click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Meat packing industry

The meat packing industry handles the slaughtering, processing and distribution of meat from animals such as cattle, pigs and other livestock. Poultry is not included; this greater part of the entire meat industry is focused on producing meat for human consumption, but it yields a variety of by-products including hides, dried blood, through the process of rendering, fat such as tallow and protein meals such as meat & bone meal. In the United States and some other countries, the facility where the meat packing is done is called a slaughterhouse, packinghouse or a meat packing plant. An abattoir is a place; the meat packing industry grew with the construction of the railroads and methods of refrigeration for meat preservation. Railroads made possible the transport of stock to central points for processing, the transport of products. Before the Civil War, the meat industry was localized, with nearby farmers providing beef and hogs for local butchers to serve the local market. Large Army contracts during the war attracted entrepreneurs with a vision for building much larger markets.

The 1865–1873 era provided five factors that nationalized the industry: The rapid growth of cities provided a lucrative new market for fresh meat. The emergence of large-scale ranching, the role of the railroads and entrepreneurial skills. Cattle ranching on a large-scale move to the Great Plains, from Texas northward. Overland cattle drives moved large herds to the railheads in Kansas, where cattle cars brought live animals eastward. Abilene, became the chief railhead, shipping 35,000 cattle a year to Kansas City and Chicago. In Milwaukee, Philip Armour, an ambitious entrepreneur from New York who made his fortune in Army contracts during the war, partnered with Jacob Plankinton to build a efficient stockyard that serviced the upper Midwest. Chicago built the famous Union Stockyards in 1865 on 345 swampy acres to the south of downtown. Armour opened the Chicago plant, as did another wartime contractor. Cincinnati and Buffalo, both with good water and rail service opened stockyards. Most energetic entrepreneur was Gustavus Franklin Swift, the Yankee who operated out of Boston and moved to Chicago in 1875, specializing in long distance refrigerated meat shipments to eastern cities.

A practical refrigerated rail car was introduced in 1881. This made it possible to ship cattle and hog carcasses, which weighed only 40% as much as live animals. Swift developed an integrated network of cattle procurement, meat-packing and shipping meat to market. Up to that time cattle were driven great distances to railroad shipping points, causing the cattle to lose considerable weight. Swift developed a large business; the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was the first of a series of legislation that led to the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration. Another such act passed; the new laws helped the large packers, hurt small operations that lacked economy of scale or quality controls. Historian William Cronon concludes: Because of the Chicago packers, ranchers in Wyoming and feedlot farmers in Iowa found a reliable market for their animals, on average received better prices for the animals they sold there. At the same time and for the same reason, Americans of all classes found a greater variety of more and better meats on their tables, purchased on average at lower prices than before.

Seen in this light, the packers' "rigid system of economy" seemed a good thing indeed. In the early part of the 19th century, they used the most recent immigrants and migrants as strikebreakers in labor actions taken by other workers usually immigrants or early descendants; the publication of the Upton Sinclair novel The Jungle in the U. S. in 1906, shocked the public with the poor working conditions and unsanitary practices in meat packing plants in the United States Chicago. Meat packing plants, like many industries in the early 20th century, were known to overwork their employees, failed to maintain adequate safety measures, fought unionization. Public pressure to U. S. Congress led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act, both passed in 1906 on the same day to ensure better regulations of the meat packing industry as well as better treatment of its employees working there. Before the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act, workers were exposed to dangerous chemicals, sharp machinery, horrible injuries.

In the 1920s and early 1930s, workers achieved unionization under the CIO's United Packinghouse Workers of America. An interracial committee led the organizing in Chicago, where the majority of workers in the industry were black, other major cities, such as Omaha, where they were an important minority in the industry. UPWA workers made important gains in wages and benefits. In 1957 the stockyards and meat packing employed half the workers of Omaha; the union supported a progressive agenda, including the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. While the work was still difficult, for a few decades workers achieved blue-collar, middle-class lives from it. Though the meat packing industry has made many improvements since the early 1900s, extensive changes in the industry since the late 20th century have caused new labor issues to arise. Today, the rate of injury in the meat packing industry is three ti

Casa Serra

The Casa Serra is a building in the Modernisme style in Barcelona, designed by Josep Puig i Cadafalch. It is situated at number 126 Rambla de Catalunya, at that street's corner with the Avinguda Diagonal; the building was built as a residence between 1903 and 1908, for Pere Serra, although he never lived there. It has subsequently served several purposes, is now the home of the provincial council of the Province of Barcelona; the section of the building fronting Avinguda Diagonal was demolished in 1981, replaced by an office building, by Federico Correa and Alfonso Milá, to house the offices of the provincial council. The contrast between the two different styles was the subject of controversy at the time. List of Modernisme buildings in Barcelona Media related to Casa Serra at Wikimedia Commons

Hampstead and Kilburn (UK Parliament constituency)

Hampstead and Kilburn is a constituency created in 2010 and represented in the House of Commons by Tulip Siddiq of the Labour Party. Glenda Jackson was the MP from 2010–2015, having served for the predecessor seat since 1992; the constituency was created for the 2010 general election in which it was won by Labour's Glenda Jackson with a majority of 42 votes being the most marginal result in England. Hampstead and Kilburn was in 2010 the closest three-way marginal seat as the third-placed candidate obtained 841 fewer votes than the winner 1% of the electorate. In January 2013, Glenda Jackson announced that she would not seek re-election, one of 37 of her party's MPs who did so in the 2015 general election; the seat was won by Labour candidate Tulip Siddiq. The 2015 result made the seat the 10th narrowest result of the party's 232 seats. Comparing the 2015 election to the 2010 election, the Liberal Democrat share of the vote fell by 25.6% which compared to a national negative swing for the party of 15.2%.

In the 2016 referendum to leave the European Union, the constituency voted remain by 76.6%. In 2017 Labour increased its majority to 26.6%, winning nearly 60% of votes cast. The constituency covers a north-western portion of the London Borough of Camden and an easternmost portion of London Borough of Brent and has electoral wards: Belsize, Fortune Green and Fitzjohns, Hampstead Town, Swiss Cottage, West Hampstead in the London Borough of Camden Brondesbury Park, Queens Park in the London Borough of Brent Due to the Boundary Commission's Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies, the number of constituencies across the two boroughs fell from five to four; the seat of Hampstead and Kilburn is a new creation resulting from these changes. Former seats of each wardHampstead Town, Swiss Cottage and Fitzjohns, Fortune Green, West Hampstead, Kilburn were transferred from the former constituency of Hampstead and Highgate. Brondesbury Park and part of Queens Park wards were transferred from the former constituency of Brent East.

A small part of Queens Park ward was transferred from the former constituency of Brent South. * Independent candidate The Eurovisionary Carroll died following the close of nominations for the 2015 general election. Under current rules, the election proceeded with his name on the ballot paper and would have been rerun had he won.* Served as MP for Hampstead and Highgate 1992–2010 List of Parliamentary constituencies in London Opinion polling in United Kingdom constituencies, 2010–15 – Hampstead and Kilburn Politics Resources Electoral Calculus Hampstead and Kilburn Labour Party Hampstead and Kilburn Conservatives Hampstead and Kilburn Lib Dems

Summit station (Illinois)

Summit is an Amtrak and Metra train station in Summit, United States. It is served by Amtrak Illinois' Lincoln Service, which operates daily, Metra's Heritage Corridor commuter line, which operates only during morning and evening rush hours in peak direction, it is 11.9 miles away from the northern terminus of the line. Summit is the closest Metra station to Midway Airport. Summit is peculiar for a Metra station in that it is served by more Amtrak trains than by Metra trains; this was a stop for the Ann Rutledge until April 2007. The eastbound Lincoln Service only stops at Summit to discharge passengers, while the westbound train stops to discharge and receive passengers. Pace 307 Harlem Media related to Summit at Wikimedia CommonsSummit, IL – Amtrak Metra – Stations – Summit Summit Amtrak & Metra Station Station from Google Maps Street View Summit --Great American Stations

Harpans kraft

Harpens kraft or Harpans kraft, meaning "The Power of the Harp", is the title of a supernatural ballad type, attested in Danish, Swedish and Icelandic variants. In The Types of the Scandinavian Medieval Ballad it is catalogued type A 50, "Man saves his bride from merman by playing his harp"; the ballad type tells of a hero whose betrothed has premonitions of a fall from a bridge into the river, which despite the hero's assurances and precautions comes true. But by the power of his harp-playing, he regains his bride from the river creature, referred to as a "merman" in the TSB catalog: while "merman" occurs in a variant, it is called a troll in the older Danish text, a "neck" in the Swedish text; the ballad of this type occur under the following titles. Danish: "Harpens kraft". Noted for its resemblance to the Greek myth of Orpheus, a harp-player with mystical powers, it may be related to medieval versions of that story such as the Middle English Sir Orfeo. Similarity has been noted with the supernatural power of the harp in the Scottish ballad Glasgerion.

A bridegroom asks his betrothed. At last she answers; the man promises to build a broad, strong bridge over the river, he and his men will protect her. Despite precautions, the maiden's horse stumbles while over the bridge, she tumbles into the river; the man has his golden harp brought to him and plays so beautifully that the "merman" is forced to return his betrothed. There exist Danish and Swedish variants where the water spirit restores the bride's two other sisters, taken by the creature; the Icelandic version has a tragic ending, the hero only recovers his bride's corpse. A list of available translations of the ballads from various Scandinavian languages are given under English Translations below; the Danish analogue is Harpens kraft. There are six versions, taken from manuscripts such as Karen Brahes Folio of the 1570s. There is a broadside copy dating to 1778. Another recension has Swedish provenance, being copied out of a manuscript written in 1693 by a Swede in Næsum parish, Skåne County, but Grundtvig counted it as a Danish example since the language was Danish, it was suitable for comparing with text E.

In Danish variants, the troll is called havmand, or vandman. Translations under the title "The Power of the Harp" exist, including one by R. C. Alexander Prior and by George Borrow. Geijer and Afzelius published three variants of Harpans kraft. Altogether, the Swedish form is attested in Sveriges Medeltida Ballader in 49 variants from the 1690s onward, it may be noted that the oldest variant included in SMB is the same as that catalogued as Danish ballad variant DgF 40F mentioned above, which the early Swedish collectors concurred was a "half-Danish" specimen. Geijer and Afzelius's first variant localized in Östergötland has been translated as "Power of the Harp" by Edward Vaughan Kenealy; the third variant from Västergötland and Vermland was translated by Thomas Keightley in his "The Fairy Mythology". In the first variant, the hero and bride are anonymous and called "young swain" and maiden, whereas in the third variant they are named "Peder" and "Liten Kerstin" respectively; the name of the feared river may be given as Vernamo river, Ringfalla, or Renfalla, etc.

A version explains the bride's guardsmen abandoned her side to go hunting when they spotted a "hart with gilded horns" in Ringfalla woods. The motif of harp-playing which forces a supernatural being to act in a certain way is found in Sveriges Medeltida Ballader 21 G of Ungersven och havsfrun. Conversely, the plot of variant 20 L is similar to this ballad type, except that the bride's rescue by the harp has been deleted. In Norway the ballad is known as Villemann og Magnhild and catalogued as Norske mellomalderballadar no. 26. There are some 100 variants, although this count tallies up many fragmentary redactions only a few stanzas long; some variants are known by other titles: Harpespelet tvingar nykken in Leiv Heggstad's collection, two specimens called Gaute og Magnild and Guðmund og Signelita in the anthology compiled by Landstad. The version most met in Norwegian songbooks today is Knut Liestøl and Moltke Moe's 32-stanza reconstructed text. A full translation is given in Heidi Støa's paper.

It resembles the 22-stanza text printed by Grundtvig. The Liestøl/Moe ballad begins as follows: Villemann perceives that his beloved Magnill is weeping as the dice is cast while playing the board game, he makes a series of guesses why she is crying: "Cry you for fields, or cry you for meadows, etc.", she replies she cries for none of these things. She cries

100% te ljubam

"100% te ljubam" was the Macedonian entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 2000, performed in Macedonian and English by XXL. The song was written by Orce Zafirofski and Dragan Karanfilovski, composed by Karanfilovski; the song is an up-tempo number, with the girls confessing to a man. The nature of the man is somewhat ambiguous, as the first verse suggests that they are in physical contact, while lyrics suggest that the man's infatuation is closer to that of a fan for a celebrity. Versions of the song were recorded in both Macedonian and English, with the Anglophone recording featuring the mispronunciation of "Hundred" as "Hun-derd"; as performed on the night, the four girls wore tight multicoloured clothing and had a dance routine - as was becoming the fashion at the contest. The song was performed nineteenth on the night. At the close of voting, it had received 29 points, placing 15th in a field of 24. Due to the poor result, Macedonia was ineligible to compete in the 2001 Contest, but were readmitted the following year.

Thus, the song was succeeded as Macedonian representative at the 2002 contest by Karolina with "Od nas zavisi". A promotional CD single was issued, with both Macedonian and English language versions of the song; the enhanced multimedia format included two videos of the song in Macedonian and English, a video of the live performance at the Skopje Festival. Included was an instrumental version of the song; the multimedia presentation included "Karaoke", with the lyrics available in Macedonian and English. Additionally, a photo album of 26 photographs were included. Kennedy O'Connor, John; the Eurovision Song Contest: The Official History