Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota. Their front pair of wings are hardened into wing-cases, distinguishing them from most other insects; the Coleoptera, with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms. The largest of all families, the Curculionidae with some 70,000 member species, belongs to this order. Found in every habitat except the sea and the polar regions, they interact with their ecosystems in several ways: beetles feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, eat other invertebrates; some species are serious agricultural pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle, while others such as Coccinellidae eat aphids, scale insects and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops. Beetles have a hard exoskeleton including the elytra, though some such as the rove beetles have short elytra while blister beetles have softer elytra; the general anatomy of a beetle is quite uniform and typical of insects, although there are several examples of novelty, such as adaptations in water beetles which trap air bubbles under the elytra for use while diving.
Beetles are endopterygotes, which means that they undergo complete metamorphosis, with a series of conspicuous and abrupt changes in body structure between hatching and becoming adult after a immobile pupal stage. Some, such as stag beetles, have a marked sexual dimorphism, the males possessing enormously enlarged mandibles which they use to fight other males. Many beetles are aposematic, with bright colours and patterns warning of their toxicity, while others are harmless Batesian mimics of such insects. Many beetles, including those that live in sandy places, have effective camouflage. Beetles are prominent in human culture, from the sacred scarabs of ancient Egypt to beetlewing art and use as pets or fighting insects for entertainment and gambling. Many beetle groups are brightly and attractively coloured making them objects of collection and decorative displays. Over 300 species are used as food as larvae. However, the major impact of beetles on human life is as agricultural and horticultural pests.
Serious pests include the boll weevil of cotton, the Colorado potato beetle, the coconut hispine beetle, the mountain pine beetle. Most beetles, however, do not cause economic damage and many, such as the lady beetles and dung beetles are beneficial by helping to control insect pests; the name of the taxonomic order, comes from the Greek koleopteros, given to the group by Aristotle for their elytra, hardened shield-like forewings, from koleos and pteron, wing. The English name beetle comes from the Old English word bitela, little biter, related to bītan, leading to Middle English betylle. Another Old English name for beetle is ċeafor, used in names such as cockchafer, from the Proto-Germanic *kebrô. Beetles are by far the largest order of insects: the 400,000 species make up about 40% of all insect species so far described, about 25% of all animals. A 2015 study provided four independent estimates of the total number of beetle species, giving a mean estimate of some 1.5 million with a "surprisingly narrow range" spanning all four estimates from a minimum of 0.9 to a maximum of 2.1 million beetle species.
The four estimates made use of host-specificity relationships, ratios with other taxa, plant:beetle ratios, extrapolations based on body size by year of description. Beetles are found in nearly all habitats, including freshwater and coastal habitats, wherever vegetative foliage is found, from trees and their bark to flowers and underground near roots - inside plants in galls, in every plant tissue, including dead or decaying ones; the heaviest beetle, indeed the heaviest insect stage, is the larva of the goliath beetle, Goliathus goliatus, which can attain a mass of at least 115 g and a length of 11.5 cm. Adult male goliath beetles are the heaviest beetle in its adult stage, weighing 70–100 g and measuring up to 11 cm. Adult elephant beetles, Megasoma elephas and Megasoma actaeon reach 50 g and 10 cm; the longest beetle is the Hercules beetle Dynastes hercules, with a maximum overall length of at least 16.7 cm including the long pronotal horn. The smallest recorded beetle and the smallest free-living insect, is the featherwing beetle Scydosella musawasensis which may measure as little as 325 µm in length.
The oldest known fossil insect that unequivocally resembles a Coleopteran is from the Lower Permian Period about 270 million years ago, though these members of the family Tshekardocoleidae have 13-segmented antennae, elytra with more developed venation and more irregular longitudinal ribbing, abdomen and ovipositor extending beyond the apex of the elytra. In the Permian–Triassic extinction event at the end of the Permian, some 30% of all insect species became extinct, so the fossil record of insects only includes beetles from the Lower Triassic 220 mya. Around this time, during the Late Triassic, fungus-feeding species such as Cupedidae appear in the fossil record. In the stages of the Upper Triassic, alga-feeding insects such as Triaplidae and Hydrophilidae begin to appear, alongside predatory water beetles; the first weevils, including the Obrienidae, appear alongside the first rove beetles, which resemb
Aristotle was a philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", his writings cover many subjects – including physics, zoology, logic, aesthetics, theatre, rhetoric, linguistics, economics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry; as a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion. Little is known about his life. Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Northern Greece, his father, died when Aristotle was a child, he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven.
Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC. He established a library in the Lyceum which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books on papyrus scrolls. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication; the fact that Aristotle was a pupil of Plato contributed to his former views of Platonism, following Plato's death, Aristotle developed an increased interest in natural sciences and adopted the position of immanent realism. Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl arm of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century.
His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard and John Buridan. Aristotle's influence on logic continued well into the 19th century He influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as "The First Teacher" and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas as "The Philosopher", his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics, such as in the thinking of Alasdair MacIntyre and Philippa Foot. In general, the details of Aristotle's life are not well-established; the biographies written in ancient times are speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points. Aristotle, whose name means "the best purpose" in Ancient Greek, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, about 55 km east of modern-day Thessaloniki.
His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Both of Aristotle's parents died when he was about thirteen, Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. Although little information about Aristotle's childhood has survived, he spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy, he remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus, although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato died. Aristotle accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. After the death of Hermias, Aristotle travelled with his pupil Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon.
While in Lesbos, Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. In 343 BC, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest and Aristotle's own attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be "a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants". By 335 BC, Aristotle had returned to Athens. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus.
According to the Suda, he had an erômenos, Palaephatus of Abydus. This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works, he wrote many dialogues. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not
A Greek–English Lexicon
A Greek–English Lexicon referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language. The lexicon is now in its ninth edition. Based on the earlier Handwörterbuch der griechischen Sprache by the German lexicographer Franz Passow, which in turn was based on Johann Gottlob Schneider's Kritisches griechisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch, it has served as the basis for all lexicographical work on the ancient Greek language, such as the ongoing Greek–Spanish dictionary project Diccionario Griego–Español, it was edited by Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie, published by the Oxford University Press. It is now conventionally referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, its three sizes are sometimes referred to as "The Little Liddell", "The Middle Liddell" and "The Big Liddell" or "The Great Scott". According to Stuart Jones's preface to the ninth edition, the creation of the Lexicon was proposed by David Alphonso Talboys, an Oxford publisher.
It was published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford rather than by Talboys because he died before the first edition was complete. The second through sixth editions appeared in 1845, 1849, 1855, 1861, 1869; the first editor of the LSJ, Henry George Liddell, was Dean of Christ Church and the father of Alice Liddell, the eponymous Alice of the writings of Lewis Carroll. The eighth edition is the last edition published during Liddell's lifetime; the LSJ is sometimes compared and contrasted with A Latin Dictionary by Lewis and Short, published by Oxford University Press. For comparisons between the two works, see the article on Lewis and Short's dictionary, it is sometimes compared with the Bauer lexicon, a similar work focused on the Greek of the New Testament. Greek scholars use these books so much that two short memorable clerihews have been written to describe the seminal work: 1. 2. Two condensed editions of LSJ remain in print. In 1843, the same year as the full lexicon's publication, A Lexicon: Abridged from Liddell and Scott's Greek–English Lexicon, sometimes called "the Little Liddell" was published.
Several revised editions followed. For example, a reprint, re-typeset in 2007, of the 1909 edition is available from Simon Wallenberg Press. In 1889, an intermediate edition of the lexicon, An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, was prepared on the basis of the seventh edition of LSJ. In comparison to the smaller abridgement, this "Middle Liddell" contains more entries covering the essential vocabulary of most read Ancient Greek literature, adds citations of the authors to illustrate the history of Greek usage, provides more help with irregular forms. After the publication of the ninth edition in 1940, shortly after the deaths of both Stuart Jones and McKenzie, the OUP maintained a list of addenda et corrigenda, bound with subsequent printings. However, in 1968, these were replaced by a Supplement to the LSJ. Neither the addenda nor the Supplement has been merged into the main text, which still stands as composed by Liddell, Jones, McKenzie; the Supplement was edited by M. L. West. Since 1981, it has been edited by editor of the Oxford Latin Dictionary.
Since 1988, it has been edited by Anne A. Thompson; as the title page of the Lexicon makes clear, this editorial work has been performed "with the cooperation of many scholars". The Supplement takes the form of a list of additions and corrections to the main text, sorted by entry; the supplemental entries are marked with signs to show the nature of the changes they call for. Thus, a user of the Lexicon can consult the Supplement after consulting the main text to see whether scholarship after Jones and McKenzie has provided any new information about a particular word; as of 2005, the most recent revision of the Supplement, published in 1996, contains 320 pages of corrections to the main text, as well as other materials. Here is a typical entry from the revised Supplement: x ἐκβουτῠπόομαι to be changed into a cow, S.fr. 269a.37 R. The small "x" indicates. Refers to the collected fragmentary works of Sophocles. One interesting new source of lexicographic material in the revised Supplement is the Mycenean inscriptions.
The 1996 revised Supplement's Preface notes: At the time of the publication of the first Supplement it was felt that the Ventris decipherment of the Linear B tablets was still too uncertain to warrant the inclusion of these texts in a standard dictionary. Ventris's interpretation is now accepted and the tablets can no longer be ignored in a comprehensive Greek dictionary; the ninth edition of LSJ has been available in electronic form since 2007, having been digitized by the Perseus Project. Diogenes, a free software package, incorporates the Perseus data and allows easy offline consultation of LSJ on Mac OS X, Linux platforms. Marcion is another open source application that includes the Perseus LSJ. For mobile devices, both the Kindle E-Ink and the iPhone/iPod Touch feature data ported from Perseus; the Android Market currently offers the intermediate LSJ as an offline downloadable app for free or for a small price. A CD-ROM version published and sold by Logos Bible Software incorporates the Supplement's additions to the
A pupa is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages. The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, with four life stages: egg, larva and imago; the processes of entering and completing the pupal stage are controlled by the insect's hormones juvenile hormone, prothoracicotropic hormone, ecdysone. The pupae of different groups of insects have different names such as chrysalis for the pupae of butterflies and tumbler for those of the mosquito family. Pupae may further be enclosed in other structures such as nests, or shells; the pupal stage follows the larval stage and precedes adulthood in insects with complete metamorphosis. The pupa is a non-feeding sessile stage, or active as in mosquitoes, it is during pupation that the adult structures of the insect are formed while the larval structures are broken down. The adult structures grow from imaginal discs. Pupation may last weeks, months, or years, depending on temperature and the species of insect.
For example, pupation lasts eight to fifteen days in monarch butterflies. The pupa may diapause until the appropriate season to emerge as an adult insect. In temperate climates pupae stay dormant during winter, while in the tropics pupae do so during the dry season. Insects emerge from pupae by splitting the pupal case. Most butterflies emerge in the morning. In mosquitoes the emergence is in the night. In fleas the process is triggered by vibrations that indicate the possible presence of a suitable host. Prior to emergence, the adult inside the pupal exoskeleton is termed pharate. Once the pharate adult has eclosed from the pupa, the empty pupal exoskeleton is called an exuvia. In a few taxa of the Lepidoptera Heliconius, pupal mating is an extreme form of reproductive strategy in which the adult male mates with a female pupa about to emerge, or with the newly moulted female. Pupae are immobile and are defenseless. To overcome this, a common strategy is concealed placement. There are some species of Lycaenid butterflies.
Another means of defense by pupae of other species is the capability of making sounds or vibrations to scare potential predators. A few species use chemical defenses including toxic secretions; the pupae of social hymenopterans are protected by adult members of the hive. Based on the presence or absence of articulated mandibles that are employed in emerging from a cocoon or pupal case, the pupae can be classified in to two types: Decticous pupa – pupae with articulated mandibles. Examples are pupae of the orders Neuroptera, Mecoptera and few Lepidoptera families. Adecticous pupa – pupae without articulated mandibles. Examples include orders Strepsiptera, Hymenoptera and Siphonaptera. Based on whether the pupal appendages are free or attached to the body, the pupae can be classified in three types: Exarate pupa – appendages are free and are not encapsulated within a cocoon. All decticous pupa and some adecticous pupa are always exarate.. Obtect pupa – appendages are attached to the body and are encapsulated within a cocoon.
Some adecticous pupa are obtect forms. Coarctate pupa – enclosed in a hardened cuticle of the penultimate larval instar called puparium. However, the pupa itself is of exarate adecticous pupa forms.. A chrysalis or nympha is the pupal stage of butterflies; the term is derived from the metallic gold-coloration found in the pupae of many butterflies, referred to by the Greek term χρυσός for gold. When the caterpillar is grown, it makes a button of silk which it uses to fasten its body to a leaf or a twig; the caterpillar's skin comes off for the final time. Under this old skin is a hard skin called a chrysalis; because chrysalises are showy and are formed in the open, they are the most familiar examples of pupae. Most chrysalides are attached to a surface by a Velcro-like arrangement of a silken pad spun by the caterpillar cemented to the underside of a perch, the cremastral hook or hooks protruding from the rear of the chrysalis or cremaster at the tip of the pupal abdomen by which the caterpillar fixes itself to the pad of silk.
Like other types of pupae, the chrysalis stage in most butterflies is one in which there is little movement. However, some butterfly pupae are capable of moving the abdominal segments to produce sounds or to scare away potential predators. Within the chrysalis and differentiation occur; the adult butterfly emerges from this and expands its wings by pumping haemolymph into the wing veins. Although this sudden and rapid change from pupa to imago is called metamorphosis, metamorphosis is the whole series of changes that an insect undergoes from egg to adult; when emerging, the butterfly uses a liquid, sometimes called cocoonase, which softens the shell of the chrysalis. Additionally, it uses two sharp claws located on the th
Henry George Liddell was dean of Christ Church, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University, headmaster of Westminster School, author of A History of Rome, co-author of the monumental work A Greek–English Lexicon, known as "Liddell and Scott", still used by students of Greek. Lewis Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures in Wonderland for Henry Liddell's daughter Alice. Liddell received his education at Oxford, he gained a double first degree in 1833 became a college tutor, was ordained in 1838. Liddell was Headmaster of Westminster School from 1846 to 1855. Meanwhile, his life work, the great lexicon, which he and Robert Scott began as early as 1834, had made good progress, the first edition of Liddell and Scott's Lexicon appeared in 1843, it became the standard Greek–English dictionary, with the 8th edition published in 1897. As Headmaster of Westminster Liddell enjoyed a period of great success, followed by trouble due to the outbreak of fever and cholera in the school. In 1855 he accepted the deanery of Oxford.
In the same year he brought out his History of Ancient Rome and took a active part in the first Oxford University Commission. His tall figure, fine presence and aristocratic mien were for many years associated with all, characteristic of Oxford life. Coming just at the transition period when the "old Christ Church," which Pusey strove so hard to preserve, was becoming broader and more liberal, it was chiefly due to Liddell that necessary changes were effected with the minimum of friction. In 1859 Liddell welcomed the Prince of Wales when he matriculated at Christ Church, being the first holder of that title who had matriculated since Henry V. While Liddell was Dean of Christ Church, he arranged for the building of a new choir school and classrooms for the staff and pupils of Christ Church Cathedral School on its present site. Before the school was housed within Christ Church itself. In July 1846, Liddell married Lorina Reeve, with whom he had nine children including Alice Liddell of Lewis Carroll fame.
In conjunction with Sir Henry Acland, Liddell did much to encourage the study of art at Oxford, his taste and judgment gained him the admiration and friendship of Ruskin. In 1891, owing to advancing years, he resigned the deanery; the last years of his life were spent at Ascot, where he died on 18 January 1898. Two roads in Ascot, Liddell Way and Carroll Crescent honour the relationship between Henry Liddell and Lewis Carroll. Liddell was an Oxford "character" in years, he figures in contemporary undergraduate doggerel: I am the Dean, this Mrs Liddell. She plays first, I, second fiddle, she is the Broad, I am the High – We are the University. The Victorian journalist, George W. E. Russell, conveys something of Liddell's image: The Vice-Chancellor who matriculated me was the majestic Liddell, with his six feet of stately height draped in scarlet, his'argent aureole' of white hair, his three silver maces borne before him, always helped me to understand what Sydney Smith meant when he said, of some nonsensical proposition, that no power on earth and except the Dean of Christ Church, should induce him to believe it.
Henry George Liddell was the author of A Greek-English Dictionary Based on the German Work of Francis Passow, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1843, numerous editions of the same, including abridgments for student use, written with Robert Scott. A History of Rome from the Earliest Times to the Establishment of the Empire, Vols. I & II, London: John Murray, 1855 Life of Julius Caesar, New York: Sheldon & Co. 1860, excerpted from the Roman history. The Student's Rome: A History of Rome from the Earliest Times to the Establishment of the Empire, London: John Murray, 1865, excerpted from the Roman history and revised, his father was Henry Liddell, Rector of Easington, the younger son of Sir Henry Liddell, 5th Baronet and the former Elizabeth Steele. His father's elder brother, Sir Thomas Liddell, 6th Baronet, was raised to the Peerage as Baron Ravensworth in 1821, his mother was a daughter of Thomas Lyon and the former Mary Wren. On 2 July 1846, Henry married Lorina Reeve, they were parents of ten children: Edward Harry Liddell.
Lorina Charlotte'Ina' Liddell. James Arthur Charles Liddell. Alice Pleasance Liddell, for whom the story of the children's classic Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was told. Edith Mary Liddell. Rhoda Caroline Anne Liddell. Albert Edward Arthur Liddell. Violet Constance Liddell. Sir Frederick Francis Liddell: First Parliamentary Counsel and Ecclesiastical Commissioner. Lionel Charles Liddell. Lewis Carroll Alice Liddell Media related to Henry George Liddell at Wikimedia Commons A genealogical profile from thePeerage.com Two portraits, National Portrait Gallery
Law enforcement agency
A law enforcement agency, in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws. Outside North America, such organizations are called police services. In North America, some of these services are called police, others are known as sheriff's offices/departments, while investigative police services in the United States are called bureaus, for example the Federal Bureau of Investigation. LEAs which have their ability to apply their powers restricted in some way are said to operate within a jurisdiction. LEAs will have some form of geographic restriction on their ability to apply their powers; the LEA might be able to apply its powers within a country, for example the United States of America's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives or its Drug Enforcement Administration, within a division of a country, for example the Australian state Queensland Police, or across a collection of countries, for example international organizations such as Interpol, or the European Union's Europol.
LEAs which operate across a collection of countries tend to assist in law enforcement activities, rather than directly enforcing laws, by facilitating the sharing of information necessary for law enforcement between LEAs within those countries, for example Europol has no executive powers. Sometimes a LEA’s jurisdiction is determined by the complexity or seriousness of the non compliance with a law; some countries determine the jurisdiction in these circumstances by means of policy and resource allocation between agencies, for example in Australia, the Australian Federal Police take on complex serious matters referred to it by an agency and the agency will undertake its own investigations of less serious or complex matters by consensus, while other countries have laws which decide the jurisdiction, for example in the United States of America some matters are required by law to be referred to other agencies if they are of a certain level of seriousness or complexity, for example cross state boundary kidnapping in the United States is escalated to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Differentiation of jurisdiction based on the seriousness and complexity of the non compliance either by law or by policy and consensus can coexist in countries. A LEA which has a wide range of powers but whose ability is restricted geographically to an area, only part of a country, is referred to as local police or territorial police. Other LEAs have a jurisdiction defined by the type of laws they assist in enforcing. For example, Interpol does not work with political, religious, or racial matters. A LEA’s jurisdiction also includes the governing bodies they support, the LEA itself. Jurisdictionally, there can be an important difference between international LEAs and multinational LEAs though both are referred to as "international" in official documents. An international law enforcement agency has jurisdiction and or operates in multiple countries and across State borders, for example Interpol. A multinational law enforcement agency will operate in only one country, or one division of a country, but is made up of personnel from several countries, for example the European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
International LEAs are also multinational, for example Interpol, but multinational LEAs are not international. Within a country, the jurisdiction of law enforcement agencies can be organized and structured in a number of ways to provide law enforcement throughout the country. A law enforcement agency’s jurisdiction can be for the whole country or for a division or sub-division within the country. LEA jurisdiction for a division within a country can be at more than one level, for example at the division level, state, province, or territory level, for example at the sub division level, county, shire, or municipality or metropolitan area level. In Australia for example, each state has its own LEAs. In the United States for example each state and county or city has its own LEAs; as a result, because both Australia and the United States are federations and have federal LEAs, Australia has two levels of law enforcement and the United States has multiple levels of law enforcement, Tribal, County, Town, special Jurisdiction and others.
A LEA’s jurisdiction will be geographically divided into operations areas for administrative and logistical efficiency reasons. An operations area is called a command or an office. While the operations area of a LEA is sometimes referred to as a jurisdiction, any LEA operations area still has legal jurisdiction in all geographic areas the LEA operates, but by policy and consensus the operations area does not operate in other geographical operations areas of the LEA. For example, the United Kingdom’s Metropolitan Police is divided into 32 Borough Operational Command Units, based on the London boroughs, the New York City Police Department is divided into 77 precincts. Sometimes the one legal jurisdiction is covered by more than one LEA, again for administrative and logistical efficiency reasons, or arising from policy, or historical reasons. For example, the area of jurisdiction of English and Welsh law is covered by a number of LEAs called constabularies, each of which has legal jurisdiction over the whole area covered by English and Welsh law, but they do not operate out of their areas without formal liaison between them.
The primary difference between separate agencies and operational areas within the one legal jurisdiction is the degree of flexibility to move resources between versus within agencies. When multiple LEAs cover the one legal jurisdiction, each agency still organizes itself into operations
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae. Poppies are herbaceous plants grown for their colourful flowers. One species of poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the source of the narcotic drug opium which contains powerful medicinal alkaloids such as morphine and has been used since ancient times as an analgesic and narcotic medicinal and recreational drug, it produces edible seeds. Following the trench warfare in the poppy fields of Flanders during World War I, poppies have become a symbol of remembrance of soldiers who have died during wartime. Poppies are herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial plants; some species are monocarpic. Poppies can be over a metre tall with flowers up to 15 centimetres across. Flowers of species have 4 to 6 petals, many stamens forming a conspicuous whorl in the center of the flower and an ovary of from 2 to many fused carpels; the petals are showy, may be of any color and some have markings. The petals are crumpled in the bud and as blooming finishes, the petals lie flat before falling away.
In the temperate zones, poppies bloom from spring into early summer. Most species secrete latex. Bees use poppies as a pollen source; the pollen of the oriental poppy, Papaver orientale, is dark blue, that of the field or corn poppy is grey to dark green. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, grows wild in eastern and southern Asia, South Eastern Europe, it is believed. Poppies belong to the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae, which includes the following genera: Papaver – Papaver rhoeas, Papaver somniferum, Papaver orientale, Papaver nudicaule Eschscholzia – Eschscholzia californica Meconopsis – Meconopsis cambrica, Meconopsis napaulensis Stylophorum – celandine poppy Argemone – prickly poppy Romneya – matilija poppy and relatives Canbya – pygmy poppy Stylomecon – wind poppy Arctomecon – desert bearpaw poppy Hunnemannia – tulip poppy Dendromecon – tree poppy The flowers of most poppy species are attractive and are cultivated as annual or perennial ornamental plants; this has resulted in a number of commercially important cultivars, such as the Shirley poppy, a cultivar of Papaver rhoeas and semi-double or double forms of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum and oriental poppy.
Poppies of several other genera are cultivated in gardens. A few species have other uses, principally as sources of foods; the opium poppy is cultivated and its worldwide production is monitored by international agencies. It is used for production of dried latex and opium, the principal precursor of narcotic and analgesic opiates such as morphine and codeine. Poppy seeds are rich in oil, carbohydrates and protein. Poppy oil is used as cooking oil, salad dressing oil, or in products such as margarine. Poppy oil can be added to spices for cakes, or breads. Poppy products are used in different paints and some cosmetics. Ancient Egyptian doctors would have their patients eat seeds from a poppy to relieve pain. Poppy seeds contain small quantities of both morphine and codeine, which are pain-relieving drugs that are still used today. Poppy seeds and fixed oils can be nonnarcotic because when they are harvested about twenty days after the flower has opened, the morphine is no longer present. In Mexico, Grupo Modelo, the makers of Corona beer, used red poppy flowers in most of its advertising images until the 1960s.
Artificial poppies are used in the veterans' aid campaign by the Veterans of Foreign Wars, which provides money to the veterans who assemble the poppies and various aid programs to veterans and their families. A poppy flower is depicted on the reverse of the Macedonian 500-denar banknote, issued in 1996 and 2003; the poppy is part of the coat of arms of North Macedonia. Canada issued special quarters with a red poppy on the reverse in 2004, 2008 and 2010; the 2004 Canadian "poppy" quarter was the world's first coloured circulation coin. The girl's given name "Poppy". Poppies have long been used as a symbol of sleep and death: Sleep because the opium extracted from them is a sedative, death because of the common blood-red color of the red poppy in particular. In Greek and Roman myths, poppies were used as offerings to the dead. Poppies used; this symbolism was evoked in the children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, in which a magical poppy field threatened to make the protagonists sleep forever.
A second interpretation of poppies in Classical mythology is that the bright scarlet color signifies a promise of resurrection after death. The poppy of wartime remembrance is the red-flowered corn poppy; this poppy is a common weed in Europe and is found in many locations, including Flanders, the setting of the famous poem "In Flanders Fields" by the Canadian surgeon and soldier John McCrae. In Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Africa and New Zealand, artificial poppies are worn to commemorate those who died in war; this form of commemoration is associated with Remembrance Day, which falls on November 11. In Canada and the UK, poppies are worn from the beginning of November through to the 11th, or Remembrance Sunday if that falls on a date. In New Zealand and Australia, soldiers are commemorated on ANZAC day, although the poppy is still worn around Remembrance Day. Wearing of poppies has been a custom since 1924 in the United States. Miss Moina Michael of G