The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
SS Great Britain
SS Great Britain is a museum ship and former passenger steamship, advanced for her time. She was the longest passenger ship in the world from 1845 to 1854, she was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, for the Great Western Steamship Company's transatlantic service between Bristol and New York. While other ships had been built of iron or equipped with a screw propeller, the Great Britain was the first to combine these features in a large ocean-going ship, she was the first iron steamer to cross the Atlantic, which she did in the time of 14 days. The ship has a 3,400-ton displacement, she was powered by two inclined 2 cylinder engines of the direct-acting type, with twin 88 in bore, 6-foot stroke cylinders. She was provided with secondary masts for sail power; the four decks provided accommodation for a crew of 120, plus 360 passengers who were provided with cabins, dining and promenade saloons. When launched in 1843, Great Britain was by far the largest vessel afloat, but her protracted construction time of six years and high cost had left her owners in a difficult financial position, they were forced out of business in 1846, having spent all their remaining funds refloating the ship after she ran aground at Dundrum Bay in County Down near Newcastle in what is now Northern Ireland, after a navigation error.
In 1852 she was repaired. Great Britain carried thousands of immigrants to Australia from 1852 until being converted to all-sail in 1881. Three years she was retired to the Falkland Islands, where she was used as a warehouse, quarantine ship and coal hulk until she was scuttled and sunk in 1937, 98 years since being laid down at the start of her construction. In 1970, after lying under water and abandoned for 33 years half a world away, Sir Jack Arnold Hayward, OBE paid for the vessel to be raised and repaired enough to be towed north through the Atlantic back to the United Kingdom, returned to the Bristol dry dock where she had been built 127 years earlier. Hayward was a prominent businessman, developer and owner of the English football club Wolverhampton Wanderers. Now listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, the Great Britain is a visitor attraction and museum ship in Bristol Harbour, with between 150,000 and 200,000 visitors annually. After the initial success of its first liner, SS Great Western of 1838, the Great Western Steamship Company collected materials for a sister ship, tentatively named City of New York.
The same engineering team that had collaborated so on Great Western—Isambard Brunel, Thomas Guppy, Christopher Claxton and William Patterson—was again assembled. This time however, whose reputation was at its height, came to assert overall control over design of the ship—a state of affairs that would have far-reaching consequences for the company. Construction was carried out in a specially adapted dry dock in England. Two chance encounters were to profoundly affect the design of Great Britain. In late 1838, John Laird's 213-foot English Channel packet ship Rainbow—the largest iron-hulled ship in service—made a stop at Bristol. Brunel despatched his associates Christopher Claxton and William Patterson to make a return voyage to Antwerp on Rainbow to assess the utility of the new building material. Both men returned as converts to iron-hulled technology, Brunel scrapped his plans to build a wooden ship and persuaded the company directors to build an iron-hulled ship. Great Britain's builders recognised a number of advantages of iron over the traditional wooden hull.
Wood was becoming more expensive. Iron hulls were not subject to dry rot or woodworm, they were lighter in weight and less bulky; the chief advantage of the iron hull was its much greater structural strength. The practical limit on the length of a wooden-hulled ship is about 300 feet, after which hogging—the flexing of the hull as waves pass beneath it—becomes too great. Iron hulls are far less subject to hogging, so that the potential size of an iron-hulled ship is much greater; the ship's designers, led by Brunel, were cautious in the adaptation of their plans to iron hulled-technology. With each successive draft however, the ship grew larger and bolder in conception. By the fifth draft, the vessel had grown to 3,400 tons, over 1,000 tons larger than any ship in existence. In early 1840, a second chance encounter occurred, the arrival of the revolutionary SS Archimedes at Bristol, the first screw-propelled steamship, completed only a few months before by F. P. Smith's Propeller Steamship Company.
Brunel had been looking into methods of improving the performance of Great Britain's paddlewheels, took an immediate interest in the new technology. Smith, sensing a prestigious new customer for his own company, agreed to lend Archimedes to Brunel for extended tests. Over several months and Brunel tested a number of different propellers on Archimedes to find the most efficient design, a four-bladed model submitted by Smith. Having satisfied himself as to the advantages of screw propulsion, Brunel wrote to the company directors to persuade them to embark on a second major design change, abandoning the paddlewheel engines—already half constructed—for new engines suitable for powering a propeller. Brunel listed the advantages of the screw propeller over the paddlewheel as follows: Screw propulsion machinery was lighter in weight, thus improving fuel economy.
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
The tall ship Elissa is a three-masted barque. She is moored in Galveston, is one of the oldest ships sailing today. Launched in 1877, she is now a museum ship at the Texas Seaport Museum, she was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1990. Elissa was built in Aberdeen, Scotland as a merchant vessel in a time when steamships were overtaking sailing ships, she was launched on October 27, 1877. She was named for the niece of Henry Fowler Watt, Elissa's first owner, though according to his descendants the ship was named for the Queen of Carthage, Aeneas' tragic lover in the epic poem The Aeneid. Elissa sailed under Norwegian and Swedish flags. In Norway she was known as the Fjeld of Tønsberg and her master was Captain Herman Andersen. In Sweden her name was Gustav of Gothenburg. In 1918, she was converted into a two-masted brigantine and an engine was installed, she was reconverted into a schooner. In 1959, she was sold to Greece, successively sailed under the names Christophoros, in 1967 as Achaeos, in 1969 as Pioneer.
In 1970, she was rescued from destruction in Piraeus after being purchased for the San Francisco Maritime Museum. However, she languished in a salvage yard in Piraeus until she was purchased for $40,000, in 1975, by the Galveston Historical Foundation, her current owners. In 1979, after a year in Greece having repairs done to her hull, Elissa was first towed to Gibraltar. There, she was prepared for an ocean tow by Captain Jim Currie of the New Orleans surveyors J. K. Tynan International; the restoration process continued until she was ready for tow on June 7, 1979. Elissa has an iron hull, the pin rail and bright work is made of teak, her masts are Douglas fir from Oregon, her 19 sails were made in Maine. She has survived numerous modifications including installation of an engine, the incremental removal of all her rigging and masts. Elissa made her first voyage as a restored sailing ship in 1985, traveling to Texas. In Freeport the crew was joined by seventh grader Jerry Diegel and Betty Rusk, his history and English teacher, after Diegel won an essay contest on the history of the Elissa.
A year she sailed to New York City to take part in the Statue of Liberty's centennial celebrations. When she's not sailing, Elissa is moored at the Texas Seaport Museum in Galveston. Public tours are available; the ship is maintained by qualified volunteers from around the nation. In July 2011, the U. S. Coast Guard declared Elissa to be "not seaworthy." Officials at the Texas Seaport Museum in Galveston where Elissa is berthed were astonished when a Coast Guard inspection in 2011 revealed a corroded hull. The tall ship is inspected twice every five years, said John Schaumburg, museum assistant director; the 2011 inspection uncovered the worst corrosion since the tall ship was rebuilt in 1982, he said. Texas Seaport Museum raised the $3 million that paid for hull replacement and other long-overdue maintenance projects, finishing in January 2013; the museum replaced the 22,000 board feet of Douglas fir decking. Including building new quarter deck furniture out of high quality teak. Elissa returned to sailing once again in March 2014.
She ran a series of daily sails for a period of two weeks out of her home port of Galveston TX. Elissa's sail training program for the 2017-2018 sailing season is underway with plans to compete as the Flagship in the Tall Ship Challenge-Gulf Coast in April 2018 where she will sail to Pensacola, FL and New Orleans, LA, she will complete a week long series of daily sails prior to her trip to Florida. Elissa remains one of the world oldest sailing hulls still in operation; the oldest is the barque James Craig, launched in 1874 as the Clan Macleod in Sunderland, UK. She still takes the public to sea fortnightly in Australia. National Register of Historic Places - first object granted this status while outside United States territory National Historic Landmark Named state Tall Ship by act of legislature in 2005 Designated one of "America's Treasures" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation Escorted USS Texas into Galveston harbor to be commissioned List of National Historic Landmarks in Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Galveston County, Texas Delgado, James P..
"National Register of Historic Places Registration Form / Elissa". National Park Service. Retrieved August 30, 2012. Accompanying six photos. Elissa InfoPage Elissa Handbook of Texas Online
Michael Gregory Rowe is an American television host and narrator. He is known for his work on the Discovery Channel series Dirty Jobs and the CNN series Somebody's Gotta Do It, he hosts a series produced for Facebook called Returning the Favor in which he finds people doing good deeds and does something for them in return. He hosts the podcast The Way I Heard It with Mike Rowe, which he describes as "short stories designed for the curious mind plagued with a short attention span". Rowe has narrated programs on the Discovery Channel, The Science Channel, National Geographic Channel such as Deadliest Catch, How the Universe Works, Shark Week, he has appeared in commercials for firms such as the Ford Motor Company. Rowe was born in Maryland to John and Peggy Rowe, who were both teachers, he stated in commercials for Dirty Jobs that the show is a tribute to his grandfather. He became an Eagle Scout in 1979 in Troop 16 in Baltimore, he read out loud to students at the Maryland School for the Blind during his service project for Eagle Scout.
He cites this as one of the reasons that he became interested in writing. In June 2012, Rowe was awarded the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award by the Boy Scouts of America. Rowe attended Kenwood Presbyterian Church in Baltimore, which his parents still attend, he graduated from Overlea High School in 1980, where he excelled in theater and singing under choir director Freddie King, whom Rowe credits for his interest in performing. He studied at Essex Community College, he was named an Honorary Life Member of the Barbershop Harmony Society on July 8, 2017 at the Society’s international convention in Las Vegas. In 1985, he graduated from Towson University with a degree in communication studies. Rowe has hosted On-Air TV for American Airlines, No Relation for FX, New York Expeditions for PBS. Starting in the mid-1980s, Rowe hosted Your New Home for WJZ-TV in Baltimore for 15 years. In the early 1990s, Rowe hosted the CD-ROM music trivia game Radio Active for defunct Sanctuary Woods. During the same period, he was an on-air host for the home-shopping TV network QVC.
In a 2006 interview, Rowe related how he got the job at QVC: "I was in the opera at the time. I walked across the street with a buddy of mine during a performance. We're dressed as Vikings and we have a drink; the TV is turned to QVC.... My buddy bets me $100. So I got a job on the spot. I turned the whole thing into my own stupid David Letterman show. I made fun of the callers and made fun of the products." Rowe has claimed. When told in a 2008 episode of Dirty Jobs that the gourds he was working on would be sold via QVC, he said he was familiar with the corporation and proceeded to ad-lib a sales pitch for them. In the 1990s, Rowe hosted Channel 999 instructional guide for the defunct PrimeStar satellite television service. In 2002, Rowe hosted Worst Case Scenarios for TBS. From 2001 to 2004, Rowe hosted The Most for The History Channel. From 2001 to 2005, Rowe hosted Evening Magazine on KPIX-TV in San Francisco. During this time, he appeared in a news segment called "Somebody's Gotta Do It", profiling a number of unpleasant professions.
Rowe's first work with the Discovery Channel included a trip to the Valley of the Golden Mummies to host Egypt Week Live!, where he explored ancient tombs live with Dr. Zahi Hawass, an Egyptian archaeologist. In September 2012, Rowe hosted a three-part series. CNN announced on April 10, 2014, that Rowe would host Somebody's Gotta Do It, a new "Original Series" that began in the Fall 2014 lineup. Rowe highlights "unique individuals" in their respective passionate undertakings, whether it be work, hobby or fanaticism. Somebody's Got ta Do. In addition to hosting programs, Rowe has an extensive background as a narrator, his work with Discovery Channel includes narrating American Chopper, American Hot Rod, Deadliest Catch, Wild Pacific, Ghost Lab, as well as other Discovery specials and series such as How the Universe Works, Syfy's Ghost Hunters. Rowe has hosted the Discovery Channel's annual Shark Week in 2006 and 2008, along with hosting the special You Spoof Discovery, an amateur parody video special which poked fun at some of the popular series on the Discovery Channel's lineup.
Rowe is the narrator for National Geographic Channel's series Wicked Tuna. Rowe is a lifelong fan of radio broadcaster Paul Harvey. Rowe was tapped to be the on-screen host of the Discovery Channel's Deadliest Catch, a show about crab fishing in the Bering Sea, shot footage aboard several crab boats in addition to narrating the series; when Dirty Jobs was picked up by Discovery, he was told to choose which show he wanted to appear in on-screen. Rowe claims he was told by Discovery that the shows would air back-to-back on the same night: "We can't have you telling us stories about six dead fishermen on camera and making a fart joke with your arm in a cow's ass". Rowe chose to narrate Deadliest Catch. Rowe hosted a related show about life on the Bering Sea, a 2007 miniseries, After the Catch, a show which has continued after each season of Deadliest Catch. Other narration work by Rowe includes Mystery Diagnosis, Drydock: A Cruise Ship Reborn, Southern Steel, Powertool Drag Racing, Scavengers Rock, Airplane Repo and the opening of Ghost Hunters, a Syfy series from the producers of American Chopper.
Coronet, a wooden-hull schooner yacht built in 1885, is one of the oldest and largest schooner yachts in the world. The 131-foot schooner Coronet was designed by William Townsend and built for Rufus T. Bush by the C. & R. Poillon shipyard in Brooklyn. Bush put forth a $10,000 challenge against any other yacht for a transatlantic race; the ocean race between Coronet and the Caldwell Hart Colt's yacht Dauntless in March 1887 made Rufus T. Bush and the victorious Coronet famous— The New York Times devoted its entire first page for March 28, 1887 to the story. After winning the 3,000-mile race and the $10,000 purse, Rufus T. Bush decided to sell Coronet and listed the vessel in England for $30,000. Rufus and his son Irving T. Bush circumnavigated the globe on Coronet in 1888. Coronet was the first registered yacht to cross Cape Horn from East to West. After crossing the Pacific Ocean and stopping in Hawaii, Coronet made port in China, Calcutta and elsewhere. Coronet was sold before Rufus's death in 1890 The vessel passed through six different owners by 1905.
The Coronet circumnavigated the globe several times and was used for a Japanese-American scientific excursion during an eclipse. The Kingdom, a religious organization founded by Frank Sandford, purchased the ship in 1905 for $10,000 and took it around the world on prayer missions, including to Palestine. Coronet took a poorly planned missionary voyage to Africa in 1911 which resulted in six persons on board dying of scurvy. After the voyage, The Kingdom kept the yacht moored at Portland, Maine as well as Gloucester and owned her until 1995; the International Yacht Restoration School, in Newport, Rhode Island acquired the boat in the 1995 and began restoring of the vessel. IYRS added Coronet to the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. In December 2006, IYRS conveyed title of the boat to the Coronet Restoration Partners in San Francisco to complete the restoration on IYRS's campus in Rhode Island, where restoration works started in 2010. List of oldest surviving ships List of schooners National Register of Historic Places listings in Newport County, Rhode Island Coronet's History with "The Kingdom" Page that details Coronet's ongoing restoration Historic American Engineering Record No.
RI-59, "Schooner Yacht Coronet, International Yacht Restoration School, Thames Street, Newport County, RI"
Arthur Foss, built in 1889 as Wallowa at Portland, Oregon, is the oldest wooden tugboat afloat in the world. Its 79-year commercial service life began with towing sailing ships over the Columbia River bar, ended with hauling bundled log rafts on the Strait of Juan de Fuca in 1968. Northwest Seaport now preserves the tug as a museum ship in Washington. Wallowa was built in 1889 in Oregon for the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company; the hull was designed by noted shipbuilder David Stephenson, constructed by the shipyard/machinery firm of Willamette Iron and Steel Works. The twin inclined steam engines for the new vessel came from an older tug, retired from service that year; as built, Wallowa was listed as 111.5 feet long, with a beam of 23.75 feet and a depth of hold of 11.5 feet. According to another report, Wallowa was 120 feet long; the hull was launched in summer 1889, fitting out was completed by September. On the 3rd, Captain George A. Pease, one of the most experienced pilots on the Columbia River, took Wallowa downriver from Portland to Astoria, Oregon.
Although it is unknown if all were present for the maiden voyage, A. F. Goodrich and John S. Kidd served as engineers on the tug in its early years, as did John Melville; the first master of Wallowa in service was Captain R. E. Howes. Howes was born in 1846 on Cape Cod and had been captain of Wallowa's predecessor Donald. Donald had been used to tow sailing vessels across the dangerous bar at the mouth of the Columbia River, Wallowa was placed into the same service, operating out of Astoria; the new tug was taken on its first inspection trip across the bar on September 23, 1889, starting out from Astoria at 0300 hours. Present on board were a number of OR & N officials, including the chief of maritime and riverine operations, Captain James W. Troup. Wallowa returned to Astoria that afternoon, having been found to be satisfactory for bar service; the tug went on to perform its intended duties in this dangerous service for the next nine years. In 1898, caught up in the shipping boom caused by the Klondike Gold Rush, the OR & N sold Wallowa to the White Star Line to tow that company's large, famous sidewheeler Yosemite north up the Inside Passage to St. Michael, Alaska.
An early return voyage to Seattle from Skagway towing the bark Columbia nearly resulted in the loss of Wallowa on November 1, 1898. A strong gale drove the tug ashore near Mary Island, north of Portland Canal on the southeast Alaska coast. Wallowa was found to have suffered no damage and was refloated on the next high tide, but three days Columbia was stranded at the mouth of Portland Canal and became a total loss. Wallowa was able to safely endure the rest of the stormy voyage to Seattle. Wallowa's strong construction continued to serve it in good stead; the tug made many subsequent voyages up the Inside Passage transporting supply barges and construction materials for the mining camps. By 1900, Wallowa was listed as working for the Pacific Clipper Line under Captain E. Caine, carrying mail and supplies between Juneau, Haines and Seattle. In 1903, the tug was sold into the timber industry a year later. There is only one other Alaskan gold rush vessel still in existence: the owned 1890 wooden tugboat Elmore.
In 1904, Wallowa was purchased by lumber baron Mike Earles, owner of Puget Sound Mill & Timber Company, based at Port Angeles. For the next 25 years, the tug towed log rafts from the Port Crescent "booming grounds" on the Olympic Peninsula to sawmills in Bellingham. At some point shortly after acquiring Wallowa, Earles had the tug refitted and re-powered with a new boiler and a new vertical double-expansion steam engine to replace the worn and obsolete inclined "bilge engines" fitted to the old Donald. Wallowa emerged from the refit with much more towing capability than before, it performed reliable work for the PSM & T Co. without any significant layups, except for a rebuild of the main deckhouse following a fire in 1927. During this period the vessel was under the command of Captain Frank Harrington. In early 1929, Earles sold Wallowa to a neighboring timber concern: Merrill & Ring Logging Company, formed in 1886 by two families established in the lumber business back in Michigan and Minnesota.
T. D. Merrill and Clark Ring had formed their joint venture after arriving in the Pacific Northwest to scout timberlands, acquiring large tracts around the Pysht River; the company still owns these today. Wallowa undertook the same types of jobs for Merrill & Ring as it had for the PSM & T Co. but operating between booming grounds at Pysht and Port Angeles. However, after less than a year, Merrill & Ring decided to sell the tug. Foss Launch & Tug Company purchased Wallowa in late 1929, the vessel became among the first of that company's large, seagoing acquisitions. To help pay off the large purchase, Foss donated a agreed-upon amount of towing services to Merrill & Ring in 1931 leased Wallowa to MGM Studios for filming the 1933 blockbuster hit Tugboat Annie; that film, the first major motion picture filmed in Washington State, became a huge success and made Wallowa a movie star. Afterward, Wallowa was returned to Foss, which rebuilt and modernized the tug from its main deck up at company headquarters in Tacoma in 1934.
The primary component of the rebuild was installation of a state-of-the-art, six cylinder, four-stroke, 700 horsepower Washington Iron Works direct-drive diesel engine, which made the tug the most p