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Mebibyte

The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The binary prefix mebi means 220; the unit symbol for the mebibyte is MiB. The unit was established by the International Electrotechnical Commission in 1998, it was designed to replace the megabyte when used in the binary sense to mean 220 bytes, which conflicts with the definition of the prefix mega in the International System of Units as a multiplier of 106. The binary prefixes have been accepted by all major standards organizations and are part of the International System of Quantities. Many Linux distributions use the unit, but it is not acknowledged within the industry or media. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1048576bytes = 1024 kibibytesThis definition implies that 1024 MiB = 1 gibibyte The prefix mebi is a binary prefix derived from the SI prefix mega- and the word binary. Its value is a binary approximation of 106, the base-10 order of magnitude indicated by mega- in SI. One mebibyte is i.e. 1024 × 1024 bytes, or 1048576bytes. Despite its official status, the unit mebibyte is not used when reporting byte counts calculated in binary multiples, but is represented as a megabyte.

Formally, one megabyte denotes 1000 × 1000 bytes. The discrepancy may cause confusion, since operating systems using the binary method report lower numerical values for storage size than advertised by manufacturers, such as disk drive manufacturers who use decimal units; the binary prefixes, including mebi, were defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission in December 1998. All major standards bodies have endorsed the use of them for binary multiples; the mebibyte is related to the megabyte. The latter term is used as a synonym for mebibyte, but it formally refers to 1000 kilobytes, or 1,000,000 bytes; the binary prefix mebi, a factor of 220, was created to provide an unambiguous unit, distinct from the metric SI prefix mega. Binary prefixes are becoming more predominant in scholarly literature, descriptions of computer hardware and open source software. Many operating systems compute file size in mebibytes, but report the number as MB. For example, all versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system show a file of 220 bytes as "1.00 MB" or "1,024 KB" in its file properties dialog and show a file of 106 bytes as 976 KB.

All versions of Apple's operating systems had the same behavior until 2009 with Mac OS X version 10.6, which instead uses megabytes for all file and disk sizes, so it reports a 106 byte file as 1 MB. The Ubuntu developer Canonical implemented an updated units policy in 2010 and as of Ubuntu 10.10 all versions use IEC binary prefixes for base-2 quantities and SI prefixes for base-10 quantities. IEEE 1541 Orders of magnitude

One Canada Square

One Canada Square is a skyscraper in Canary Wharf, London. It is the second tallest building in the United Kingdom at 770 feet above ground level containing 50 storeys. One Canada Square was designed by Cesar Pelli with Frederick Gibberd Coombes; the design and shape are based on earlier precedents buildings that include Brookfield Place and Elizabeth Tower. The building is clad with durable stainless steel. One of the predominant features of the building is the pyramid roof, which contains a flashing aircraft warning light, a rare feature for buildings in the United Kingdom; the distinctive pyramid pinnacle is 800 feet above sea level. One Canada Square is used for offices, though there are some retail units on the lower ground floor. There is no observation floor, it is a prestigious location for offices and as of October 2017 was 100 %. The building is recognised as a London landmark, it has gained much attention through film and other media as one of the tallest buildings in the United Kingdom.

The original plans for a business district on Canary Wharf came from G Ware Travelstead. He proposed three 260 m towers. Travelstead was unable to fund the project, so the plans were sold to Olympia & York in 1987. Olympia & York grouped all three towers into an area known as Docklands Square, the main tower was designated DS7 during planning. Docklands Square was renamed Winston Square before being renamed as Canada Square; the architects chosen to design One Canada Square were Cesar Pelli & Associates, Adamson Associates, Frederick Gibberd Coombes & Partners. They designed the tower with a similar shape to 200 Vesey Street, New York City, developed by Olympia & York and designed by Argentine architect Cesar Pelli; the shape was made reminiscent of "Big Ben". Olympia & York wanted to clad One Canada Square in stone, just like the Brookfield Place buildings, but the architects first wanted to use aluminium for its low density, before insisting on steel to reflect Britain's heritage as an industrial nation.

The final steel clad chosen was Patten Hyclad Cambric-finish stainless-steel. Commenting on the reason for choosing steel for the clad: "We studied the cladding material and chose stainless steel with a linen finish because it seemed to fit the atmosphere of London." —Cesar Pelli, architect One Canada Square was designed to be 864 feet high at 55 storeys, but that penetrated the permitted projection height of the flight obstruction area of the airport approach district to London City Airport, but this was extended to a height of 30 feet above kerb level in consideration of the fact that One Canada Square was on the external zone of the airport approach. To comply with air traffic safety regulations, the architects took five floors off the tower; the final height of 824 feet was permitted, the developers would have had to dismantle what was necessary to fit the height restriction. After losing five floors, Olympia & York insisted the other floors had to make up the lost floor space by increasing mass to the remaining floor space which created a tower, not as slim as Pelli desired.

Pelli and the other architects proposed alternatives, such as building more floors below ground and creating an extension of the tower into Docklands Square, which were similar ideas based upon previous Olympia & York buildings, though the ideas were rejected as it did not fit the basis of prime office space. The design of the tower received a fair share of criticism. According to Cesar Pelli, the most damaging criticism came from Prince Charles, who said on national television, "I would go mad if I had to work in a place like that". Other criticisms came from former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who said that the building was "not quite stunning". Construction on the tower began in 1988. Construction was given to Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons in association with Ellis Don of Toronto, but they were slow at building the tower due to building workers going on strike in the summer of 1989, so Lehrer McGovern took over. Lehrer McGovern contracted out most of the work to Balfour Beatty because the Canary Wharf Tower was a difficult building to build.

In total, about 27,500 metric tonnes of British steel and 500,000 bolts were used during construction. Construction involved building a huge cofferdam to seal construction from water, it involved driving 222 piles into the ground at 23 metres deep. A 4-metre thick concrete raft was sunk into the dock to act as anchor. By June 1990, the tower had overtaken Tower 42. On 8 November 1990, the tower was topped out when the top piece of the pyramid roof was put in place by crane; the celebration was attended by recognised engineers and political leaders. Amongst them were César Pelli, Brian Mulroney, Peter Rice, Man-Chung Tang, Margaret Thatcher. Paul Reichmann, the owner of Olympia & York gave credit to Pelli for his building design as "this inauguration symbolises the spirit with which buildings can be achieved". Margaret Thatcher told the distinguished audience that the tower can become a "national recognised landmark". In August 1991, One Canada Square was open for business, his Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh opened One Canada Square on the morning of 26 August 1991, unveiled a commemorative plaque at the entrance to the building.

Hundreds of construction workers attended the opening ceremony. The Duke of Edinburgh addressed some 800 invited guests, many of whom had been involved in the project, he spoke of the "large, airy space an

Penis envy

Penis envy is a stage theorized by Sigmund Freud regarding female psychosexual development, in which young girls experience anxiety upon realization that they do not have a penis. Freud considered this realization a defining moment in a series of transitions toward a mature female sexuality and gender identity. In Freudian theory, the penis envy stage begins the transition from an attachment to the mother to competition with the mother for the attention and affection of the father; the parallel reaction of a boy's realization that women do not have a penis is castration anxiety. Freud's theory on penis envy was criticized and debated by other psychoanalysts, such as Karen Horney, Ernest Jones, Helene Deutsch, Melanie Klein on the treatment of penis envy as a fixed operation as opposed to a formation constructed or used in a secondary manner to fend off earlier wishes. Freud introduced his theory of the concept of interest in—and envy of—the penis in his 1908 article "On the Sexual Theories of Children": it was not mentioned in the first edition of Freud's earlier Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex, but a synopsis of the 1908 article was added to the third edition in 1915.

In On Narcissism he described how some women develop a masculine ideal as "a survival of the boyish nature that they themselves once possessed". The term grew in significance as Freud refined his views of sexuality, coming to describe a mental process he believed occurred as one went from the phallic stage to the latency stage. Penis envy stems from Freud's concept of the Oedipus complex in which the phallic conflict arises for males, as well as for females. Though Carl Jung made the distinction between the Oedipus Complex for males and the Electra Complex for females in his work The Theory of Psychoanalysis, Freud rejected this latter term, stating that the feminine Oedipus complex is not the same as the male Oedipus because, "It is only in the male child that we find the fateful combination of love for the one parent and simultaneous hatred of the other as a rival"; this development of the female Oedipus complex according to Freud begins when the female makes comparisons with another male, perceiving this not as a sex characteristic.

This leads to the essential difference between the male and female Oedipus complex that the female accepts castration as a fact, while the boy fears its happening. Freud felt that penis envy leads to: Resentment towards the mother who failed to provide the daughter with a penis Depreciation of the mother who appears to be castrated Giving up on phallic activity and adopting passivity A symbolic equivalence between penis and childThis envy towards the penis leads to various psychical consequences according to Freud, so long as it does not form into a reaction-formation of a masculinity complex. One such consequences is a sense of inferiority after becoming aware of the wound inflicted upon her narcissism. After attempting to explain this lack of a penis as a punishment towards her, she realizes the universality of her female situation, as a result begins to share the contempt that men have towards women as a lesser, so insists upon being like a man. A second consequence of penis envy involves the formation of the character-trait of jealousy through displacement of the abandoned penis envy upon maturation.

Freud concludes this from considering the common female fantasy of'a child being beaten' to be a confession of masturbation, with the child representing the clitoris. A third consequence of penis envy involves the discovery of the inferiority of this clitoris, suggested through the observation that masturbation is further removed from females than from males; this is, according to Freud, because clitoral masturbation is a masculine activity, repressed throughout puberty in an attempt to make room for the female's femininity by transitioning the erotogenic zone from the clitoris to the vagina. The result of these anxieties culminates in the girl giving up on her desire for the penis, instead puts it in the place of the wish for a child. Freud considered that in normal female development penis envy transformed into the wish for a man and/or a baby. Karl Abraham differentiated two types of adult women in whom penis envy remained intense as the wish-fulfilling and the vindictive types: The former were dominated by fantasies of having or becoming a penis—as with the singing/dancing/performing women who felt that in their acts they magically incorporated the phallus.

The latter sought revenge on the male through deprivation. Freud's theories regarding psychosexual development, in particular the phallic stage, were challenged early by other psychoanalysts, such as Karen Horney, Otto Fenichel and Ernest Jones, though Freud did not accept their view of penis envy as a secondary, rather than a primary, female reaction. Psychologists, such as Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget, challenged the Freudian model of child psychological development as a whole. Jacques Lacan, took up and developed Freud's theory of the importance of what he called "penisneid in the unconscious of women" in linguistic terms, seeing what he called the phallus as the privileged signifier of humanity's subordination to language: "the phallus", he thereby opened up a ne