.
We set out to find a practical way to build a bridge across that chasm." The program operated by permitting people on relief to buy orange stamps equal to their normal food expenditures. Orange stamps could be used to buy any food. Over the course of nearly four years, the first FSP reached 20 million people in nearly half of the counties in the United States at a total cost of $262 million. At its peak, the program assisted an estimated four million people; the first recipient was Mabel McFiggin of New York. The program ended when the conditions that brought the program into being—unmarketable food surpluses and widespread unemployment—ceased to exist; the 18 years between the end of the first FSP and the inception of the next were filled with studies and legislative proposals. Prominent US senators associated with attempts to enact a food stamp program during this period included George Aiken, Robert M. La Follette, Jr. Hubert Humphrey, Estes Kefauver, Stuart Symington. From 1954 on, US Representative Leonor Sullivan strove to pass food-stamp program legislation.
On September 21, 1959, P. L. 86-341 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to operate a food-stamp system through January 31, 1962. The Eisenhower Administration never used the authority. However, in fulfillment of a campaign promise made in West Virginia, President John F. Kennedy's first Executive Order called for expanded food distribution and, on February 2, 1961, he announced that food stamp pilot programs would be initiated; the pilot programs would retain the requirement that the food stamps be purchased, but eliminated the concept of special stamps for surplus foods. A Department spokesman indicated. Of the program, US Representative Leonor K. Sullivan of Missouri asserted, "...the Department of Agriculture seemed bent on outlining a possible food stamp plan of such scope and magnitude, involving some 25 million persons, as to make the whole idea seem ridiculous and tear food stamp plans to smithereens." The Food Stamp Act of 1964 appropriated $75 million to 350,000 individuals in 40 counties and three cities.
The measure drew overwhelming support from House Democrats, 90 percent from urban areas, 96 percent from the suburbs, 87 percent from rural areas. Republican lawmakers opposed the initial measure: only 12 percent of urban Republicans, 11 percent from the suburbs, 5 percent from rural areas voted affirmatively. President Lyndon B. Johnson hailed food stamps as "a realistic and responsible step toward the fuller and wiser use of an agricultural abundance". Rooted in congressional logrolling, the act was part of a larger appropriation that raised price supports for cotton and wheat. Rural lawmakers supported the program so that their urban colleagues would not dismantle farm subsidies. Food stamps, along with Medicaid/Medicare, Head Start, the Job Corps, were foremost among the growing anti-poverty programs. President Johnson called for a permanent food-stamp program on January 31, 1964, as part of his "War on Poverty" platform introduced at the State of the Union a few weeks earlier. Ag
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Social Security (United States)
In the United States, Social Security is the used term for the federal Old-Age and Disability Insurance program and is administered by the Social Security Administration. The original Social Security Act was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935, the current version of the Act, as amended, encompasses several social welfare and social insurance programs. Social Security is funded through payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax or Self Employed Contributions Act Tax. Tax deposits are collected by the Internal Revenue Service and are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the two Social Security Trust Funds. With a few exceptions, all salaried income, up to an amount determined by law, is subject to the Social Security payroll tax. All income over said. In 2018, the maximum amount of taxable earnings was $128,400. With few exceptions, all legal residents working in the United States now have an individual Social Security number.
Indeed, nearly all working residents since Social Security's 1935 inception have had a Social Security number because it is requested by a wide range of businesses. In 2017, Social Security expenditures totaled $806.7 billion for OASDI and $145.8 billion for DI. Income derived from Social Security is estimated to have reduced the poverty rate for Americans age 65 or older from about 40% to below 10%. In 2018, the trustees of the Social Security Trust Fund reported that the program will become financially insolvent in the year 2034 unless corrective action is enacted by Congress. Social Security Timeline 1935 The 37-page Social Security Act signed August 14 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Retirement benefits only to worker, welfare benefits started 1937 First Social Security Cards issued by post offices, over 20 million issued in first year 1937 Ernest Ackerman receives first lump-sum payout in January. 1939 Two new categories of beneficiaries added: spouse and minor children of a retired worker 1940 First monthly benefit check issued to Ida May Fuller for $22.54 1950 Benefits increased and cost of living adjustments made at irregular intervals – 77% COLA in 1950 1954 Disability program added to Social Security 1960 Flemming v. Nestor.
Landmark U. S. Supreme Court ruling that gave Congress the power to revise the schedule of benefits; the Court ruled that recipients have no contractual right to receive payments. 1961 Early retirement age lowered to age 62 at reduced benefits 1965 Medicare health care benefits added to Social security – 20 million joined in three years 1966 Medicare tax of 0.7% added to pay for increased Medicare expenses 1972 Supplemental Security Income program federalized and assigned to Social Security Administration 1975 Automatic cost of living adjustments mandated 1977 COLA adjustments brought back to "sustainable" levels 1980 Amendments are made in disability program to help solve some problems of fraud 1983 Taxation of Social Security benefits introduced, new federal hires required to be under Social Security, retirement age increased for younger workers to 66 and 67 years 1984 Congress passed the Disability Benefits Reform Act modifying several aspects of the disability program 1996 Drug addiction or alcoholism disability benefits could no longer be eligible for disability benefits.
The Earnings limit doubled exemption amount for retired Social Security beneficiaries. Terminated SSI eligibility for most non-citizens 1997 The law requires the establishment of federal standards for state-issued birth certificates and requires SSA to develop a prototype counterfeit-resistant Social Security card – still being worked on. 1997 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, replaces Aid to Families with Dependent Children program placed under SSA 1997 State Children's Health Insurance Program for low income citizens – added to Social Security Administration 2003 Voluntary drug benefits with supplemental Medicare insurance payments from recipients added 2009 No Social Security Benefits for Prisoners Act of 2009 signed. A limited form of the Social Security program began, during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term, as a measure to implement "social insurance" during the Great Depression of the 1930s; the Act was an attempt to limit unforeseen and unprepared-for dangers in modern life, including old age, poverty and the burdens of widows with and without children.
Opponents, decried the proposal as socialism. In a Senate Finance Committee hearing, Senator Thomas Gore asked Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, "Isn't this socialism?" She said that it was not, but he continued, "Isn't this a teeny-weeny bit of socialism?"The provisions of Social Security have been changing since the 1930s, shifting in response to economic worries as well as coverage for the poor, dependent children, spouses and the disabled. By 1950, debates moved away from which occupational groups should be included to get enough taxpayers to fund Social Security to how to provide more benefits. Changes in Social Security have reflected a balance between promoting "equality" and efforts to provide "adequate" and affordable protection for low wage workers; the larger and better known programs under the Social Security Administration, SSA, are: Federal Old-Age and Disability Insurance, OASDI Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, TANF Health Insurance for Aged and Disabled, Medicare Grants to States for Medical Assistance Programs for low income citizens, Medicaid State Children's Health Insurance Program for low income citizens, SCHIP Supplement
Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Justice is a ministerial department of the British Government headed by the Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor. The department is responsible for areas of constitutional policy not transferred in 2010 to the Deputy Prime Minister, human rights law and information rights law across the UK; the ministry was formed in May 2007 when some functions of the Home Secretary were combined with the Department for Constitutional Affairs. The latter had replaced the Lord Chancellor's Department in 2003, its stated priorities are to reduce re-offending and protect the public, to provide access to justice, to increase confidence in the justice system, uphold people’s civil liberties. The Secretary of State is the minister responsible to Parliament for the judiciary, the court system and prisons and probation in England and Wales, with some additional UK-wide responsibilities e.g. the UK Supreme Court and judicial appointments by the Crown. The Ministry of Justice of UK might oversee the administration of justice in Jersey and the Isle of Man, as well as Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha and the Falkland Islands.
Gibraltar, another British overseas territory, has its own Ministry of Justice. Prior to the formation of the Coalition Government in May 2010, the ministry handled relations between the British Government and the three devolved administrations: the Northern Ireland Executive. Responsibility for devolution was transferred to the re-established position of Deputy Prime Minister, based in the Cabinet Office, he assumed responsibility for political and constitutional reform, including reform of the House of Lords, the West Lothian Question, electoral policy, political party funding reform and royal succession. The Deputy Prime Minister and Secretary of State for Justice have joint responsibility for a commission on a British bill of rights; the Ministry of Justice retained the following UK-wide remit: European Union and international justice policy Freedom of information and data protection Human rights and civil liberties The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The National ArchivesAs the office of the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, the ministry is responsible for policy relating to Lord Lieutenants, "non-delegated" royal and hereditary issues, other constitutional issues, although the exact definition of these is unclear.
The post of Lord Chancellor of Ireland was abolished in 1922 but Northern Ireland remains part of the UK, however the functions and responsibilities do belong from to the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Karen Bradley. The vast majority of the Ministry of Justice's work takes place in Wales; the ministry has no responsibility for devolved criminal justice policy, prisons or probation matters in either Scotland or Northern Ireland. Within the jurisdiction of England and Wales, the Ministry of Justice is responsible for ensuring that all suspected offenders are appropriately dealt with from the time they are arrested, until convicted offenders have completed their sentence; the ministry is therefore responsible for all aspects of the criminal law, including the scope and content of criminal offences. Its responsibilities extend to the commissioning of prison services and reducing offending, victim support, the probation service and the out-of-court system, the Youth Justice Board and parole policy, criminal injuries compensation and the Criminal Cases Review Commission.
The Attorney General for England and Wales works with the Ministry of Justice to develop criminal justice policy. Other responsibilities limited to England and Wales include the administration of all courts and tribunals, land registration, legal aid and the regulation of legal services and the investigation of deaths, administrative justice and public law, the maintenance of the judiciary, public guardianship and mental incapacity, supervision of restricted patients detained under the Mental Health Act 1983 and civil law and justice, including the family justice system and claims management regulation; the Ministry of Justice is the department that facilitates communication between the Crown dependencies i.e. Jersey and the Isle of Man, HM Government; these are self-governing possessions of the British monarch, through her titles as Duke of Normandy in the Channel Islands and Lord of Mann in the Isle of Man. It processes legislation for Royal Assent passed by the insular legislative assemblies and consults with the Islands on extending British legislation to them.
It ensures that relevant British legislation is extended to the islands smoothly. The Ministers in the Ministry of Justice are as follows: The Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Justice is Richard Heaton, by virtue of his office working for the Lord Chancellor Clerk of the Crown in Chancery. Justice ministry Government of the United Kingdom Politics of the United Kingdom Official website Ministry of Justice resources for legal professionals Ministry of Justice organogram from data.gov.uk