Mount Kaputar National Park
The Mount Kaputar National Park is a national park located in New South Wales, surrounding the proximities of Mount Kaputar, a volcano active between 17 and 21 million years ago. It is located 50 km east of 570 km northwest of Sydney. Millions of years of erosion have since carved the volcanic region into the lava terraces, volcanic plugs, dykes of Nandewar Range; the central feature of the region is Mount Kaputar, the park's namesake, which rises to an altitude of 1,510 m. The 360 degree view from the summit of the mountain encompasses one-tenth of New South Wales' area or 80,000 square kilometres; the park protects a wide range of biomes, including semi-arid woodland, subalpine heath, eucalypt forests, provides a habitat for a range of animals, including bats, wallabies and the unique red triangle slug, known to appear after rainfall. Before it was a national park, the area was used as grazing land for domestic animals; the conditions in the park are harsh, but several pioneering families lived there, remnants of their occupation remain.
Sheep and cattle continued to graze on the plateau until around the 1950s. It was an isolated place, the stockmen in charge of the cattle would not see another human for months at a time. In 1925 some 775 ha of land around Mount Kaputar were declared a "Reserve for Public Recreation". Two years a trust, known as the Mount Kaputar Trust, was formed to give guidance on managing the park; the area was expanded to 14,244 ha and proclaimed a full national park in 1959. Eight years in 1967, the Fund relinquished the duties of controlling the park to the newly established National Parks and Wildlife Service, the park is still administered by a regional advisory board. In 1965, two cabins were constructed at Dawsons Spring, providing accommodations including a permanent water supply for showers and toilets, a picnic facility. Today there are 3 cabins, including the one facilitated from Bark Hut; the park is popular with rockclimbers, there are 11 walks in the park, as well as a camping ground. However, the most popular site in the park is Scutts Hut, located upward of Kurrawonga Falls.
The hut is the former home of a pioneer family living in the vicinity of the park. It is accessible via a fire trail from the Bark Hut camping grounds; the hut has been restored with an earthen floor and an open fireplace. The hut is built on the banks of Horsearm Creek. Protected areas of New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Cocoparra National Park
The Cocoparra National Park is a protected national park, located in the Riverina region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 8,357-hectare national park is situated 457 kilometres southwest of Sydney and 25 kilometres northeast of Griffith; the park includes a prominent range of hills such as Bingar Mountain, 455 metres above sea level and Brogden Mountain, 390 metres above sea level, in an otherwise flat landscape. Adjoining the national park to the north is the Cocoparra Nature Reserve; the national park was gazetted in December 1969. The nature reserve was dedicated in 1963 with an area of 4,647 hectares; the Binya-Cocoparra area is classified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because of its large population of the near threatened painted honeyeater, as well as the diamond firetail. The climate is semi arid; the vegetation communities reflect this, with wattle, orchids and blue-tinged cypress pines. The geology comprises Upper Devonian sandstones and conglomerates.
There are a number of a campground at Woolshed Flat. Protected areas of New South Wales List of national parks of Australia NSW Parks and Wildlife Service Cocoparra National Park website Online version of Cocoparra National Park Management Plan
Dorrigo National Park
Dorrigo National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 580 kilometres north of Sydney on Dome Road off the Waterfall Way, 5 kilometres east of the town of Dorrigo. The park is part of the New England Group of the World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007; the area protected by the park is recognised for its exceptional natural beauty with significant habitats of outstanding value to science and conservation. The Rainforest Centre is a major CERRA interpretation centre; the interactive display, The Rainforest Revealed, explains how the rainforest evolved and gives insights into the animal and plant species that live there. Several tracks in the park allow hikers to view the park's waterfalls and vistas to the coastal plain. A notable feature of the park is the Skywalk, an elevated walkway through and above the treetops, providing birdwatchers with an excellent view of local bird life. Protected areas of New South Wales Official website
Garrawilla National Park
Garrawilla National Park was created in December 2005. It covers an area of 937 hectares; this park is located on the northern side of the Oxley Highway halfway between Coonabarabran and Mullaley in New South Wales, Australia. Protected areas of New South Wales
Weddin Mountains National Park
Weddin Mountains is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 291 kilometres west of Sydney. It is a small crescent shaped range, with a high point some 750 metres AHD , running north south with steep cliffs on the eastern side sloping more down to the plane in the west. Weddin mountains is a small patch of remnant vegetation which escaped clearing due to its ruggedness, it has lots of aircraft passing overhead on their way from Sydney to Adelaide, is part of the Lachlan Fold system and is Wiradjuri country. Ben Hall, who plundered the Forbes-Grenfell area in the 1850s used the Weddin Mountains as a refuge, he holed up in a cave on the north-west side of the park with his gang, which included Johnnie Gilbert and Frank Gardiner. It is rumoured Ben Hall buried a treasure here. There is a walk around'Seaton's Historic Farm', now part of the national park. Seatons Farm is how his wife turned every bit of wire into something useful. Jim Seaton hand made 3 km/1.8 miles of kangaroo proof fence by hand, with posts of local saplings, which are rot and vermin proof.
The property was occupied during the Depression it was set up as a farm. Times and the land were hard and the buildings represent this; the sheds have walls made from flattened corrugated iron. One of the sheds is full of old wire, iron sheets, everything you can imagine. All the old machinery is still there, sitting where it was when the family sold the property to the Government in the 1980s. A unique place, showing how the less well off farmers did it in the early and mid 1900s. There are 216 species of animals recorded in Weddin Mountains National Park, the vast majority of which are birds; the species list includes three types of wallaby one of, the endangered brush tailed rock wallaby. The species list includes painted honeyeater, swift parrot, little lorikeet and turquoise parrot. Pest species seen in the park are cats, foxes and sheep; the park is part of the South-west Slopes of NSW Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for the conservation of swift parrots and superb parrots.
Weddin Mountains National Park is most approached from Grenfell. Travelling west from Grenfell on the Mid Western Highway there are sign posts to Holy Camp and Ben Halls Cave; the Google Earth route from Grenfell will take you along Euladrie road which ends at a farm two kilometres from the park with farmland in between. Near Seaton's Farm is Ben Halls camping and picnic area with well designed fireplace/barbecues, large enough to permit the use of camp ovens, your own barbecue or for an open fire as well as having its own BBQ plate, it is a short walk from here to Ben Halls Cave. Holy Camp is 19 kilometres south-west of Grenfell, Coordinates 33.897857°S 148.002901°E / -33.897857. The last 3.8 kilometres are dirt road. It is one of the entrances to the park with a pit toilet, parking area, picnic tables and fireplaces. Camping is allowed. There don't rely on it. From here you can walk to Peregrine lookouts. There is lots of wildlife in and around the carpark including lace monitors and skinks by day and brushtail possums and owlet nightjars by night.
The Eualdrie walking trail leads from Holy Camp and is advertised as a 2.6-kilometre 2.5 hour return trip passing through Peregrine Lookout which takes 1.5 hours return. This was tested as 30 minutes to Perrigrine lookout, 23 minutes more to the Cairn at the summit and 40 minutes return. Peregrine Lookout is south of the carpark and from there the path turns back on itself as it proceeds upwards so that the cairn at the summit is a little north of the carpark; the path appears to continue past the cairn at Euradrie Trig and can be followed down to Ben Halls Cave. This small range is mentioned in a surprising number of publications. Two of note are A West Country Ballad which refers to a bounty hunter who unsuccessfully tried to capture Gardiner in the Weddin mountains and Robbery Under Arms where Weddin mountains gets a mention as a hideout. Protected areas of New South Wales
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list