Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways founded as Pan American Airways and known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier and unofficial flag carrier of the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991. It was founded in 1927 as a scheduled air mail and passenger service operating between Key West and Havana, Cuba; the airline is credited for many innovations that shaped the international airline industry, including the widespread use of jet aircraft, jumbo jets, computerized reservation systems. It was a founding member of the International Air Transport Association, the global airline industry association. Identified by its blue globe logo, the use of the word "Clipper" in its aircraft names and call signs, the white uniform caps of its pilots, the airline was a cultural icon of the 20th century. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority government-owned, it was the unofficial overseas flag carrier of the United States. During most of the jet era, Pan Am's flagship terminal was the Worldport located at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City.
Pan American Airways, Incorporated was founded as a shell company on March 14, 1927 by Air Corps Majors Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, Carl A. Spaatz, John H. Jouett as a counterbalance to the German-owned Colombian carrier SCADTA, operating in Colombia since 1920. SCADTA lobbied hard for landing rights in the Panama Canal Zone, ostensibly to survey air routes for a connection to the United States, which the Air Corps viewed as a precursor to a possible German aerial threat to the canal. Arnold and Spaatz drew up the prospectus for Pan American when SCADTA hired a company in Delaware to obtain air mail contracts from the U. S. government. Pan American was able to obtain the U. S. mail delivery contract to Cuba, but lacked any aircraft to perform the job and did not have landing rights in Cuba. Juan Trippe formed the Aviation Corporation of the Americas on June 2, 1927, with the backing of powerful and politically connected financiers who included Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney and W. Averell Harriman, raised $250,000 in startup capital from the sale of stock.
Their operation had the all-important landing rights for Havana, having acquired American International Airways, a small airline established in 1926 by John K. Montgomery and Richard B. Bevier as a seaplane service from Key West, Florida, to Havana. ACA met its deadline of having an air mail service operating by October 19, 1927 by chartering a Fairchild FC-2 floatplane from a small Dominican Republic carrier, West Indian Aerial Express; the Atlantic and Caribbean Airways company was established on October 11, 1927 by New York City investment banker Richard Hoyt, who served as president. This company merged with PAA and ACA on June 23, 1928. Richard Hoyt was named as president of the new Aviation Corporation of the Americas, but Trippe and his partners held 40% of the equity and Whitney was made president. Trippe became operational head of Pan American Airways, the new company's principal operating subsidiary; the U. S. government approved the original Pan Am's mail delivery contract with little objection, out of fears that SCADTA would have no competition in bidding for routes between Latin America and the United States.
The government further helped Pan Am by insulating it from its U. S. competitors, seeing the airline as the "chosen instrument" for U. S.-based international air routes. The airline expanded internationally. Trippe and his associates planned to extend Pan Am's network through all of Central and South America. During the late 1920s and early 1930s, Pan Am purchased a number of ailing or defunct airlines in Central and South America and negotiated with postal officials to win most of the government's airmail contracts to the region. In September 1929 Trippe toured Latin America with Charles Lindbergh to negotiate landing rights in a number of countries, including Barranquilla on SCADTA's home turf of Colombia and Caracas. By the end of the year, Pan Am offered flights along the west coast of South America to Peru; the following year, Pan Am purchased the New York and Buenos Aires Line, giving it a seaplane route along the east coast of South America to Buenos Aires and westbound to Santiago, Chile.
Its Brazilian subsidiary NYRBA do Brasil was renamed as Panair do Brasil. Pan Am partnered with Grace Shipping Company in 1929 to form Pan American-Grace Airways, better known as Panagra, to gain a foothold to destinations in South America. In the same year, Pan Am acquired a controlling stake in Mexicana de Aviación and took over Mexicana's Ford Trimotor route between Brownsville and Mexico City, extending this service to the Yucatan Peninsula to connect with Pan Am's Caribbean route network. Pan Am's holding company, the Aviation Corporation of the Americas, was one of the most sought after stocks on the New York Curb Exchange in 1929, flurries of speculation surrounded each of its new route awards. In April 1929 Trippe and his associates reached an agreement with United Aircraft and Transport Corporation to segregate Pan Am operations to south of the Mexico – United States border, in exchange for UATC taking a large shareholder stake; the Aviation Corporation of the Americas changed its name to Pan American Airways Corporation in 1931.
Critical to Pan Am's success as an airline was the proficiency of its flight crews, who were rigorously trained in long-distance flight, seaplane anchorage and berthing operations, over-water navigation, radio procedure, aircraft repair, marine tides. During the day, use of the compass while j
Mount Cook Airline
Mount Cook Airline, a subsidiary of Air New Zealand, is a regional airline based in Christchurch, New Zealand. Part of the Mount Cook Group, it now operates scheduled services throughout the country under the Air New Zealand Link brand; the airline operates the ATR 72-500 and ATR 72-600 aircraft, all its aircraft wear the Air New Zealand livery. Its main base is Christchurch International Airport; the airline was established and started operations in 1920 at Timaru by Rodolph Lysaght Wigley, who in 1906 had driven the first motor car to The Hermitage. Wigley bought five war-surplus aircraft for sightseeing and formed the NZ Aero Transport Co. the first company of its kind in the country. The first aeroplane to land in Fairlie was a war surplus bi-plane E 4242 in May 1920 still with the RAF roundel on the fuselage. Passenger and freight routes served areas between Invercargill. On October 1920 with Captain J. C. Mercer, Wigley flew on the first one-day flight from Invercargill to Auckland. After a series of mishaps, e.g. damage to landing equipment during forced landings in paddocks, the company went into liquidation in 1923.
In the 1930s, Wigley formed Queenstown - Mount Cook Airway in conjunction with his son, Harry to become Sir Henry Wigley. Sir Henry remained the Managing Director of the airline until 1979 and Chairman until his death in 1980; the company operated charter flights around the Otago Lakes, Milford Sound and Mount Cook regions, until it was suspended by World War II. Flying resumed in 1952 using an Auster J1-A Autocrat, registration ZK-BDX. In 1954, NZ Aero Transport Company was reformed as Mount Cook Air Services Ltd, specialising in scenic flights, agricultural work and rescue missions. Sir Henry solved the problem of landing in the Tasman and Franz Josef Glaciers by attaching retractable skis to the Auster, landed on the snow of Tasman Glacier; this is how the Ski Plane operation started, aimed at taking tourists to skifields and glaciers in ski-equipped light aircraft. Mount Cook Ski Planes now operates a fleet of Cessna 185s and Pilatus Porters, is the only company to land scenic flights on the Tasman Glacier to this day.
The Mount Cook Group operated bus services, trucking and built an airfield at Mount Cook to bring in the growing number of visitors to the Southern Alps. Scheduled services for Mount Cook Airline began on 6 November 1961 between Christchurch, Mount Cook, Cromwell and Te Anau with a 26-seater Douglas DC-3. At this stage Queenstown was not certified for DC-3 operations and passengers were bussed from Cromwell to Queenstown. On 1 November 1963 the service to Cromwell was extended to Dunedin on Mondays and Fridays and from 3 November 1963 to Invercargill three days a week; the first scheduled flight into Queenstown was operated by DC-3 ZK-BKD on 4 February 1964. Mount Cook Airline was one of New Zealand's tourism pioneers opening up the'tourist trail' of Rotorua through to Christchurch, Mount Cook and Queenstown. For 30 years, it operated a fleet of Hawker Siddeley HS 748s across regional tourist routes in New Zealand; the first HS748 to arrive in NZ was ZK-CWJ it first flight was from Christchurch to Timaru and onto Oamaru on 25 October 1968.
After a long evaluation study, the first of the new ATR 72-200s arrived in October 1995 as the chosen replacement of the HS 748s. They in turn were updated to the ATR 72-500 type in 2000In June 2001, Air New Zealand Group added extra capacity on domestic routes by introducing 4 BAe 146s to supplement the ATRs; these aircraft were taken from the failed Qantas New Zealand franchise. A temporary measure, they retired the following year after 6 extra Boeing 737-300s were added to the mainline fleet. Air New Zealand purchased part of the Mount Cook Group in the 1980s after Sir Henry's death, increased to 30% on 5 December 1983 another 47% in October 1985 after gaining approval on 18 July that year. Mount Cook Airline has 378 employees. Mount Cook Airline serve the following routes in New Zealand: || Napier, New Plymouth, Palmerston North, Tauranga Mount Cook Airline over the years served many other destinations throughout New Zealand:Alexandra, Chatham Islands, Great Barrier Island, Hokitika, Kaikohe, Kawau Island, Milford Sound, Mount Cook, Paihia, Stewart Island, Taupo, Te Anau, Twizel, Waiheke Island and Westport.
Mount Cook Airline operate ATR 72-500 and ATR 72-600 aircraft from main cities to larger provincial towns and on some main trunk routes, complementing fellow subsidiary Air Nelson's smaller capacity Q-300 airliners. The original ATR 72-200 fleet was swapped for the updated ATR 72-500 during 2001–2002. Extra aircraft were added allowing Air New Zealand to retire the last of its Boeing 737-200s. In October 2011 Air New Zealand announced an increase of the ATR fleet by purchasing 7 new ATR 72-600 models with five on option. Air New Zealand received the first of these 68-seat aircraft in October 2012, the rest following through to 2016. 4 purchase options were taken up in November 2014 when Air New Zealand announced the shutting down of Eagle Airways' flight operations and giving over route capacity to Mount Cook and Air Nelson The ATR-600s were delayed for four years due to the economic conditions of the time. The -600 model is a further development of the type including a revised cabin layout and RNP navigation to allow flights into New Zealand's more marginal weather dependant airports such as Wellington, Queenstown and Hamilton.
Air New Zealand anno
Waiheke Island is the most populated and second-largest island in the Hauraki Gulf of New Zealand. Its ferry terminal in Matiatia Bay at the western end is 21.5 km from the central-city terminal in Auckland. Waiheke is the second-largest island in the gulf, after Great Barrier Island, is the most populated island in the gulf, with 9,250 permanent residents, it is New Zealand's most densely populated island, with nearly 100 people/km², the third most populated after the North and South Islands. It is the most accessible island in the gulf, with regular passenger and car-ferry services, a helicopter operator based on the island, other air links. In November 2015, Waiheke Island received international attention when it was rated the fifth-best destination in the world to visit in 2016 by Lonely Planet, voted the fourth best island in the world in Condé Nast Traveler's 30 Best Islands in the World list; the island is off the coast of the North Island. It is 19.3 km in length from west to east, varies in width from 0.64 to 9.65 km, has a surface area of 92 km2.
The coastline is 133.5 km, including 40 km of beaches. The port of Matiatia at the western end is 17.7 km from Auckland and the eastern end is 21.4 km from Coromandel. The much smaller Tarahiki Island lies 3 km to the east; the island is hilly with few flat areas, the highest point being Maunganui at 231 m. The climate is warmer than Auckland, with less humidity and rain, more sunshine hours. There are locations of interest to geologists: an argillite outcrop in Rocky Bay, a chert stack at the end of Pohutukawa Point, considered "one of the best exposures of folded chert in Auckland City". There are many scenic beaches, including: Oneroa Beach – The main beach, on the northern side of the town of Oneroa, it has public toilets and a swing for children. Little Oneroa Beach – A small secluded beach at the east end of Oneroa Beach, separated by a protruding cliff wall, it has public toilets and a children's playground. Palm Beach – Similar in shape to Oneroa Beach, it gets its name from the mature phoenix palms at the east end, where a public toilet and free BBQ facilities are located.
There is a children's playground in the middle section of the beach which has a free BBQ area, public toilets and an outdoor public shower. Little Palm Beach – A small clothes-optional beach at the west end of Palm Beach. Blackpool Beach – The south-facing counterpart of Oneroa Beach, lining Blackpool and popular for kayaking and windsurfing. Surfdale Beach – A zoned-in beach on the southern side of Surfdale, separated from Blackpool Beach by a small protruding peninsula, which has a scenic unsealed route called The Esplanade linking the beaches. Popular for kitesurfing. Has a free BBQ area and children's playground. Onetangi Beach – A 1.87-kilometre long, north-facing beach lining Onetangi, a Māori name meaning "weeping sands". For many years it has been the site of the Onetangi Beach Horse Races, its western end inaccessible at high tide, is clothes-optional. It has sandcastle-building contests annually. Free BBQ and public facilities. Cactus Bay – Considered by many Waihekeans as the most perfect beach and, with nearby Garden Cove, a romantic place for picnicking.
The beach is accessible only by boat or kayak, as its land access was blocked off by a private landowner. Shelly Beach – A small and well sheltered shell and stone beach located between Oneroa and Ostend, it has free a public toilet and a diving platform located just off shore. It's a popular choice with families as at high tide, it is calm and flat - ideal for children. Waiheke, like Auckland, experiences a subtropical climate according to the Trewartha climate classification, an oceanic climate according to the Köppen climate classification; the region lies 13° of latitude south of the Tropic of Capricorn, so tropical plants which are protected for the winter months will flower and fruit in the summer, cold climate vegetables planted in autumn will mature in early spring. Summers tend to be warm and humid, while winters are mild with frost being a rare event on Waiheke. Rainfall is plentiful, though dry spells may occur during the summer months which can be problematic for many of the island residents, the vast majority of whom rely on rainwater harvesting from residential roofs for drinking and household use.
During such dry periods, the island's water-delivery trucks can be seen replenishing residential water tanks that have run dry. It is anecdotally said by locals that Waiheke has a micro-climate which differs to that of other parts of the Auckland isthmus. Though little factual data appears to exist to support this, the below-listed climatic data taken from a recent NIWA report does suggest Waiheke receives over 100 hours more per year of sunshine than other parts of Auckland. Detailed monthly climate data, such as air temperature, sea temperature and wind speeds is needed but does not appear to be available; the original Māori name for Waiheke was Te Motu-arai-roa, "the long sheltering island" but at the time the first European visitors arrived it was known as Motu-Wai-Heke, "island of trickling waters" - rendered as Motu Wy Hake by James Downie, master of the store ship HMS Coromandel, in his 1820 chart of the Tamak
Boeing 314 Clipper
The Boeing 314 Clipper was a long-range flying boat produced by the Boeing Airplane Company between 1938 and 1941. One of the largest aircraft of the time, it used the massive wing of Boeing’s earlier XB-15 bomber prototype to achieve the range necessary for flights across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Twelve Clippers were built. Boeing's bid was successful and on July 21, 1936, Pan American signed a contract for six. Boeing engineers adapted the cancelled XB-15's 149 ft wing, replaced the 850 hp Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp radial engines with the 1,600 hp Wright Twin Cyclone. Pan Am ordered six more aircraft with increased engine power and capacity for 77 daytime passengers as the Boeing 314A; the huge flying boat was assembled at Boeing's Plant 1 on the Duwamish River in Seattle, towed to Elliott Bay for taxi and flight tests. The first flight was on June 7, 1938, piloted by Edmund T. "Eddie" Allen. At first the aircraft had a single vertical tail, Allen found he had inadequate directional control.
The aircraft returned to the factory and was fitted with the endplates on the ends of the horizontal tail in place of the single vertical fin. This too was found to be lacking and the centerline vertical fin was restored, after which the aircraft flew satisfactorily; the 314 used a series of heavy ribs and spars to create a robust fuselage and cantilevered wing, eliminating the need for external drag-inducing struts to brace the wings. Boeing incorporated Dornier-style sponsons into the hull structure; the sponsons, broad lateral extensions at the waterline on both sides of the hull, served several purposes: they provided a wide platform to stabilize the craft while floating on water, they acted as an entryway for passengers boarding the flying boat, they possessed intentional shaping to contribute additional aerodynamic lift in flight. Passengers and their baggage were weighed, with each passenger allowed up to 77 pounds free baggage allowance but charged $3.25 per pound for exceeding the limit.
To fly the long ranges needed for trans-Pacific service, the 314 carried 4,246 US gallons of gasoline. The 314A model carried a further 1,200 US gallons. A capacity of 300 US gallons of oil was required for operation of the radial engines. Pan Am's "Clippers" were built for "one-class" luxury air travel, a necessity given the long duration of transoceanic flights; the seats could be converted into 36 bunks for overnight accommodation. The 314s had a lounge and dining area, the galleys were crewed by chefs from four-star hotels. Men and women were provided with separate dressing rooms, white-coated stewards served five and six-course meals with gleaming silver service; the standard of luxury on Pan American's Boeing 314s has been matched on heavier-than-air transport since then. Most of the flights were transpacific, with a one-way ticket from San Francisco to Hong Kong via the "stepping-stone" islands posted at $760; the Pan Am Boeing 314 Clippers brought exotic destinations like the Far East within reach of air travelers and came to represent the romance of flight.
Transatlantic flights to neutral Lisbon and Ireland continued after war broke out in Europe in September 1939, but military passengers and cargoes got priority, the service was more spartan. Critical to the 314's success was the proficiency of its Pan Am flight crews, who were skilled at long-distance, over-water flight operations and navigation. For training, many of the transpacific flights carried a second crew. Only the best and most experienced flight crews were assigned Boeing 314 flying boat duty. Before coming aboard, all Pan Am captains as well as first and second officers had thousands of hours of flight time in other seaplanes and flying boats. Rigorous training in dead reckoning, timed turns, judging drift from sea current, astral navigation, radio navigation were conducted. In conditions of poor or no visibility, pilots sometimes made successful landings at fogged-in harbors by landing out to sea taxiing the 314 into port; the first 314 flight on the San Francisco-Hong Kong route left Alameda on February 23, 1939 with regular passenger and Foreign Air Mail Route #14 service beginning on March 29.
A one-way trip on this route took over six days to complete. Commercial passenger service lasted less than three years, ending when the United States entered World War II in December 1941; the Yankee Clipper flew across the Atlantic on a route from Southampton to Port Washington, New York with intermediate stops at Foynes, Botwood and Shediac, New Brunswick. The inaugural trip occurred on June 24, 1939; the success of the six initial Clippers had led Pan Am to place an order for six improved 314A models to be delivered in 1941, with the goal of doubling the service on both Atlantic and Pacific routes. However, the fall of France in 1940 caused some doubt about whether the Atlantic service could continue. Pan Am began to consider reduci
Ports of Auckland
Ports of Auckland Limited, the successor to the Auckland Harbour Board, is the Auckland Council-owned company administering Auckland's commercial freight and cruise ship harbour facilities. As the company operates all of the associated facilities in the Greater Auckland area, this article is about both the current company and the ports of Auckland themselves. Auckland has two commercial harbours, with an international container port in Auckland and a regional port in Onehunga. There is an associated'inland port' serving the national reshipment trade, located in Wiri, South Auckland. In its facilities, the company employs the equivalent of 550 full-time staff and is in operation at all hours to allow for quick turnaround of cargo; the Port of Auckland is a large container and international trade port on the Waitematā Harbour, lying on the central and eastern Auckland waterfront. The 55 hectares of wharves and storage areas are exclusively situated on reclaimed land in the former Commercial Bay, Official Bay and in Mechanics Bay.
Wharves are: Wynyard Wharf. This land is now owned and administered by Panuku Development Auckland, the council's CCO. Princes Wharf. An easement around the edge wharf provides for ship berthing Queens Wharf; this land is now owned and administered by Panuku Development Auckland. Captain Cook Wharf Marsden Wharf Bledisloe Wharf Jellicoe Wharf Freyberg Wharf Fergusson Wharf POAL bought three new large container cranes in 2006 from Chinese firm Zhenhua Port Machinery Co. for NZ$27 million, now installed at the Axis Intermodal Terminal at Fergusson wharf, where they join two older cranes bought in 2001. The new cranes are the largest in New Zealand, weighing 1,250 tonnes each. Standing 103 m high with a 56 m boom length, they are capable of lifting two 20-foot containers at once, with speeds of up to 150 m per minute, they were bought to reach for Post-Panamax ships. Their generators can provide emergency power to refrigerated containers in case of power failure; the port has upgraded most of the straddle carrier fleet to the most modern version Noell Straddles, with diesel-electric power.
This second harbour is a smaller facility near Onehunga on the Manukau Harbour, south of Auckland City. While it is much closer to the industrialized parts of southern Auckland and Manukau City, the access via the shallow entrance of Manukau Harbour, the less extensive facilities mean that it is of much less significance than the main port, is used for coastal reshipment within New Zealand, such as for bringing in cement from Westport; the port became too shallow for large, modern ships and negotiations were under way in 2015 by Auckland Council to sell it to the council entity Panuku Development Auckland, which wanted to turn it into a waterfront village and shops in a style similar to Wynyard Quarter. The sale did not go through and in 2016 it was announced that the port would be sold to NZ Transport Agency which wanted to build an interchange for a $1.8 billion east-west motorway link on the land. It was claimed that NZTA had not yet finalised its plans for the interchange and any land remaining after it was built would be sold to Panuku.
Chelsea Wharf, in Birkenhead, North Shore City, not part of the current POAL facilities, serves the Chelsea Sugar Refinery, which has operated since 1884. The 9 hectares of the land were leased from POAL, but purchased by Chelsea in 1997. Ships with unrefined sugar arrive at the wharf every six weeks, as they exceed 500 gross tonnage, the ships are required to use pilotage, managed by the Ports of Auckland's Harbour Control. An inland port in South Auckland which functions as a rail exchange between the sea port and the national road and rail freight networks. Visited by around 1,600 commercial vessels a year, Auckland is New Zealand's largest commercial port, handling more than NZ$20 billion of goods per year exceeding that of major rival Port of Tauranga. Ports of Auckland handles the movement of 60% of New Zealand's imports and 40% of its exports 50% of the North Island's container trade, 37% of all New Zealand's container trade, it moves 4 million tonnes of'breakbulk' cargo per year, as well as around 773,160 twenty-foot equivalent containers units per year.
Another major import are used cars, with 166,000 landed per year. The cars are relatively new Japanese models, due to the strict technical requirements of the Japanese road authorities. Due to the strict biosecurity regulations administered by the MAF, cars have to pass through a decontamination facility, which increases turnover times. In the 2005/2006 season, POAL catered for 48 cruise ship visits, with more than 100,000 passengers passing through the port disembarking for short stopover trips into Auckland or the surrounding regio
The Strand Station
"Auckland Railway Station" redirects here. For the current suburban train terminus in Auckland, see Britomart Transport Centre; the Strand Station referred to as Auckland Strand Station, is a railway station located on the eastern edge of the Auckland CBD. It serves as the northern terminus of the Northern Explorer long-distance service between Auckland and Wellington, operated by The Great Journeys of New Zealand. Suburban services do not pass through the station, but it can serve as a backup for Britomart Transport Centre, the city's main railway station since 2003, during times of disruption; the Auckland Railway Station was opened in 1930 on Beach Road, replacing the previous railway terminus, on the Queen Street site where Britomart now exists. The 1930 station was the third to serve as the rail terminus for Auckland, remained the sole station serving the CBD until its closure in July 2003, when Britomart became the new terminus; the Strand Station uses some of the platforms that were retained when the Auckland Railway Station building closed.
The original Platform 7 was retained for excursion use as'The Strand Station', named after the nearby street. It continued to be used by a limited number of peak-hour suburban trains for a few months following the opening of Britomart. Following this, the platforms remained abandoned until August 2011 when two platforms were re-developed to prepare the station for possible use during Rugby World Cup 2011, although they were never used for that purpose; these platforms have been used for Northern Explorer services from December 2015 onwards. The Auckland Railway Station was built by the New Zealand Public Works Department between 1928 and 1930 and sits on reclaimed land on Beach Road close to the wharves, it replaced a smaller terminal on the site of Britomart. The grand and ornate building was intended to serve as a gateway to the city, its construction cost of £320,000 was the largest independent contract awarded in New Zealand, it has great historical importance for its associations with the public building programme of the 1920s, with the central role played by the railways in national transport.
The Auckland Railway Station building has been a city landmark from the time it was opened in 1930, is a grand architectural statement in beaux-arts brick and mortar, having been called "one of the most self-consciously monumental public buildings erected in early twentieth-century New Zealand". The building was designed by William Henry Gummer, a student of Sir Edwin Lutyens and architect of various notable New Zealand buildings such as the Dilworth Building in Queen Street; the symmetrical facade of the three storey-high building was constructed of reinforced concrete, faced with brick and granite. It is approached by a sweeping ramp on either side of the building, enclosing a landscaped garden to the front; the building's design echoed American models, such as Union Station in Washington, D. C. and Pennsylvania Station in New York City, considered the most striking and luxurious examples of the time. It has been favourably compared with Grand Central Terminal, in New York City as well, the National Theatre in Melbourne.
The station was given ornate public spaces and a wide variety of amenities, from waiting and dining rooms to shops and a first aid station. Of particular interest is the magnificent metal ceiling in the main lobby, this item was manufactured in Germany and the parts shipped out and reassembled to create one of the most remarkable structures in the country; the looming threat of German aggression meant that its origins were downplayed and obscured. The rest of the lobby is a showpiece of expensive imported marble and fine bronze detailing with a beautiful terazzo floor; the fine detailing extended to the restrooms with imported panelling, light fittings, period-style furniture and porcelain sanitaryware. Underpasses and ramps linked the station building with an extended platform network to the rear, built with elegant concrete canopies and other elements as integral parts of the original design and function. With modifications, the building was used as the main point of arrival for rail passengers in Auckland for most of the century.
The station building was sold during the privatisation of part of the New Zealand Railways Corporation during the 1990s because of the impending construction of Britomart Transport Centre, which would become the new railway station for the city centre. Although sold, the station remained open until July 2003. A single platform remained in use to serve a limited number of peak-hour suburban services which continued to operate for several months after the opening of Britomart. In the decade that followed, the platform was used by excursion trains although, along with the rest of the platforms, it became dilapidated. In 1999 the station building was converted for use as student accommodation for Auckland University and named The Railway Campus, it was the largest of the university's residences, had 426 bedrooms, in a total of 230 apartments. The residence was awarded four stars by Qualmark in the Student Accommodation category, which evaluated the facilities as well as the level of pastoral care and support for students, was accredited by the New Zealand Association of Tertiary Education Accommodation Professionals.
In 2007, major weather-tightness problems appeared. Tenants were required to leave; the effect of the water leaks on the prices of the apartments in the complex was marked – while the high price in the early 1990s was $160,000, apartments sold for a nominal sale price as low as $12,800 as owners extricated themselves