Popular Mechanics is a magazine of popular science and technology, featuring automotive, outdoor, science, do-it-yourself, technology topics. Military topics and transportation of all types, space and gadgets are featured, it was founded in 1902 by Henry Haven Windsor, the editor and—as owner of the Popular Mechanics Company—the publisher. For decades, the tagline of the monthly magazine was "Written so you can understand it." In 1958, PM was purchased by the Hearst Corporation, now Hearst Communications. In 2013, the US edition changed from twelve to ten issues per year, in 2014 the tagline was changed to "How your world works." The magazine added a podcast in recent years, including regular features Most Useful Podcast Ever and How Your World Works. Popular Mechanics was founded in Chicago by Henry Haven Windsor, with the first issue dated January 11, 1902, his concept was that it would explain "the way the world works" in plain language, with photos and illustrations to aid comprehension. For decades, its tagline was "Written so you can understand it."
The magazine was a weekly until September 1902. The Popular Mechanics Company was owned by the Windsor family and printed in Chicago until the Hearst Corporation purchased the magazine in 1958. In 1962, the editorial offices moved to New York City. From the first issue, the magazine featured a large illustration of a technological subject, a look that evolved into the magazine's characteristic full-page, full-color illustration and a small 6.5" x 9.5" trim size beginning with the July, 1911 issue. It maintained the small format until 1975. Popular Science adopted full-color cover illustrations in 1915, the look was imitated by technology magazines. Several international editions were introduced after World War II, starting with a French edition, followed by Spanish in 1947, Swedish and Danish in 1949. In 2002, the print magazine was being published in English and Spanish and distributed worldwide. South African and Russian editions were introduced that same year. Notable articles have been contributed by notable people including Guglielmo Marconi, Thomas Edison, Jules Verne, Barney Oldfield, Knute Rockne, Winston Churchill, Charles Kettering, Tom Wolfe, Buzz Aldrin, as well as many presidents including Teddy Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan.
Comedian and car expert Jay Leno had a regular column, Jay Leno's Garage, starting in March, 1999. * Note. For decades, the lead time to go from submission to print was three months, so some of the dates might not correspond with employment dates; as the Popular Mechanics web site has become more dominant and the importance of print issues has declined, editorial changes have more immediate impact. 1986 National Magazine Award in the Leisure Interest category for the Popular Mechanics Woodworking Guide, November 1986. 2008 National Magazine Award in the Personal Service category for its "Know Your Footprint: Energy and Waste" series. The magazine has received eight National Magazine Award nominations, including 2012 nominations in the Magazine of the Year category and the General Excellence category. Israel, Paul B.. "Enthusiasts and Innovators:'Possible Dreams' and the'Innovation Station' at the Henry Ford Museum". Technology and Culture. 35: 396–401. Doi:10.2307/3106308. JSTOR 3106308. Wright, John L..
Possible Dreams: Enthusiasm for Technology in America. Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village. P. 128. ISBN 978-0-933728-35-6. Bryant, Margaret M.. "New Words from Popular Mechanics". American Speech. 52: 39–46. Doi:10.2307/454718. JSTOR 454718. A nearly complete archive of Popular Mechanics issues from 1905 through 2005 is available through Google Books. Popular Mechanics' cover art is the subject of Tom Burns' 2015 Texas Tech PhD dissertation, titled Useful fictions: How Popular Mechanics builds technological literacy through magazine cover illustration. Darren Orr wrote an analysis of the state of Popular Mechanics in 2014 as partial fulfillment of requirements for a master's degree in journalism from University of Missouri-Columbia. Popularmechanics.com Google Books archive Popular Mechanics South African edition Works by Popular Mechanics at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Popular Mechanics at Internet Archive Works by or about Popular Mechanics at Google Books
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Fawcett Publications was an American publishing company founded in 1919 in Robbinsdale, Minnesota by Wilford Hamilton "Captain Billy" Fawcett. It kicked off with the publication of the bawdy humor magazine Captain Billy's Whiz Bang and expanded into a magazine empire with the first issue of Mechanix Illustrated in the 1920s, followed by numerous titles including True Confessions, Family Circle, Woman's Day, True. Fawcett Comics, which began operating in 1939, led to the introduction of Captain Marvel; the company became a publisher of paperbacks in 1950 with the opening of Gold Medal Books. In 1953, the company abandoned its roster of superhero comic characters in the wake of declining sales and a lawsuit for infringement by the Captain Marvel character on the copyright of the Action Comics character Superman, ended its publication of comic books, it was purchased by CBS Publications in 1977 and subsequently underwent dismantling and absorption by other companies. At the age of 16, Fawcett ran away from home to join the Army, the Spanish–American War took him to the Philippines.
Back in Minnesota, he became a police reporter for the Minneapolis Journal. While a World War I Army captain, Fawcett's experience with the Army publication Stars and Stripes gave him the notion to get into publishing, his bawdy cartoon and joke magazine, Captain Billy's Whiz Bang, became the launch pad for a vast publishing empire embracing magazines, comic books and paperback books. The title Captain Billy's Whiz Bang combined Fawcett's military moniker with the nickname of a destructive World War I artillery shell. According to one account, the earliest issues were mimeographed pamphlets, typed on a borrowed typewriter and peddled around Minneapolis by Captain Billy and his four sons. However, in Captain Billy's version, he stated that when he began publishing in October 1919, he ordered a print run of 5,000 copies because of the discount on a large order compared with rates for only several hundred copies. Distributing free copies of Captain Billy's Whiz Bang to wounded veterans and his Minnesota friends, he circulated the remaining copies to newsstands in hotels.
With gags like, "AWOL means After Women Or Liquor", the joke book caught on, in 1921, Captain Billy made the inflated claim that his sales were "soaring to the million mark."The book Humor Magazines and Comic Periodicals notes: Few periodicals reflect the post-WW I cultural change in American life as well as Captain Billy’s Whiz Bang. To some people represented the decline of morality and the flaunting of sexual immodesty. For much of the 1920s, Captain Billy’s was the most prominent comic magazine in America with its mix of racy poetry and naughty jokes and puns, aimed at a small-town audience with pretensions of "sophistication". Captain Billy's Whiz Bang is immortalized in the lyrics to the song "Trouble" from Meredith Willson's The Music Man: "Is there a nicotine stain on his index finger? A dime novel hidden in the corncrib? Is he starting to memorize jokes from Captain Billy's Whiz Bang?"The publication, delivered in a 64-page, saddle-stitched, digest-sized format, soon saw a dramatic increase in sales.
By 1923, the magazine had a circulation of 425,000 with $500,000 annual profits. With the rising readership of Captain Billy's Whiz Bang, Fawcett racked up more sales with Whiz Bang annuals, in 1926, he launched a similar publication, Smokehouse Monthly; the popularity of Whiz Bang peaked during the 1920s. It continued into the 1930s, but circulation slowed as readers graduated to the more sophisticated humor of Esquire, founded in 1933, it had an influence on many other digest-sized cartoon humor publications, including Charley Jones Laugh Book, still being published during the 1950s. In some issues of Whiz Bang, Captain Billy wrote about his vacations in Los Angeles, New York and Paris, along with items about his celebrity friends, including Jack Dempsey, Sinclair Lewis, Ring Lardner. During the 1930s, Fawcett and his sons established a line of magazines which reached a combined circulation of ten million a month in newsstand sales. True Confessions alone had a circulation of two million a month.
However, during the World War II paper shortages Fawcett folded 49 magazines and kept only 14. Magazines published by Fawcett over the decades included Battle Stories, Daring Detective, Dynamic Detective, Family Circle, Motion Picture, Movie Story, Screen Secrets, Triple-X Western and True. Woman's Day, added to the line-up in 1948, had a circulation of 6,500,000 by 1965; the flagship of Fawcett magazines was Mechanix Illustrated. It began in the 1920s as Modern Mechanics and Inventions, was retitled Modern Mechanix and Inventions, shortened to Modern Mechanix and altered to Mechanix Illustrated before it became Home Mechanix in 1984. Acquired by Time Inc. it was retitled yet again to become Today's Homeowner in 1993. The illustrator Norman Saunders became a Fawcett staffer in 1927 after doing some spot illustrations for Fawcett editor Weston "Westy" Farmer, Saunders' first cover illustration was for the August, 1929 issue of Modern Mechanics and Inventions, he continued to do covers for Fawcett into the 1930s, when Fawcett opened Manhattan offices in 1934, Saunders and other staffers relocated in New York.
Larry Eisinger, the workshop and science editor of Mechanix Illustrated, spearheaded the national "do-it-yourself" movement as the editor-in-chief of Fawcett's How-To book series and special interest magazines. He created Fawcett's Mechanix Illustrated Do-It-Yourself Encyclopedia and The Practical Handyman's Encyclopedia, which had combined sales of 20 million copies. In 1959 Electronics Illustrated was created for the hobbyist. I
Popular Science is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in both 2003 and 2004. With roots beginning in 1872, Popular Science has been translated into over 30 languages and is distributed to at least 45 countries; the Popular Science Monthly, as the publication was called, was founded in May 1872 by Edward L. Youmans to disseminate scientific knowledge to the educated layman. Youmans had worked as an editor for the weekly Appleton's Journal and persuaded them to publish his new journal. Early issues were reprints of English periodicals; the journal became an outlet for writings and ideas of Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley, Louis Pasteur, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, Thomas Edison, John Dewey and James McKeen Cattell. William Jay Youmans, Edward's brother, helped found Popular Science Monthly in 1872 and was an editor as well.
He became editor-in-chief on Edward's death in 1887. The publisher, D. Appleton & Company, was forced for economic reasons to sell the journal in 1900. James McKeen Cattell became the editor in 1900 and the publisher in 1901. Cattell continued publishing articles for educated readers. By 1915 the readership was publishing a science journal was a financial challenge. In a September 1915 editorial, Cattell related these difficulties to his readers and announced that the Popular Science Monthly name had been "transferred" to a group that wanted the name for a general audience magazine, a publication which fit the name better; the existing journal would continue the academic tradition as Scientific Monthly. Existing subscribers would remain subscribed under the new name. Scientific Monthly was published until 1958; the Modern Publishing Company acquired the Popular Science Monthly name. This company had purchased Electrician and Mechanic magazine in 1914 and over the next two years merged several magazines together into a science magazine for a general audience.
The magazine had a series of name changes: Modern Electrics and Mechanics, Popular Electricity and Modern Mechanics, Modern Mechanics and World's Advance, before the publishers purchased the name Popular Science Monthly. The October 1915 issue was titled World's Advance; the volume number was that of Popular Science but the content was that of World's Advance. The new editor was a former editor of Scientific American; the change in Popular Science Monthly was dramatic. The old version was a scholarly journal. There would be ten to illustrations; the new version had hundreds of short, easy to read articles with hundreds of illustrations. Editor Kaempffert was writing for "the home craftsman and hobbyist who wanted to know something about the world of science." The circulation doubled in the first year. From the mid-1930s to the 1960s, the magazine featured fictional stories of Gus Wilson's Model Garage, centered on car problems. An annual review of changes to the new model year cars ran in 1940 and'41, but did not return after the war until 1954.
It continued until the mid-1970s when the magazine reverted to publishing the new models over multiple issues as information became available. From 1935 to 1949, the magazine sponsored a series of short films, produced by Jerry Fairbanks and released by Paramount Pictures. From July 1952 to December 1989, Popular Science carried Roy Doty's Wordless Workshop as a regular feature. From July 1969 to May 1989, the cover and table of contents carried the subtitle, "The What's New Magazine." The cover removed the subtitle the following month and the contents page removed it in February 1990. In 1983, the magazine introduced a new logo using the ITC Avant Garde font, which it used until late 1995. Within the next 11 years, its font changed 4 times. In 2009, the magazine used a new font for its logo, used until the January 2014 issue. In 2014, Popular Science sported a new look and introduced a new logo for the first time in 8 years, complete with a major overhaul of its articles; the Popular Science Publishing Company, which the magazine bears its name, was acquired in 1967 by the Los Angeles-based Times Mirror Company.
In 2000, Times Mirror merged with the Chicago-based Tribune Company, which sold the Times Mirror magazines to Time Inc. the following year. On January 25, 2007, Time Warner sold this magazine, along with 17 other special interest magazines, to Bonnier Magazine Group. On September 24, 2008, Australian publishing company Australian Media Properties launched a local version of Popular Science, it is a monthly magazine, like its American counterpart, uses content from the American version of the magazine as well as local material. Australian Media Properties launched www.popsci.com.au at the same time, a localised version of the Popular Science website. In January 2016, Popular Science switched to bi-monthly publication after 144 years of monthly publication. In April 2016 it was announced, it was announced that he would remain on staff as an editor-at-large. In September 2018, Popular Science switched to quarterly publication indicating future subscription prices will be increased. Popular Science is headquartered in New York.
Popular Science Radio is a partnership
Roy Doty was an American cartoonist and illustrator. He created humorous cartoon illustrations for books, advertising, comic strips and not-for-profit organization campaigns, he was one of only a dozen inductees in the National Cartoonists Society Hall of Fame. His former wife, Jean Slaughter Doty, is the author of several children's books. Doty grew up in Columbus, served in World War II as a cartoonist, began his career as a New York City freelance cartoonist in 1946, he freelanced for his entire career. From May 10 to October 4, 1953, he hosted the Sunday morning DuMont Television Network children's program The Roy Doty Show. From 1969 to late March 1972, he wrote and drew the syndicated comic strip Laugh-In, based on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In, his "Wordless Workshop", a popular home improvement series, ran as a syndicated feature for 50 years. Puzzle This" page in Make magazine, his work has appeared in The New York Times, Field & Stream, Popular Science, the Daily Mail and many other magazines.
He did several monthly newsletters, including a children's newsletter for the American Institute for Cancer Research. Some of his ad clients included Buick, Black & Decker, Macy's, Minute Maid, Mobil Oil, Texas Instruments and Perrier. Into his nineties, he remained active as a freelance illustrator. Quoted in 2006, he said, "What could be nicer? I sit and draw funny pictures and people send me money." Doty died March 18, 2015. Doty has illustrated more than 170 children's books and written 27. Noted titles include: Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing by Judy Blume Otherwise Known as Sheila the Great by Judy Blume Superfudge by Judy Blume Doty was recognized for his work with the National Cartoonists Society's Reuben Illustrator of the Year Award, Advertising Award and Illustration Award, Commercial Award and Greeting Card Award. In 2011, his work was featured in an exhibition at the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum in Columbus, where coincidentally, Doty grew up. Official website Roy Doty at lambiek.net "Roy Doty: Cartooning into a New Century", Alliance for Aging Research
This Old House
This Old House is an American home improvement media brand with television shows, a magazine and a website, ThisOldHouse.com. The brand is headquartered in Connecticut; the television series airs on the American television network Public Broadcasting Service and follows remodeling projects of houses over a number of weeks. This Old House is produced by This Old House Ventures, Inc. with WGBH Boston as the PBS distributing station. Warner Bros. Domestic Television distributes the series to commercial television stations in syndication. Time Inc. launched This Old House magazine in 1995, focusing on home how-to, know-how and inspiration. In 2001, Time Inc. acquired the television assets from WGBH Boston and formed This Old House Ventures, Inc. In 2016, Time Inc. sold This Old House Ventures to executive Eric Thorkilsen and private equity firm TZP Growth Partners. This Old House and its sister series Ask This Old House are broadcast together as The This Old House Hour, known as The New This Old House Hour.
Both shows are owned by This Old House Ventures, Inc. and are underwritten by GMC and The Home Depot. Weyerhauser lumber distributor, a previous underwriter, by 1989 had donated more than $1,000,000 a year to the show; this Old House is underwritten by State Farm Insurance, HomeServe, Marvin Windows and Doors. Other underwriters throughout the show's tenure included Parks Corporation, Glidden paints, Montgomery Ward, Ace Hardware, Kohler plumbing, Schlage locks, Century 21 Real Estate, Toro lawnmowers/snowblowers, ERA Real Estate, Angie's List, Mitsubishi Electric, Lumber Liquidators, Inc. Two of the original underwriters were Owens-Corning; the third series to share the name is Inside This Old House, a retrospective featuring highlights from previous episodes. Old episodes are shown under the program name This Old House Classics and were shown on The Learning Channel under the name The Renovation Guide. Only the episodes with original host Bob Vila aired under that name; as of 2006, Classics are carried on the commercial non-broadcast DIY Network as well as syndicated to local TV stations.
This Old House was one of the earliest home improvement shows on national television. As such, it was controversial among building contractors, the cast was afraid that they were giving away secrets of the building trades. However, as time passed, the show grew into a cultural icon. Producer-director Russell Morash became known as the "Father of How-To." Begun in 1979 as a one-time, 13-part series on the Boston PBS station WGBH, This Old House has grown into one of the most popular programs on the network. It has produced spin-offs, a magazine, for-profit web sites; the show received 82 nominations. Although WGBH acquired the first two project houses for renovation, the series focused on renovating older houses, including those of modest size and value, with the homeowners doing some of the work, as a form of sweat equity; the series covering the renovation of the Westwood house became something of a cult classic because of an escalating dispute between the hosts and Abram, the homeowners over the direction the project was taking.
Vila remarked at the end of the Westwood series that the owners could have contributed more "sweat equity." As the show evolved, it began to focus on higher-end, luxury homes with more of the work done by expert contractors and tradespeople. Vila left This Old House in 1989 following a dispute about doing commercials and created a similar show called Bob Vila's Home Again. According to news reporter Barbara Beck, Vila was fired by WGBH Boston over making TV commercials for Rickel Home Centers, Home Depot's competitor. Home Depot, the show's underwriter, dropped its local sponsorship for This Old House after Vila made the commercials. Vila was fired in an effort to have Home Depot return as a sponsor to the show. During Vila's tenure, the show had won five Emmys. Weyerhauser, at this time a supplier for Home Depot, stopped underwriting the show. Steve Thomas took over hosting duties after Vila's departure, remaining with the program until 2003. Cast members complained that Vila took up too much screen time, noted that the show became more of an ensemble production after he left.
Time Inc. began production of This Old House magazine in 1995. In 2001, Time Inc. bought the show from WGBH. Kevin O'Connor is the current host of This Old House. Before O'Connor joined the cast, he was a homeowner who appeared on Ask This Old House, having problems with wallpaper removal. While O'Connor has been the host, Abram's role has increased to that of a near co-host. In at least a couple of season opening episodes, Abram has appeared with O'Connor to introduce the new project. Abram filled in for O'Connor when his son was born during the Carlisle project. Beginning with the 2007–08 season, This Old House and Ask This Old House, were presented in a high-definition format. To celebrate its 30th anniversary season, This Old House worked with Nuestra Comunidad to renovate a foreclosed home in Boston's Roxbury neighborhood. Nuestra Comunidad is a non-profit development corporation that acquired this 1870s-era Second Empire home from a bank. From the show's debut in 1979 until 2002, This Old House used the first theme song "Louisiana Fairy Tale," composed by Haven Gillespie, Mitchell Parish and J. Fred Coots and performed by 20th-century jazz artist Fats Waller.
The theme song was changed after This Old House Ventures acquired the series from
The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact