Maserati Tipo 61
The Maserati Tipo 61 is a sports racing car of the early 1960s. The car was produced between 1959 and 1961 by Maserati for racing in sports car events including the 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance classic, it used an intricate tubular space frame chassis, containing about 200 chro-moly steel tubes welded together, hence the nickname "Birdcage". This method of construction provided a more rigid and, at the same time, lighter chassis than other sports cars of the time. By recessing the windscreen base into the bodywork, Maserati was able to reduce the effect of new Le Mans rules demanding a tall windscreen; the Camoradi team became famous racing the Tipo 61s but, despite being competitive, the Birdcage was somewhat unreliable and retired from many races due to problems with the drivetrain. A modern car - the Maserati MC12 is available only in white and blue to serve as a tribute to the Tipo 61 and the Camoradi racing team; the Tipo 61 was unveiled in 1959 when Stirling Moss won its first race, attracting the attention of Lloyd "Lucky" Casner.
Casner founded the Casner Motor Racing Division who raced three Tipo 61's in the 1960 24 Hours of Le Mans. The Tipos never won Le Mans due to reliability issues, however in both 1960 and 1961 the Camoradi team won the 1000 km Nürburgring; the Tipo 61 was the most well known model but Giulio Alfieri designed 5 different models, all based on an intricate multi-tubular frame concept. This multi-tubular construction produced a light weight and rigid chassis, a significant competitive advantage for a racing car. All models included 4-wheel disc brakes and 5-speed transmission. A De Dion type rear axle was used on the Tipo 60 and 61. Tipo 60 featured a small 2-liter 4-cylinder engine of 200 hp, located in the front and tilted over at a 45° angle for a lower center of gravity; the weight was 570 kg and the car had at a maximum speed of 270 km/h. Tipo 61 featured a 2.9-liter 4-cylinder engine of 250 hp, located in the front at a 45° angle for a weight of 600 kg pushing the car at a speed of 285 km/h. The mid-engined Birdcage cars began with the Tipo 63.
Maserati now changed to a mid-engine configuration using a similar multi-tubular chassis construction. The rear suspension was changed to an independent double wishbone configuration; the Tipo 63 through 65 cars have been described as a "historian's nightmare". Maserati was in difficult financial circumstances and Giulio Alfieri was trying to build a competitive car on a low budget, he would retrieve various engines from the Maserati parts bins. He had them modified and installed in the ten various chassis that were constructed; the Tipo 63 was raced with four-cylinder and twelve-cylinder engines and the chassis was radically redesigned when the first version proved less competitive than the Tipo 61. The definitive reference for this complex and confusing era is the book: "Maserati Tipo 63, 64, 65: Birdcage to Supercage" written by Willem Oosthoek. Tipo 63 first used a 4-cylinder engine similar to the Tipo 61 and a V12 engine from the Formula One 1957 Maserati 250F. Tipo 63 cars raced in 1961 with both engines, placing 4th at the 24 hours of Le Mans with Briggs Cunningham's team.
And Count Volpi’s Scuderia Serenissima hired Medardo Fantuzzi to modify one of their Tipo 63 cars with a longer nose and a fin behind the driver. Tipo 64 featured the same 3-liter V12 as the Tipo 63 with an upgraded frame - nicknamed "Supercage". Tipo 65 featured a V8 engine of 5 liters delivering about 430 hp pushing the car at 350 km/h. Only one car was built using a modified Tipo 63 chassis; the Maserati Birdcage 75th is a concept car to honor both the Birdcage and the 75th anniversary of Pininfarina. It features a 700 bhp V12 engine; the Marvelous Tipo 61 Racing Car 1960 Maserati Birdcage Tipo 61 Restoration and FIA Documents Birdcage #2469 1960 Riverside Winner Photos Birdcage Period Racing Photos Tipo 63 - history from start to finish The racing history of the Maserati Birdcage cars Maserati Birdcage Tipo 61 2459
Maserati 200S were twenty-eight racing cars made by Maserati of Italy, to take over for the aging Maserati A6 GCS racing variants. The Tipo 52 development started in 1952, led by Giulio Alfieri; the car had a 1994.3 cc inline-four cylinder light-alloy engine, dual OHV per cylinder and DOHC camshafts, double Weber 50DCO3 or 45DCO3 carburetors. It output 190 PS at 7500 rpm. Many chassis components were identical to the Maserati 150S, except the rigid rear axle inherited from the Maserati A6. Maserati outsourced a tubular chassis to Gilco; the first five aluminum bodies were, as for the Maserati 150S, by Celestino Fiandri, the 23 final by Medardo Fantuzzi. No wins were seen in its first year of 1955, first by Franco Bordoni at the 1955 San Marino Grand Prix, followed by Giovanni Bracco and Bordoni at the 1955 Targa Florio. Driver Benoît Nicolas Musy died in a 200S at ` Autodrome de France. In 1957 the name was changed to Maserati 200SI, Sport Internazionale, to signify its conformance to international sports car racing rules.
In 1958 the engine was made bigger and the car was named as 250S. The car scored a resounding victory with Stirling Moss at the wheel during the 1956 Trofeo Supercortemaggiore, he beat four Ferrari 500TRs and described the car as “very quick on twisty circuits” and “handled nicely”. Maserati-alfieri.co.uk on the 200S Karl Ludvigsen, Maserati 200S/200SI
De Tomaso Modena SpA was an Italian car-manufacturing company. It was founded by the Argentine-born Alejandro de Tomaso in Modena in 1959, it produced various prototypes and racing cars, including a Formula One car for Frank Williams's team in 1970. Most of the funding for the automaker came from de Tomaso's brother-in-law, Armory Haskell Jr, Rowan Industries. In 1971, Ford acquired an 84% stake in De Tomaso from Rowan with Alejandro de Tomaso himself holding the balance. Ford would sell back their stake in the automaker in 1974 to Alejandro; the blue and white stripes of the logo's background are the colors of the national flag of Argentina. The symbol in the foreground that looks like a letter "T" is the cattle branding symbol of the Ceballos estate where Alejandro grew up; the company went on to develop and produce both sports cars and luxury vehicles, most notably the Ford-powered Italian-bodied Mangusta and Pantera grand tourers. From 1976 to 1993 De Tomaso owned Italian sports car maker Maserati, was responsible for producing cars including the Biturbo, the Kyalami, Quattroporte III, the Chrysler TC.
De Tomaso owned motorcycle company Moto Guzzi from 1973 to 1993. De Tomaso went into liquidation in 2004. By 2008 a buyer was being sought for the De Tomaso factory and trademarks, as per the court-appointed liquidators. In 2009 Gian Mario Rossignolo bought the De Tomaso trademark and founded a new company named De Tomaso Automobili SpA. Rossignolo planned to assemble chassis and bodies in one of Delphi Automotive's old production facilities in Livorno and to fit bodywork and finish its cars in the former Pininfarina factory in Grugliasco. In May 2012, De Tomaso was again for sale after their business plan failed to gather sufficient financial backing. In July 2012, Rossignolo was arrested following allegations that he misused €7,500,000 worth of government funds. In September 2012, speculation emerged that BMW might be interested in the brand factory to produce new BMW models. In 2014 the original workshop in Modena was in abandonment. In April 2015 an Italian bankruptcy court approved the sale of the company to China's Consolidated Ideal TeamVenture, for €1,050,000.
Per that sale report "A lawyer for the buyer announced that Ideal TeamVenture plans to produce cars in China bearing the De Tomaso name." De Tomaso's first road-going production model was the Vallelunga introduced in 1963. This mid-engined sports car had a 104 bhp Ford Cortina engine, reached a top speed of 215 km/h, it had an aluminium backbone chassis, to become a common feature of De Tomaso cars. The first 5 cars were produced in aluminium; the Mangusta, introduced in 1966 was the first De Tomaso produced in significant numbers. With the Mangusta, De Tomaso moved from European to American Ford engines; the car had a 4.7-litre iron-block V8 engine and steel and aluminium coupé bodywork from Ghia—an Italian coachbuilder controlled by Alejandro de Tomaso. About 400 Mangustas were built before production ended in 1971; the Mangusta was succeeded by the Pantera. It appeared in 1971 with a 351 Cleveland Ford V8 and a low, wedge-shaped body designed by Ghia's Tom Tjaarda. Through an agreement with Ford, De Tomaso sold Panteras in the USA through Ford's Lincoln and Mercury dealers.
Between 1971 and 1973, 6,128 Panteras were produced in Modena, the largest number of a single marque of De Tomaso produced. The 1973 oil crisis and other factors compelled Ford to pull out of the Pantera deal at the end of 1973, a few months after buying all De Tomaso's shares and getting control of the entire production process in the three factories that shared the workload in northern Italy, but the Argentinian retained from Ford the right to produce the car for the "rest of the world" market, so he continued Pantera production at a reduced scale of less than 100 cars per year during the 1970s and 1980s. From on, the cars were hand-built more than before. Incorporating a Marcello Gandini facelift, suspension redesign, partial chassis redesign and a new, smaller Ford engine, the Pantera 90 Si model was introduced in 1990. There were 41 90 Si models manufactured with 2 crash tested, 38 sold, 1 example went directly into a museum before the Pantera was phased out in 1993 to make way for the radical, carbon-fibre-bodied Guarà.
The Guarà was De Tomaso's most recent production car, produced beginning in 1993. The Guarà was designed by Carlo Gaino of an Italian design house. Based on a Maserati competition car from 1991, using Ford and BMW parts in a composite body, the Guarà s available in coupé and barchetta versions; as with all De Tomasos except the Pantera, production has been both sporadic. In the early 2000s two other cars were planned by De Tomaso. A two-seat Gandini-styled convertible, the Biguà, was developed from a 1996 Geneva concept in partnership with Qvale, an American firm which had long imported European sports cars into the USA, but as production of the Biguà—renamed the Mangusta—began, the relationship between De Tomaso and Qvale soured. Production was short-lived, Qvale's Italian factory was bought in 2003 by MG Rover and the Mangusta mechanics used as the basis of the MG XPower SV. In April 2002, De Tomaso began a project to build off-road vehicles in a new factory in Calabria in partnership with the Russian company UAZ, but this too foundered.
The deal projected a production rate of 10,000 cars a year by 2006: however, no cars were built and De Tomaso wen
The Ferrari 250 is a series of sports cars and grand tourers built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The company's most successful early line, the 250 series includes many variants designed for road use or sports car racing. 250 series cars are characterized by their use of a 3.0 litres Colombo V12 engine designed by Giaoccino Colombo. They were replaced by the 330 series cars. Most 250 road cars share the same two wheelbases, 2,400 mm for short wheelbase and 2,600 mm for long wheelbase. Most convertibles used the SWB type. Nearly all 250s share the same Colombo Tipo 125 V12 engine. At 2,953 cc, it was notable for its light weight and impressive output of up to 300 PS in the Testa Rossa and GTO; the V12 weighed hundreds of pounds less than its chief competitors — for example, it was nearly half the weight of the Jaguar XK straight-6. Ferrari uses the displacement of a single cylinder as the model designation; the light V12 propelled the small Ferrari 250 racing cars to numerous victories. Typical of Ferrari, the Colombo V12 made its debut on the race track, with the racing 250s preceding the street cars by three years.
The first 250 was the experimental 250 S berlinetta prototype entered in the 1952 Mille Miglia for Giovanni Bracco and Alfonso Rolfo. The Mercedes-Benz W194 racers of Rudolf Caracciola, Hermann Lang, Karl Kling were faster on the long straights but the 230 PS Ferrari made up sufficient ground in the hills and curves to win the race; the car was entered at Le Mans and in the Carrera Panamericana. The 250 S used a 2,250 mm wheelbase with a "Tuboscocca" tubular trellis frame. Suspension was by double wishbones at the front, with double longitudinal semi-elliptic springs locating the live axle at the rear; the car had the drum brakes and worm-and-sector steering typical of the period. The dry-sump 3.0 L engine used three Weber 36DCF carburettors and was mated directly to a five-speed manual transmission. Following the success of the 250 S in the Mille Miglia, Ferrari showed a more conventional chassis for the new 250 engine at the 1952 Paris Motor Show. Pinin Farina created coupé bodywork which had a small grille, compact tail and panoramic rear window, the new car was launched as the 250 MM at the 1953 Geneva Motor Show.
Carrozzeria Vignale's open barchetta version was an innovative design whose recessed headlights and side vents became a Ferrari staple for the 1950s. The 250 MM's wheelbase was longer than the 250 S at 2,400 mm, with the coupé 50 kg heavier than the 850 kg barchetta; the V12 engine's dry sump was omitted from the production car, the transmission was reduced by one gear. Power was increased to 240 PS; the four-cylinder 625 TF and 735 S replaced the V12-powered 250 MM in 1953. The 250 MM's race debut was at the 1953 Giro di Sicilia with privateer Paulo Marzotto. A Carrozzeria Morelli-bodied 250 MM barchetta driven by Clemente Biondetti came fourth in the 1954 Mille Miglia; the 1954 250 Monza was an unusual hybrid of the 250 line. The model used the 250 engine in the short-wheelbase chassis from the 750 Monza; the first two used the Pininfarina barchetta shape of a one-off 500 Mondial. Two more 250 Monzas were built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, an early use of the now-familiar coachbuilder. Although a frequent entrant through 1956, the 250 Monzas failed to gain much success and the union of the Monza chassis and 250 engine was not pursued beyond this model.
The racing 250 Testa Rossa was one of the most successful Ferrari racing cars in its history, with three wins at Le Mans, four wins at Sebring, two wins at Buenos Aires. One example sold at auction for a record-breaking $16.39 million. The 250 GTO was produced from 1962 to 1964 for homologation into the FIA's Group 3 Grand Touring Car category. GTO stands for "Gran Turismo Omologato", Italian for "Homologated Grand Tourer"; when new, the GTO sold for $18,500 in the United States, buyers had to be approved by Enzo Ferrari and his dealer for North America, Luigi Chinetti. In May 2012, the 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO chassis number 3505GT sold by an auction for US$38,115,000. In October 2013, the 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO chassis number 5111GT sold by Connecticut-based collector Paul Pappalardo to an unnamed buyer in a private transaction for US$52 million. Thirty-six cars were made in 1962 and 1963. In 1964 the Series II was introduced. Three such cars were made, four older Series I cars were given a Series II body.
It brought the total number of GTOs produced to 39. In 2004, Sports Car International placed the 250 GTO eighth on a list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, nominated it the top sports car of all time. Motor Trend Classic placed it first on a list of the "Greatest Ferraris of all time"; the 250 P was a prototype racer produced in 1963, winning that year's 12 Hours of Sebring, 1000 km Nürburgring and the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The 250 P used an engine derived from the 250 Testa Rossa, mounted in a rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive configuration; the mid-engined 250 Le Mans looked much the prototype racer but was intended for production as a road-going GT. Descended from the 250 P, the Le Mans appeared in 1963 and sported Pininfarina bodywork. Ferrari was unable to persuade the FIA that he would build the 100 examples required to homologate the car for GT racing. 32 LMs were built up to 1965. As a result, Ferrari withdrew from factory participation in the GT class of the 1965 World Sportscar Championship, allowing the Shelby Cobra team to dominate.
A 250LM, competing in the Prototype category, won the 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans. Only the early LM's were true 25
Maserati is an Italian luxury vehicle manufacturer established on 1 December 1914, in Bologna. The Maserati tagline is "Luxury and style cast in exclusive cars", the brand's mission statement is to "Build ultra-luxury performance automobiles with timeless Italian style, accommodating bespoke interiors, effortless, signature sounding power"; the company's headquarters are now in Modena, its emblem is a trident. It has been owned by the Italian-American car giant Fiat Chrysler Automobiles and FCA's Italian predecessor Fiat S.p. A. since 1993. Maserati was associated with Ferrari S.p. A., owned by FCA until being spun off in 2015, but more it has become part of the sports car group including Alfa Romeo and Abarth. In May 2014, due to ambitious plans and product launches, Maserati sold a record of over 3,000 cars in one month; this caused them to increase production of the Ghibli models. In addition to the Ghibli and Quattroporte, Maserati offers the Maserati GranTurismo, the GranTurismo Convertible, has confirmed that it will be offering the Maserati Levante, the first Maserati SUV, in 2016, the Maserati Alfieri, a new 2+2 in 2016.
Maserati is placing a production output cap at 75,000 vehicles globally. The Maserati brothers, Bindo, Carlo and Ernesto, were all involved with automobiles from the beginning of the 20th century. Alfieri and Ernesto built 2-litre Grand Prix cars for Diatto. In 1926, Diatto suspended the production of race cars, leading to the creation of the first Maserati and the founding of the Maserati marque. One of the first Maseratis, driven by Alfieri, won the 1926 Targa Florio. Maserati began making race cars with 4, 6, 8, 16 cylinders; the trident logo of the Maserati car company is based on the Fountain of Neptune in Bologna's Piazza Maggiore. In 1920, one of the Maserati brothers, artist Mario, used this symbol in the logo at the suggestion of family friend Marquis Diego de Sterlich, it was considered appropriate for the sports car company due to fact that Neptune represents strength and vigour. Alfieri Maserati died in 1932, but three other brothers, Bindo and Ettore, kept the firm going, building cars that won races.
In 1937, the remaining Maserati brothers sold their shares in the company to the Adolfo Orsi family, who in 1940, relocated the company headquarters to their home town of Modena, where it remains to this day. The brothers continued in engineering roles with the company. Racing successes continued against the giants of German racing, Auto Union and Mercedes. In back-to-back wins in 1939 and 1940, an 8CTF won the Indianapolis 500, the only Italian manufacturer to do so; the war intervened and Maserati abandoned car making to produce components for the Italian war effort. During this time, Maserati worked in fierce competition to construct a V16 town car for Benito Mussolini before Ferry Porsche of Volkswagen built one for Adolf Hitler; this failed, the plans were scrapped. Once peace was restored, Maserati returned to making cars. Key people joined the Maserati team. Alberto Massimino, a former Fiat engineer with both Alfa Romeo and Ferrari experience, oversaw the design of all racing models for the next ten years.
With him joined engineers Giulio Alfieri, Vittorio Bellentani, Gioacchino Colombo. The focus was on the best chassis to succeed in car racing; these new projects saw the last contributions of the Maserati brothers, who after their 10-year contract with Orsi expired went on to form O. S. C. A.. This new team at Maserati worked on several projects: the 4CLT, the A6 series, the 8CLT, pivotally for the future success of the company, the A6GCS; the famous Argentinian driver Juan-Manuel Fangio raced for Maserati for a number of years in the 1950s, producing a number of stunning victories including winning the world championship in 1957 in the 250F. Other racing projects in the 1950s were the 200S, 300S, 350S, 450S, followed in 1961 by the famous Tipo 61. Maserati retired from factory racing participation because of the Guidizzolo tragedy during the 1957 Mille Miglia, though they continued to build cars for privateers. Maserati became more focused on building road-going grand tourers; the 1957 3500 GT marked a turning point in the marque's history, as its first ground-up grand tourer design and first series produced car.
Production jumped from a dozen to a few hundreds cars a year. Chief engineer Giulio Alfieri took charge of the project, turned the 3.5 L inline six from the 350S into a road-going engine. Launched with a Carrozzeria Touring 2+2 coupé aluminium body over superleggera structure, a steel-bodied short wheelbase Vignale 3500 GT Convertibile open top version followed in 1960; the 3500 GT's success, with over 2200 made, was critical to Maserati's survival in the years following withdrawal from racing. The 3500 GT provided the underpinnings for the small-volume V8-engined 5000 GT, another seminal car for Maserati. Born from the Shah of Persia's whim of owning a road car powered by the Maserati 450S racing engine, it became one of the fastest and most expensive cars of its days; the third to the thirty-fourth and last example produced were powered by Maserati's first purely road-going V8 engine design. In 1962, the 3500 GT evolved into the Sebring, bodied by Vignale and based on the Convertibile chassis.
Next came the two-seater Mistral coupé in 1963 and Spider in 1964, both six-cylinder powered and styled by Pietro Frua. In 1963, the company's first saloon arrived, the Quattroporte styled by Frua. If the 500
The Ferrari 330 was a series of V12 powered automobiles produced by Ferrari in 2+2 GT Coupé, two-seat Berlinetta and race car versions between 1963 and 1968. The first, the 2+2 330 America, was a 250 GT/E with a larger 3.3 litre engine. Production ended in 1968 with the introduction of the Ferrari 365 series. All 330 models used an evolution of the 400 Superamerica's 4.0 L Colombo V12 engine. It was changed, with wider bore spacing and an alternator replacing a generator; the 1963 330 America shared the outgoing 250 GTE's chassis but not its engine, being powered by the new 4.0 L Tipo 209 V12, with 300 hp at 6600 rpm. As for the 250-series, "330" refers to the approximate displacement of each single cylinder. Like the 250 GTE the 330 America fitted 185VR15 Pirelli Cinturato tyres About 50 330 Americas were built before being replaced by the larger 330 GT 2+2; the provisional 330 America was replaced in January 1964 by the new 330 GT 2+2. It was first shown at the Brussels Show, early that year.
It was much more than a re-engined 250, with a sharper nose and tail, quad headlights, a wide grille. The wheelbase was 50 mm longer. A dual-circuit Dunlop braking system was used with discs all around, though it separated brakes front to back rather than diagonally as on modern systems; when leaving the factory the 330 GT fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres. The 1965 Series II version featured a five-speed gearbox instead of the overdrive four-speed of the prior year. Other changes included the switch back to a dual-light instead of quad-light front, alloy wheels, the addition of optional air conditioning and power steering. Prior to the introduction of the'Series II' 330 GTs, a series of 125'interim' cars were produced, with the quad-headlight external configuration of the Series I cars, but with the five-speed transmission and'suspended' foot pedals of the'Series II' cars. 625 Series I and 455 Series II 330 GT 2+2 cars had been built when the car was replaced by the 365 GT 2+2 in 1967. Production of the smaller 330 GTC and GTS models overlapped with the GT 2+2 for more than a year.
The 330 GTC and 330 GTS were more like their 275 counterparts than the 330 GT 2+2. They shared the short wheelbase of the 275 as well as its independent rear suspension & the same tyres 205VR14 Michelin XWX; these models were more refined than earlier Ferraris and easier to drive. It has been stated that this "was the first Ferrari in which you could enjoy a radio"; the GTC berlinetta was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March, 1966. It was a two-seater coupé with a Pininfarina-designed body. A 1967 GTC was given one-off bodywork by Zagato at the behest of American importer Luigi Chinetti in 1974; this car was called the "Zagato Convertibile". The GTS spider followed at the Paris Motor Show. About 600 coupés and 100 spiders were produced before the 1968 introduction of the 365 GTC and GTS. In the early 1970s, Ferrari allowed Swiss specialist Felber to use the Ferrari name on a retro roadster using 330 GTC underpinnings. Six or seven examples of the Felber FF were built between 1974 and 1977, with hand-made aluminium bodywork by Panther Westwinds, who helped develop the car.
Four 330 LMB GT racing cars were built in 1963. This model is known as the 330 LM. First presented in March 1963 alongside the mid-engined 250 P, they were a development of the 250 GTOs and fitted with the 4-litre 330 engine, here rated at 390 hp at 7,500 rpm. Although the front is visually similar to the 250 GTOs, the main structure came from the 250 Lusso; the four 330 LMBs are distinct from the three 1962 330 GTOs. The wheelbase, at 2,420 mm, was 20 mm longer than either the Lusso's or the GTO's; the raised plates on the top of the rear fenders were necessary to clear the rear tires. The 330 LMB did not see much racing, as Ferrari was moving over to the mid-engined layout for racing. One retired at Sebring 1963, while of three starters at Le Mans that year, two retired and the car of Jack Sears and Mike Salmon came in fifth. After this, the LMB saw no more works entries. Four models of mid-engined racing cars used the 330 engine and name as well — the 330 P/P2/P3/P4 range of the mid 1960s; the 330 P4 had 450 hp at 8000 rpm, which combined with its low weight of 792 kg resulted in a top speed of 320 km/h.
Eaton, the Editors of Consumer Guide, eds. Ferrari: The Sports/Racing and Road Cars, New York, NY: Beekman House, ISBN 0-517-381982CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Eaton, The Complete Ferrari, London: Cadogan Books, pp. 92f. 131–135, 140–150, 163/164, 353f. ISBN 0-947754-10-5 330 GT Registry