Gammeltorv is the oldest square in Copenhagen, Denmark. With adjoining Nytorv it forms a common space along the Strøget pedestrian zone, while the square dates back to the foundation of the city in the 12th century, most of its buildings were constructed after the Great Fire of 1795 in Neoclassical style. Another dominating feature is the Caritas Well, a Renaissance fountain erected by King Christian IV in 1610, Gammeltorv has been the focal point of Copenhagens judicial and political life as well as one of its two principal marketplaces. Several former city halls have been located on the square or in its immediate vicinity, its name is not a reference to adjoining Nytorv but to the slightly younger Amagertorv, Copenhagens other major market in early times. Already prior to Absolons construction of his castle on Slotsholmen, there seems to have been a marketplace at Gammeltorv, possibly a Thing. Copenhagens first town hall, of which nothing is known, was built on the east side of the square but destroyed during Hanseatic capture.
In 1374 the square is referred to as Forum and in 1446 the square is referred to as the old square as opposed to the somewhat younger Amagertorv, from 1470 the name Gammeltorv is used consistently. In 1479 a new hall was built om the south side of Gammeltorv. Towards the end of the 16th century, King Frederick II provided for the construction of a tube from Lake Emdrup. Six kilometres long, it was made from carved out tree trunks, King Christian IV rebuilt the town hall in Renaissance style from 1608 to 1610. He moved and redesigned Frederick IIs fountain, creating the Caritas Well and it was at this point that the area behind the town hall was cleared and Nytorv founded. When Kongens Nytorv—King Christian Vs grand new place royale—was established in 1670, in the Great Fire of 1728, the town hall was among the many buildings lost to the flames. A new town hall was erected on its foundation, built to a design of Johan Conrad Ernst, to commemorate the tercentenary of the House of Oldenburgs accent to the Danish throne, the City Magistrate erected an octagonal memorial temple in the square in 1749.
In the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 the city burnt down once again. After this it was moved to a site at Nytorv and the two squares were merged to form one large, rectangular space. After the fire the buildings around the square were rebuilt in the Neoclassical style typical of the time. The square was known for its poultry ladies who gathered around the Caritas Well, selling poultry. They came from the village of Valby unlike the vendours on Amagertorv who came from Amager, after this the Citys attention became directed at the trade at Gammeltorv and on 15 April 1910 a Pork Hall was inaugurated
Site-specific art is artwork created to exist in a certain place. Typically, the artist takes the location into account while planning and creating the artwork, site specific environmental art was first described as a movement by architectural critic Catherine Howett and art critic Lucy Lippard. Site-specific art emerged after the modernist objects as a reaction of artists to the situation in the world, modernist art objects were transportable, could only exist in the museum space and were the objects of the market and commodification. Since 1960 the artists were trying to find a way out of situation, and thus drew attention to the site. The work of art was created in the site and could only exist, site is a current location, which comprises a unique combination of physical elements, length, height, walls, temperature. Jean-Max Albert, created Sculptures de visées in Parc de la Villette related to the site, or Carlotta’s Smile, co, ’s architecture Lisbon, and to a choreography in collaboration with Michala Marcus and Carlos Zingaro,1979.
Outdoor site-specific artworks often include landscaping combined with permanently sited sculptural elements, outdoor site-specific artworks can include dance performances created especially for the site. More broadly, the term is used for any work that is permanently attached to a particular location. In this sense, a building with interesting architecture could be considered a piece of site-specific art, in Geneva, the two Contemporary Art Funds of the City and the Canton are looking forward to integrate art into the architecture and in the public space since 1980. Site-specific performance art, site-specific visual art and interventions are commissioned for the annual Infecting the City Festival in Cape Town, South Africa
Copenhagen Central Station
It is situated between the districts of Indre By and Vesterbro with entrances from Bernstorffsgade, Banegårdspladsen and access to platforms from Tietgensgade. Copenhagen Central Station is the hub of the DSB railway network serving Denmark, the station services the Copenhagen S-train network, but the S-train system in Copenhagen doesnt use any kind of hub at all. It is an urban transit which differs from most Metro systems mainly by being a type of railway, at the station are two platforms with four tracks that are used by the S-trains only. All other trains usually use the four platforms and eight tracks. In addition to the original 6 island-platforms and their 12 tracks, has one additional track far been constructed, the single spare track, called track 26, was initially built for trains to southern Sweden, while Malmö C still was a terminus. It has occasionally used for express trains to or from Sweden or to or from Norway. After the introduction of controls and mandatory identity checks for travel to Sweden this track was fenced and used for X2000.
The extra track 26 is located 200 metres south of the building and is reachable only by walking along the platform for track 4 and 5 or from a staircase from the Tietgensgade street. The platforms begin under the passenger hall. A hotel is built above the S-train tracks in the Northern end, in the opposite end, all platforms are covered with the typical railway arched roof. This roof is shorter than the platforms, but all tracks remain below street level, the main hall isnt just a waiting hall, but a market place where most things can be bought. From fresh fruit sellers to market, postal office, currency exchanges, coffee shops, restaurants. There are travel center for information an manual sale of tickets, shower rooms are available for a smaller fee. The current station building opened in 1911 and is the work of architect Heinrich Wenck, the station has 7 platforms and 13 tracks. On the station there are many small shops, cafeterias. All public transport within Greater Copenhagen are divided into close to 100 ticket fare zones, the Central station is located in fare zone 1, which together with zones 2 and 3 constitute Copenhagen municipality and the exclave of Frederiksberg municipality.
As the cheapest single ticket always is valid in two zones, a ticket bought at the station is valid within the entire city centre. A ticket to Copenhagen Airport Kastrup, demands the payment for three zones since its located in zone 4, from July 2019 the Central station will be served by the new Copenhagen Metro line M3, which will be a circular line with 17 stations
A pen is an enclosure for holding livestock. The term describes types of enclosures that may confine one or many animals and terminology vary depending on the region of the world, animal species to be confined, local materials used and tradition. Pen or penning as a verb refers to the act of confining animals in an enclosure, in the United States, the term pen usually describes small enclosures for holding sheep and pigs. A pen for cattle is sometimes called a corral. Pens may be named by their purpose, such as a holding pen, a large pen for horses is called a paddock or a corral, a borrowing from the Spanish language. In some places an exhibition arena may be called a show pen, a small pen for horses is a pen if it lacks any roof or shelter, otherwise it is called a stall and is part of a stable. A large fenced grazing area of many acres is called a pasture, or, in some cases, in British English, a sheep pen is called a folding, sheepfold or sheepcote. Modern shepherds more commonly use such as closing or confinement pen for small sheep pens.
Most structures today referred to as sheepfolds are ancient dry stone semicircles, primitive pens in South Africa are called kraal. Pinfold and pound are synonyms of animal pound Boô Kraal Macquarie Dictionary, The, 2nd edition,1991 Media related to Pens at Wikimedia Commons
DGI-byen is situated within the Meat District, a historical industrial area that was transformed into a recreation area for cultural and leisure activities from 1993. However, most of DGI-byen consists of new buildings, in contrast to the rest of the Meat District, one exception is Øksnehallen, formerly a stable for 1,600 cattle, now an exhibition and events venue. First parts of the complex were opened in 1999 and it is named after Danske Gymnastik- og Idrætsforeninger, the main umbrella organisation of 5,000 local sports associations in Denmark with 1,3 million members. The second part of the name is by, Danish for town or city, the main building is a 22,000 square metre facility situated directly behind Copenhagen Central Station. A walled-off portion provides infrastructure for DGI-byens numerous cultural activities and events, DGI-byen is a rapidly expanding area of the city, with ongoing construction. DGI-byen hosts a variety of banquets, etc, one recognizable landmark seen from the Central Station is a giant outdoor climbing gym wall.
The recreational facilities are aimed at the public, rather than a business or upscale segment. DGI-byen website DGI-byen website DGI-byen history Category, Schmidt hammer lassen buildings
Nytorv is a public square in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjoining Gammeltorv it forms a space, today part of the Strøget pedestrian zone. The square is dominated by the imposing Neoclassical façade of the Copenhagen Court House, Nytorv was created by Christian IV in 1610 when he cleared an area behind the City Hall in connection with his adaptation of the building in a Renaissance style. Nytorv thrived as a marketplace, as did Gammeltorv, which was located on the side of the city hall. It was at Nytorv that the butchers carried out their work, Nytorv became the location of the citys scaffold and a pillory. Pillories were found at a number of sites around the city. A permanent scaffold was not constructed until 1627, and in 1728, when the City Hall was rebuilt after the Copenhagen Fire of 1728, an octagonal masonry podium was built. Between 1728 and 1740, Ludvig Holberg lived in a house on the corner of Gammeltorv and Nygade, in the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 the City Hall burnt down once again.
This time it was not rebuilt at the site. Since 1728, it had been the location of the Royal Orphanage, the new building, which was to serve both as a City Hall and a courthouse, was designed by Christian Frederik Hansen, the leading Danish architect of the time. Completed in 1815, the project included a jailhouse next door. After the fire and Gammeltorv made up one common space, during the first half of the 20th century, the market activities gradually disappeared from the square which instead became increasingly dominated by cars. This changed in 1962 when the Strøget pedestrian zone was laid out, the square is dominated by the large courthouse with its ionic order columns, which occupies most of its west side. A skyway on each side of the courthouse connects it to the neighbouring buildings, the one to the left, on the other side of Slutterigade, is the former jailhouse. The skyway was used for transportting prisoners and has therefore been nicknamed the Bridge of Sighs, all the other buildings around the square, most by unknown architects and all listed, are Neoclassical townhouses which date from the time immediately after the Great Fire of 1795.
3, opposite the courthouse, on the corner of Strøget, has a facade decorated with pilasters, T ens Lauritzen House at No.7 was built in 1795–96 for Jens Lauritzen, a groceer and brewer, possibly to designs by Andreas Kirk The elegant Jrup. No.9 was built 1796–97 by an architect while No,11, the large property on the corner of Brolæggerstræde, was designed by C. F. Hollander and completed one year later. The three properties on the side of the square were all built between 1795 and 1797 by unknown architects
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Kalvebod Brygge is a waterfront area in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The name refers to a section of the Ring 2 ring road follows the waterfront from Langebro in the north to the H. C. Ørsted Power Station in the south, the area is dominated by office buildings, Tivoli Conference Center, several hotels and the shopping centre Fisketorvet. The northern part of the road, northeast of Bernstoffsgade, belongs to the Indre By district and it is bounded to the north by the small Rysensteen Quarter where the Copenhagen Police Headquarters is located. Both Kalvebod Brygge and the terrain, which separates the area from the rest of Vesterbro, are located on reclaimed land. The coast south of Copenhagen was formerly known as Kalvebod Beach, the first land reclamations took place as early as 1755 when the area just outside the West Ramparts Rysensten Bastion was used for establishment of lumberyards. A little further to the south, Copenhagens first gasworks, known as Vestre Gasværk, the railway was constructed on reclaimed land between 1897 and 1901. A new goods station was built on the grounds.
It was designed by DSBs head architect Heinrich Wenck and opened in 1901 and it was replaced by a modern goods station designed by Ole Hagen in 1968. The new railway obstructed the Western Gasworks access to the harbor, the Danish State Railways therefore agreed to building a new Gasworks Harbour on the east side of the railway as part of the project. The waterfront was redeveloped in the late 1990s, beginning from the north, the buildings along the quay are Nykredits Head Office, Copenhagen Marriott Hotel, The Engineers House and the Fisketorvet shopping centre. The Havneholmen mixed-use development was built on reclaimed land in front of Fisketorvet. In 2011, Nykredit expanded their headquarters with a new building, The Crystal, a new plaza was created in front of the building. The Kalvebod Wave was designed by JDS Architects and Klar and inaugurated in 2013 and it consists of an undulating wooden boardwalk which creates various new spaces for sitting and water-related activities. A masterplan competition for the part of the railway terrain along Kalvebod Brygge was won by Lundgaard & Tranberg.
The plan involves a greenway which will connect the area around Copenhagen Central Station to the South Harbour. Lundgaard & Tranberg has designed two buildings for SEB Bank & Pension, which, on the corner of Bernstoffsgade and Kalvebod Brygge, the surrounding landscape is designed by Stig L. Anderson. The greenway continues across the roof of the goods station
Kongens Enghave, known as Sydhavnen, is a district in southern Copenhagen. Since the turn of the millennium, this picture is starting to change, a significant cluster of IT and telecommunications companies have emerged in the area. Kongens Enghave covers an area of 4.46 km², has a population of 15,414 and it used to be one of 15 administrative districts of Copenhagen, but since an administrative reform in 2006-08, it has been part of the official district of Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave. Kongens Enghave is bounded by the Carlsberg area to the north, Vesterbro to the north-east and Valby to the west, while Copenhagen Harbour to the east, Kongens Enghave is first mentioned in 1632. The area was used for harvesting of hay for the stables at Copenhagen Castle. In 1776, a plague hospital was built on Kalvebod Beach. The name Frederiksholm is first seen in 1667–68 when large areas on the coast were reclaimed and drained, the land was divided into 22 estates at the same event. Frederiksholm, the only of houses that still exist today, was built by king Frederick VI.
The estate covered about 50 hectares, about half of which was gardens, in 1834, it kept about 40 cows and 10 horses. From the 1870s, it served as residence for the manager of Frederiksholm Brickyard, copenhagens city walls were decommissioned in 1857, leading to new development in the area. Vestre Cemetery was established in 1870, in 1871, two brothers, Køhler, purchased the Frederiksholm estate and established a brickyard in the grounds. The storm surge in November 1872 led to widespread floodings in the area, the brick yard produced many of the bricks used in the construction of Vesterbro prior to its closure in 1918. Karens Minde, an institution, was opened by Johan Keller in 1876. In the beginning of the 20th century, Port of Copenhagen was expanded with extensive docklands with many enterprises in the area. Otto Mønsted opened a factory in 1911. It was joined by Lemvig Møller & Munch amd Sømderværftet, a subsidiary of Københavns Flydeværft & Skibsdok, burmeister & Wain established in the a foundry in the area in 1920 and took over Sønderværftet in 1926.
In 1924 Ford Motor Company moved its assembly plant from Nørrebro to the Southern Docklands, the factory was designed by Albert Kahn and opened on 15 November 1924. The Kongens Enghave district developed around the industry of the Southern Docklands