A medal may be awarded to a person or organization as a form of recognition for sporting, scientific, academic, or various other achievements. Military awards and decorations are more precise terms for types of state decoration. Medals may be created for sale to commemorate particular individuals or events, an artist who creates medals or medallions is called a medallist or medalist. There are devotional medals which may be worn for religious reasons, Medals have long been popular collectible items either as a variety of exonumia or of militaria. Medallions may be called table medals because they are too large to be worn and can only be displayed on a wall, table top, the word medallion has the same ultimate derivation, but this time through the Italian medaglione, meaning large medal. The main or front surface of a medal is termed the obverse, the reverse, or back surface of the medal, is not always used and may be left blank or may contain a secondary design. It is not uncommon to only an artistic rendering on the obverse, while all details.
The rim is only occasionally employed to display an inscription such as a motto, privy mark, engraver symbol, assayer’s marking. Medals that are intended to be hung from a ribbon include a suspension piece at the crest with which to loop a suspension ring through. It is through the ring that a ribbon is run or folded so the medal may hang pendent, Medals pinned to the breast use only a small cut of ribbon that is attached to a top bar where the brooch pin is affixed. Top bars may be hidden under the ribbon so they are not visible, be a device from which the ribbon attaches. Some top bars are elaborate and contain a whole design unto themselves, Medals that are made with inexpensive material might be gilded, silver-plated, chased, or finished in a variety of other ways to improve their appearance. Medals have made of rock, ivory, porcelain, terra cotta, wood, enamel, lacquerware. Honorary awards, as a button, which it is custom to give the kings kinsmen. Roman emperors used both military awards of medals, and political gifts of medallions that were very large coins, usually in gold or silver.
Both these and actual golden coins were often set as pieces of jewellery, the bracteate is a type of thin gold medal, usually plain on the reverse, found in Northern Europe from the so-called Dark Ages or Migration Period. They often have suspension loops and were intended to be worn on a chain as jewellery. They imitate, at a distance, Roman imperial coins and medallions, the surviving example is mounted for wearing as jewellery
Culture of Poland
The culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate thousand-year history. Its unique character developed as a result of its geography at the confluence of various European regions, the people of Poland have traditionally been seen as hospitable to artists from abroad and eager to follow cultural and artistic trends popular in other countries. In the 19th and 20th centuries the Polish focus on cultural advancement often took precedence over political and these factors have contributed to the versatile nature of Polish art, with all its complex nuances. Nowadays, Poland is a developed country that retains its traditions. Cultural history of Poland can be traced back to the Middle Ages, Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which corresponds to the Latin alphabet with several additions, despite the pressure of non-Polish administrations in Poland, who have often attempted to suppress the Polish language, a rich literature has developed over the centuries.
The language is currently the largest, in speakers, of the West Slavic group and it is the second most widely spoken Slavic language, after Russian and ahead of Ukrainian. Polish is mainly spoken in Poland, Poland is one of the most linguistically homogeneous European countries, nearly 97% of Polands citizens declare Polish as their mother tongue. The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe in general, Polish philosophy drew upon the broader currents of European philosophy, and in turn contributed to their growth. The period of Messianism, between the November 1830 and January 1863 Uprisings, reflected European Romantic and Idealist trends, as well as a Polish yearning for political resurrection and it was a period of maximalist metaphysical systems. The collapse of the January 1863 Uprising prompted an agonizing reappraisal of Polands situation, Poles gave up their earlier practice of measuring their goals by their aspirations and buckled down to hard work and study.
The twentieth century brought a new quickening to Polish philosophy, there was growing interest in western philosophical currents. Rigorously trained Polish philosophers made substantial contributions to specialized fields—to psychology, the history of philosophy, the theory of knowledge, Jan Łukasiewicz gained world fame with his concept of many-valued logic and his Polish notation. Alfred Tarskis work in truth theory won him world renown, the phenomenologist Roman Ingarden did influential work in esthetics and in a Husserl-style metaphysics, his student Karol Wojtyła acquired a unique influence on the world stage as Pope John Paul II. Polish foods include kiełbasa, pyzy, kopytka, gołąbki, śledzie, schabowy and much more. In the Middle Ages, as the cities of Poland grew larger in size and the food markets developed, some regions became well known for the type of sausage they made and many sausages of today still carry those original names. The peasants acknowledged their honorable judgment, allowing them to maintain nourished for longer periods of time, the most important drink is vodka.
The worlds first written mention of the drink was in 1405 in Akta Grodzkie, at the time, the word vodka, referred to chemical compounds such as medicines and cosmetics cleansers, while the popular beverage was called gorzałka, which is the source of Ukrainian horilka