Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
A mockumentary or docucomedy is a type of movie or television show depicting fictional events but presented as a documentary. These productions are used to analyze or comment on current events and issues by using a fictional setting, or to parody the documentary form itself. While mockumentaries are comedic, pseudo-documentaries are their dramatic equivalents. However, pseudo-documentary should not be confused with docudrama, a fictional genre in which dramatic techniques are combined with documentary elements to depict real events. Docudrama is different from docufiction. Mockumentaries are presented as historical documentaries, with B roll and talking heads discussing past events, or as cinéma vérité pieces following people as they go through various events. Examples emerged during the 1950s when archival film footage became easy to locate. A early example was a short piece on the "Swiss Spaghetti Harvest" that appeared as an April fools' joke on the British television program Panorama in 1957.
The term "mockumentary", which originated in the 1960s, was popularized in the mid-1980s when This Is Spinal Tap director Rob Reiner used it in interviews to describe that film. Mockumentaries are partly or wholly improvised, as an unscripted style of acting helps to maintain the pretense of reality. Comedic mockumentaries have laugh tracks to sustain the atmosphere, although exceptions exist. Music "is employed to expose the ambiguities and fallacies of conventional storytelling. Early work, including Luis Buñuel's 1933 Land Without Bread, Orson Welles's 1938 radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds, various April Fools' Day news reports, vérité-style film and television during the 1960s and 1970s, served as precursor to the genre. Early examples of mock-documentaries include The Connection, A Hard Day's Night, 1964, David Holzman's Diary, 1967, Pat Paulsen for President, 1968, Take the Money and Run, 1969, The Clowns, 1970, by Federico Fellini, All You Need Is Cash, 1978. Albert Brooks was an early popularizer of the mockumentary style with his film Real Life, 1979, a spoof of a PBS documentary.
Woody Allen's Take the Money and Run is presented in documentary-style with Allen playing a fictional criminal, Virgil Starkwell, whose crime exploits are "explored" throughout the film. Jackson Beck, who used to narrate documentaries in the 1940s, provides the voice-over narration. Fictional interviews are interspliced throughout those of Starkwell's parents who wear Groucho Marx noses and mustaches; the style of this film was appropriated by others and revisited by Allen himself in films such as Zelig and Sweet and Lowdown. Early use of the mockumentary format in television comedy may be seen in several sketches from Monty Python's Flying Circus, such as "Hell's Grannies", "Piranha Brothers", "The Funniest Joke in the World"; the Hart and Lorne Terrific Hour featured mockumentary pieces which interspersed both scripted and real-life man-in-the-street interviews, the most famous being "The Puck Crisis" in which hockey pucks were claimed to have become infected with a form of Dutch elm disease.
All You Need Is Cash, developed from an early series of sketches in the comedy series Rutland Weekend Television, is a 1978 television film in mockumentary style about The Rutles, a fictional band that parodies The Beatles. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the mockumentary format has got considerable attention; the 1980 South African film The Gods Must be Crazy is presented in the manner of a nature documentary, with documentary narrator Paddy O'Byrne describing the events of the film in the manner of a biologist or anthropologist presenting scientific knowledge to viewers. In 1982, The Atomic Cafe is a Cold-War era American "mockumentary" film that made use of archival government footage from the 1950s. Woody Allen's 1983 film Zelig stars Allen as a curiously nondescript enigma, discovered for his remarkable ability to transform himself to resemble anyone he is near, Allen is edited into historical archive footage. In 1984, Christopher Guest co-wrote and starred in the mockumentary This is Spinal Tap, directed by Rob Reiner.
Guest went on to write and direct other mockumentaries including Waiting for Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, all written with costar Eugene Levy. Tim Robbins' 1992 film Bob Roberts was a mockumentary centered around the senatorial campaign of a right-wing stock trader and folksinger, the unsavory connections and dirty tricks used to defeat a long-term liberal incumbent played by Gore Vidal. Man Bites Dog is a 1992 Belgian black comedy crime mockumentary written and directed by Rémy Belvaux, André Bonzel, Benoît Poelvoorde. In 1995, Peter Jackson and Costa Botes directed Forgotten Silver, which claimed New Zealand "director" Colin McKenzie was a pioneer in filmmaking; when the film was revealed to be a mockumentary, Jackson received criticism for tricking viewers. In 1998, director Mike Clattenburg wrote and directed a short film titled One Last Shot, shot in black-and-white; the film followed the exploits, in documentary style, of Ricky and Julian, two criminals doing what they did just about every day.
In 1999 a sequel feature film Trailer Park Boys in black-and-white, was released. Both films serve a
Zofia Nałkowska was a Polish prose writer and prolific essayist. She served as the executive member of the prestigious Polish Academy of Literature during the interwar period. Nałkowska was born into a family of intellectuals dedicated to issues of social justice, studied at the clandestine Flying University under the Russian partition. Upon Poland's return to independence she became one of the country's most distinguished feminist writers of novels and stage-plays characterized by socio-realism and psychological depth. Nałkowska's first literary success was the Romans Teresy Hennert followed by a slew of popular novels, she is best known for the Węzły życia and Medaliony. In her writing, Nałkowska boldly tackled difficult and controversial subjects, professing in her 1932 article "Organizacja erotyzmu" published in the Wiadomości Literackie magazine – the premier literary periodical in Poland at the time – that:...a rational, intellectual approach to eroticism must be encouraged and strengthened, to allow for a consideration of eroticism in conjunction with other aspects of the life of the human community.
Eroticism is not a private matter of the individual. It has its ramifications within all domains of human life and it is not possible to separate it from them by way of contemptuous disparagement in the name of morality, discretion, or yet by a demotion on the hierarchy of subjects worthy of intellectual attention: it cannot be isolated by prudery or relegated to science for its purely biological dimension." Kobiety, translated by Michael Henry Dziewicki, 1920 Książę Rówieśnice Narcyza Noc podniebna Węże i róże Hrabia Emil Na torfowiskach Romans Teresy Hennert, translated by Megan Thomas and Ewa Malachowska-Pasek, 2014 Dom nad łąkami Choucas, translated by Ursula Phillips, 2014 Niedobra miłość Granica, translated by Ursula Phillips, 2016 Niecierpliwi Węzły życia Mój ojciec Medaliony, a collection of 8 short stories about German World War II atrocities in Poland Dom kobiet Dzień jego powrotu Renata Słuczańska Feminism in Poland List of feminist literature Mortkowicz-Olczakowa, Hanna. Bunt wspomnień.
Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Polish Wikipedia. Media related to Zofia Nałkowska at Wikimedia Commons Works by Zofia Nałkowska at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Zofia Nałkowska at Internet Archive
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Northwestern University Press
Northwestern University Press is affiliated with Northwestern University in Evanston, IL. It publishes 70 new titles each year in the areas of continental philosophy, Slavic studies, German studies, literary criticism, world classics, poetry, theater, critical ethnic studies and Chicago regional studies, it is a member of the Association of American University Presses. Founded in 1893, Northwestern University Press was dedicated to the publication of legal periodicals and scholarly legal texts. In 1957, the Press was established as a separate university publishing company and began expanding its offerings with new series in various fields. In 1963, the Press published Viola Spolin's landmark volume, Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of Teaching and Directing Techniques, which has sold more than 100,000 copies since its publication; the 1960s saw the beginnings of the Northwestern University Press-Newberry Library alliance in publishing the definitive edition of the writings of Herman Melville in conjunction with the Modern Language Association.
In 1992, Northwestern University Press and TriQuarterly magazine partnered to establish the TriQuarterly Books imprint, dedicated to contemporary American fiction and poetry. In 2010, Northwestern University Press acquired the publisher of international literature and Latin American voices, Curbstone Press. Northwestern University Press publishes a wide range of theater titles. Anchored by Viola Spolin's Improvisation for the Theater: A Handbook of Teaching and Directing Techniques, Northwestern's theater list includes works by Tony and Academy Award winners such as Mary Zimmerman, Tracy Letts, Bruce Norris, Horton Foote, as well as playwrights David Ives and Craig Wright; the Press has received many accolades, including major translation awards for Fyodor Dostoevsky's Writer's Diary: Volume I, 1873–1876, translated by Kenneth Lantz. In 1997 the Press won the National Book Award for Poetry for William Meredith's Effort at Speech, followed by a 2011 win for Nikky Finney's Head Off & Split. Several of the Press's titles, including Fording the Stream of Consciousness, Still Waters in Niger, The Book of Hrabal, have been named Notable Books by the New York Times Book Review.
Florida, a novel by Christine Schutt, was a finalist for a National Book Award in 2004. The Press published two novels by the winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize for Literature, Hungarian author Imre Kertész. Northwestern University Press published Herta Müller's novel Traveling on One Leg which won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2009. NU Press's "Forest Primeval" won the 2017 Kingsley Tufts Poetry Award, Patricia Smith's "Incendiary Art" won the same award in 2019. For "Incendiary Art," Patricia Smith won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for poetry in 2018. Official website of Northwestern University Press
Rudolf Spanner was Director of the Danzig Anatomical Institute during World War II. On his own initiative, he set up a process to produce soap from human fat in 1943-44 and a limited quantity of the soap was produced on his order to clean autopsy rooms. During the Nuremberg Trials, Sigmund Mazur, a laboratory assistant at the Danzig Anatomical Institute, testified that soap had been made from corpse fat, claimed that 70 to 80 kg of fat collected from 40 bodies could produce more than 25 kg of soap, that the finished soap was retained by Professor Rudolf Spanner. Eyewitnesses included British POWs who were part of the forced labor that constructed the camp, Dr. Stanislaw Byczkowski, head of the Department of Toxicology at the Danzig School of Medicine. Suggested sources for the fat include Stutthof concentration camp, Danzig Municipal Jail, a Danzig psychiatric hospital; the total of "human soap" produced by Rudolph Spanner is estimated at "somewhere between 10 and 100 kilograms" "Aaron Breitbart, a senior researcher at the Simon Wiesenthal Center, agreed that the evidence is thin.'The leading scholars of the Holocaust are of the opinion that the Nazis did not make soap,' he says.'It was a cruel rumor at the camps.'".
Holocaust survivor Thomas Blatt, who investigated the subject, found little concrete documentation and no evidence of mass production of soap from human fat, but concluded that there was indeed evidence of experimental soap making
Nazi crimes against the Polish nation
Crimes against the Polish nation committed by Nazi Germany and collaborationist forces during the invasion of Poland, along with auxiliary battalions during the subsequent occupation of Poland in World War II, consisted of the systematic extermination of Jewish Poles and the murder of millions of ethnic Poles. The Germans justified these genocides on the basis of Nazi racial theory, which depicted Jews as a constant threat and regarded Poles and other Slavs as racially inferior Untermenschen. By 1942 the Nazis were implementing their plan to kill every Jew in German-occupied Europe, had developed plans to eliminate the Polish people, through mass murder, ethnic cleansing and extermination through labor, as well as the assimilation into German identity of a small minority of Poles regarded as racially valuable. During World War II the Germans not only murdered millions of Jewish and non-Jewish Poles, but ethnically cleansed millions more ethnic Poles through forced deportation to make room for racially superior German settlers.
The genocides claimed the lives of 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews and 1.8 to 2.77 million non-Jewish ethnic Poles, according to the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance and various academics. These large death tolls, the absence of substantial civilian deaths among non-Jews in "racially superior" occupied countries such as Denmark and France, attest to the genocidal policies directed against the Poles; the genocidal policies of the German government's colonization plan, Generalplan Ost, were the epicenter of German war crimes against the Polish nation, crimes against humanity, committed from 1939 to 1945. The original assumptions of the Nazi master plans entailed the expulsion and mass extermination of some 85 percent of Poland's ethnically-Polish citizens, with the remaining 15 percent to be turned into slave labor. In 2000, by an Act of the Polish Parliament, dissemination of knowledge on World War II Nazi German and Stalinist Soviet crimes in Poland was entrusted to the Institute of National Remembrance, formed in Warsaw two years prior.
From the start of the war against Poland, Germany intended to realize Adolf Hitler's plan, set out in his book Mein Kampf, to acquire "living space" in the east for massive settlement of German colonists. Hitler's plan combined classic imperialism with Nazi racial ideology. On 22 August 1939, just before the invasion of Poland, Hitler gave explicit permission to his commanders to kill "without pity or mercy, all men and children of Polish descent or language."Ethnic cleansing was to be conducted systematically against the Polish people. On 7 September 1939 Reinhard Heydrich stated that all Polish nobles and Jews were to be killed. On 12 September Wilhelm Keitel added Poland's intelligentsia to the list. On 15 March 1940 SS chief Heinrich Himmler stated: "All Polish specialists will be exploited in our military-industrial complex. All Poles will disappear from this world, it is imperative that the great German nation consider the elimination of all Polish people as its chief task." At the end of 1940 Hitler confirmed the plan to liquidate "all leading elements in Poland".
Less than a year before the outbreak of war, on 1 October 1938 the German Army rolled into the Sudetenland in accordance with the Munich Agreement. The operation was completed by 10 October. Two weeks on 24 October 1938 Ribbentrop summoned Polish ambassador to Berchtesgaden and presented him with Hitler's Gesamtlösung regarding the Polish Corridor and the Free City of Danzig. Ambassador Lipski refused. Three days the first mass deportation of Polish nationals from Nazi Germany began, it was the eviction of Jews. On 9–10 November 1938, the Kristallnacht attack was carried out by the SA paramilitary forces; the round-up included 2,000 ethnic Poles working there. Before the invasion of Poland, the Nazis prepared a detailed list identifying more than 61,000 Polish targets by name, with the help of the German minority living in the Second Polish Republic; the list was printed secretly as the 192-page-book called Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen, composed only of names and birthdates. It included politicians, actors, doctors, nobility, priests and numerous others – as the means at the disposal of the SS paramilitary death squads aided by Selbstschutz executioners.
The first Einsatzgruppen of World War II were formed by the SS in the course of the invasion. They were deployed behind the front lines to execute groups of people considered, by virtue of their social status, to be capable of abetting resistance efforts against the Germans; the most used lie justifying indiscriminate killings by the mobile action squads was made-up claim of purported attack on German forces. In total, about 150,000 to 200,000 Poles lost their lives during the one-month September Campaign of 1939, characterized by the indiscriminate and deliberate targeting of civilian population by the invading forces. Over 100,000 Poles died like those at Wielun. Massive air raids were conducted on towns; the town of Frampol, near Lublin, was bombed on 13 September as a test subject for Luftwaffe bombing technique. Frampol was hit by 70 tonnes of munitions, which destroyed up to 90% of buildings and killed half of its inhabitants. Columns of fleeing refugee