Media is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes. During the Achaemenid period, it comprised present-day Azarbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan and western Tabaristan; as a satrapy under Achaemenid rule, it would encompass a wider region, stretching to southern Dagestan in the north. However, after the wars of Alexander the Great, the northern parts were separated due to the Partition of Babylon and became known as Atropatene, while the remaining region became known as Lesser Media. In 678 BC, Deioces made the first Iranian empire, his grandson Cyaxares managed to unite all Iranian tribes of Ancient Iran and made his empire a major power. When Cyaxares died he was succeeded by his son, the last king of the Median empire. In 553 BC, Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, rebelled against his grandfather, the Median King, Astyages son of Cyaxares. After Cyrus's victory against Astyages, the Medes were subjected to the Persians. In the new empire they retained a prominent position.
At the beginning the Greek historians referred to the Achaemenid Empire as a Median empire. After the assassination of the usurper Smerdis, a Mede Fravartish, claiming to be a scion of Cyaxares, tried to restore the Mede kingdom, but was defeated by the Persian generals and executed in Ecbatana. Another rebellion, in 409 BC, against Darius II was of short duration, but the Iranian tribes to the north the Cadusii, were always troublesome. Under Persian rule, the country was divided into two satrapies: the south, with Ecbatana and Rhagae, Media proper, or Greater Media, as it is called, formed in Darius I the Great's organization the eleventh satrapy, together with the Paricanians and Orthocorybantians. Caucasian Albania was incorporated by the Achaemenid Persians and were under the command of the satrapy of Media in the period; when the Persian empire decayed and the Cadusii and other mountainous tribes made themselves independent, eastern Armenia became a special satrapy, while Assyria seems to have been united with Media.
Following Alexander's invasion of the satrapy of Media in the summer of 330 BC, he appointed as satrap a former general of Darius III the Great named Atropates in 328 BC, according to Arrian. In the partition of his empire, southern Media was given to the Macedonian Peithon. While southern Media, with Ecbatana, passed to the rule of Antigonus, afterwards to Seleucus I, Atropates maintained himself in his own satrapy and succeeded in founding an independent kingdom, thus the partition of the country, that Persia had introduced, became lasting. The capital of Atropatene was Gazaca in the central plain, the castle Phraaspa, discovered on the Araz river by archaeologists in April 2005. Atropatene is that country of western Asia, least of all other countries influenced by Hellenism. Southern Media remained a province of the Seleucid Empire for a century and a half, Hellenism was introduced everywhere. Media was surrounded everywhere by Greek towns, in pursuance of Alexander's plan to protect it from neighboring barbarians, according to Polybius.
Only Ecbatana retained its old character. But Rhagae became the Greek town Europus. Most of them were founded by Seleucus I and his son Antiochus I. In 221 BC, the satrap Molon tried to make himself independent, together with his brother Alexander, satrap of Persis, but they were defeated and killed by Antiochus the Great. In the same way, the Mede satrap Timarchus conquered Babylonia, but with Demetrius I, the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire began, brought about chiefly by the intrigues of the Romans, shortly afterwards, in about 150, the Parthian king Mithradates I conquered Media. From this time Media remained subject to the Arsacids or Parthians, who changed the name of Rhagae, or Europus, into Arsacia, divided the country into five small provinces. From the Parthians, it passed in 226 to the Sassanids, together with Atropatene; the Medes spoke Median, a Northwestern Iranian language
Media are the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry, such as print media, the news media, cinema and advertising; the term "medium" is defined as "one of the means or channels of general communication, information, or entertainment in society, as newspapers, radio, or television."The phrase "mass media" was, according to H. L. Mencken, used as early as 1923 in the United States; the term media in its modern application relating to communication channels was first used by Canadian communications theorist Marshall McLuhan, who stated in Counterblast: "The media are not toys. They can be entrusted only to new artists, because they are art forms." By the mid-1960s, the term had spread to general use in the United Kingdom. Writers such as Howard Rheingold have framed early forms of human communication as early forms of media, such as the Lascaux cave paintings and early writing. Another framing of the history of media starts with the Chauvet Cave paintings and continues with other ways to carry human communication beyond the short range of voice: smoke signals, trail markers, sculpture.
The development of early writing and paper enabled longer-distance communication systems such as mail, including in the Persian Empire and Roman Empire, which can be interpreted as early forms of media. In the last century, a revolution in telecommunications has altered communication by providing new media for long distance communication; the first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast occurred in 1906 and led to common communication via analog and digital media: Analog telecommunications include some radio systems, historical telephony systems, historical television broadcasts. Digital telecommunications allow for computer-mediated communication and computer networks. Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people. On the other hand, many traditional broadcast media and mass media favor one-to-many communication. Electronic media usage is growing, although concern has arisen that it distracts youth from face-to-face contact with friends and family.
Research on the social engagement effect is mixed. One study by Wellman found that "33% of Internet users said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends'a lot', 23% said it had increased the quality of their communication with family members by a similar amount. Young people in particular took advantage of the social side of the Internet. Nearly half of the 18- to 29-year-olds said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends a lot. On the other hand, 19% of employed Internet users said that the Internet had increased the amount of time they spent working in home". Electronic media now comes in the forms of tablets, desktops, cell phones, mp3 players, DVDs, game systems and television. Technology has spiked to record highs within the last decade, thus changing the dynamic of communication; the spike in electronic media started to grow in 2007 when the release of the first iPhone came out. The meaning of electronic media, as it is known in various spheres, has changed with the passage of time.
The term media has achieved a broader meaning nowadays as compared to that given it a decade ago. Earlier, there was multimedia, once only a piece of software used to play video. Following this, it was CD and DVD camera of 3G applications in the field. In modern terms, the term "media" includes all the software which are used in PC or laptop or mobile phone installed for normal or better performance of the system; this type of hard disc is becoming smaller in size. The latest inclusion in the field is magnetic media whose application is common in the fastest growing information technology field. Modern day IT media is used in the banking sector and by the Income Tax Department for the purpose of providing the easiest and fastest possible services to consumers. In this magnetic strip, account information linking to all the data relating to a particular consumer is stored; the main features of these types of media are prepared unrecorded, data is stored at a stage as per the requirement of its user or consumer.
Media technology has made viewing easier as time has passed throughout history. Children today are encouraged to use media tools in school and are expected to have a general understanding of the various technologies available; the internet is arguably one of the most effective tools in media for communication tools such as e-mail and Facebook have brought people closer together and created new online communities. However, some may argue. Therefore, it is an important source of communication. In a large consumer-driven society, electronic media and print media are important for distributing advertisement media. More technologically advanced societies have access to goods and services through newer media than less technologically advanced societies. In addition to this "advertising" role
Media was a World War II US navy ship, never commissioned and thus never bore the USS designation. Media was contracted to be built as Oliver R. Mumford under Maritime Commission contract 4 September 1941 as a type N3-M-A1 cargo ship, she was acquired by the Navy 1 January 1943 before being laid down by Penn Jersey Shipbuilding Corp. Camden, New Jersey, 28 January 1943; that same day Media was delivered to the U. S. Army and struck from the Navy list on 24 November 1943; the Ship was renamed Glenn Gerald Griswold, after an Engineer officer killed while fighting a dump fire in Naples, Italy. The Glenn Gerald Griswold was converted into a port repair ship by Bethlehem Fairfield Shipyard, Inc. Baltimore, Maryland, on 5 June 1944 and sailed for Europe by summer's end. After the postwar work the ship was placed in the reserve fleet; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. NavSource Online: Service Ship Photo Archive - AK-83 Media - USAT Glenn Gerald Griswold
Media is a borough in and the county seat of Delaware County, United States, about 13 miles west of Philadelphia. Media was incorporated in 1850 at the same time; the population was 5,327 at the 2010 census, down from 5,533 at the 2000 census. Its school district is the Rose Tree Media School District with Penncrest High School and Springton Lake Middle School. In June 2006, it became the first fair trade town in America. Media promotes itself by its motto: "Everybody's Hometown"; the history of the area goes back to William Penn, but the area remained predominantly rural until the twentieth century. Land in the area was sold and settled soon after William Penn was named proprietor of the colony of Pennsylvania in 1681 by King Charles II of England. Peter and William Taylor bought the land. At the time, the land was located in Chester County. Providence Township was organized in 1684, divided into Upper Providence and Nether Providence townships by 1690 though they only had 40 taxable properties at the time.
The current borough, formed in 1850, sits between the two townships. In 1683, the Court of Chester County approved the construction of "Providence Great Road"; the road, which runs north from Chester to within a few blocks of today's downtown, is shown on a 1687 map along with the names of local landowners. It forms the eastern border of the borough. Thomas Minshall, a Quaker, was an early Media resident, settling just outside the small village known as "Providence", along the Providence Great Road; the village included a tailor shop, blacksmith shop, wheelwright shop and other buildings. Minshall bought 625 acres from William Penn and arrived in 1682; the Providence Friends Meeting was established at his house in February 1688, a meetinghouse was built on land he donated for the purpose. The original meetinghouse was built out of logs in 1699 or 1700, the current building dates to 1814. A house on Minshall's property, built c. 1750, still stands and was given to the citizens of the borough in 1975.
Chester County, Pennsylvania was divided in 1789, the eastern portion becoming Delaware County, Pennsylvania. The area in the center of the new county remained rural through 1850. On March 11, 1850, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania by Special Act of Assembly incorporated the Borough of Media, made the sale of malt and spirituous liquors unlawful within its borders. At the same time, the county seat of Delaware County was moved to Media from Chester; the borough was formed from four farms purchased by the county. The borders of the borough have not changed since that time. Streets were plotted in a rectangular grid around the location of the new courthouse, lots were sold at public auctions, the construction of houses began. Sources agree that Minshall Painter, a descendant of Thomas Minshall, suggested the name "Media", but do not agree on the reason; the name most comes from the borough's central location in Delaware County. The John J. Tyler Arboretum occupies part of Thomas Minshall's original 625 acres.
This farm was used by the Underground Railroad. The land was donated to a public trust in 1944 by an eighth-generation descendant; the arboretum was started as a private collection by Minshall Painter. In 1825, they began systematically planting over 1,000 varieties of shrubs. Over twenty of their original trees survive, including a giant sequoia. Minshall Painter was a leader of the Delaware County Institute of Science, formed on September 21, 1833, with just four other members: George Miller, John Miller, George Smith, M. D. and John Cassin. The institute was incorporated in 1836. About 1850, Painter gave the institute the land where its building stands at 11 Veterans Square, the building was constructed in 1867. In the second half of the 19th century, Media was a summer resort for well-to-do Philadelphians; the borough's large vacation hotels included the Idlewild Hotel on Lincoln Street at Gayley Terrace, Chestnut Grove House or "The Colonial" on Orange Street, Brooke Hall on Orange Street and Washington Avenue.
The Chestnut Grove was used for a year by nearby Swarthmore College due to a fire on its campus. The West Chester and Philadelphia Railroad was built through Media on October 19, 1854. Electrified service was opened on December 2, 1928. Up to 50 trains passed through each day; the railroad became part of the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad and the Penn Central. SEPTA took over operations in 1983. Woodrow Wilson spoke at the Media Station in 1912 during his first election campaign. Trolley transportation lines spread to and through Media in early 1900s; the Media Theatre opened as a vaudeville house in 1927. The first'talkie' film, The Jazz Singer, was shown there, it remained a popular cinema through the 1980s. In 1994, the theater underwent a $1 million restoration by Walter Strine Sr. and re-opened as the'Media Theatre for the Performing Arts'. Shows produced there have included The Full Monty and Miss Saigon. On March 8, 1971, the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI raided an FBI "resident agency" in Media.
They released thousands of documents to major newspapers around the country. These documents revealed FBI tactics, like the recruitment of Boy Scouts as informants, confirmed for the first time the existence of COINTELPRO, an FBI program to "expose, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize" dissident groups in the United States. In June 2006, Media became the first town in the United States to follow over 300 towns in Europe in attaining fair t
Computer data storage
Computer data storage called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers; the central processing unit of a computer is. In practice all computers use a storage hierarchy, which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away; the fast volatile technologies are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit; the former controls the flow of data between the CPU and memory, while the latter performs arithmetic and logical operations on data. Without a significant amount of memory, a computer would be able to perform fixed operations and output the result, it would have to be reconfigured to change its behavior. This is acceptable for devices such as desk calculators, digital signal processors, other specialized devices.
Von Neumann machines differ in having a memory in which they store their operating instructions and data. Such computers are more versatile in that they do not need to have their hardware reconfigured for each new program, but can be reprogrammed with new in-memory instructions. Most modern computers are von Neumann machines. A modern digital computer represents data using the binary numeral system. Text, pictures and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a string of bits, or binary digits, each of which has a value of 1 or 0; the most common unit of storage is the byte, equal to 8 bits. A piece of information can be handled by any computer or device whose storage space is large enough to accommodate the binary representation of the piece of information, or data. For example, the complete works of Shakespeare, about 1250 pages in print, can be stored in about five megabytes with one byte per character. Data are encoded by assigning a bit pattern to digit, or multimedia object.
Many standards exist for encoding. By adding bits to each encoded unit, redundancy allows the computer to both detect errors in coded data and correct them based on mathematical algorithms. Errors occur in low probabilities due to random bit value flipping, or "physical bit fatigue", loss of the physical bit in storage of its ability to maintain a distinguishable value, or due to errors in inter or intra-computer communication. A random bit flip is corrected upon detection. A bit, or a group of malfunctioning physical bits is automatically fenced-out, taken out of use by the device, replaced with another functioning equivalent group in the device, where the corrected bit values are restored; the cyclic redundancy check method is used in communications and storage for error detection. A detected error is retried. Data compression methods allow in many cases to represent a string of bits by a shorter bit string and reconstruct the original string when needed; this utilizes less storage for many types of data at the cost of more computation.
Analysis of trade-off between storage cost saving and costs of related computations and possible delays in data availability is done before deciding whether to keep certain data compressed or not. For security reasons certain types of data may be kept encrypted in storage to prevent the possibility of unauthorized information reconstruction from chunks of storage snapshots; the lower a storage is in the hierarchy, the lesser its bandwidth and the greater its access latency is from the CPU. This traditional division of storage to primary, secondary and off-line storage is guided by cost per bit. In contemporary usage, "memory" is semiconductor storage read-write random-access memory DRAM or other forms of fast but temporary storage. "Storage" consists of storage devices and their media not directly accessible by the CPU hard disk drives, optical disc drives, other devices slower than RAM but non-volatile. Memory has been called core memory, main memory, real storage or internal memory. Meanwhile, non-volatile storage devices have been referred to as secondary storage, external memory or auxiliary/peripheral storage.
Primary storage referred to as memory, is the only one directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads instructions executes them as required. Any data operated on is stored there in uniform manner. Early computers used delay lines, Williams tubes, or rotating magnetic drums as primary storage. By 1954, those unreliable methods were replaced by magnetic core memory. Core memory remained dominant until the 1970s, when advances in integrated circuit technology allowed semiconductor memory to become economically competitive; this led to modern random-access memo
Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services available introduces challenges of definition. User-generated content, such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, data generated through all online interactions, is the lifeblood of social media. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups. Users access social media services via web-based technologies on desktops and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices; as users engage with these electronic services, they create interactive platforms through which individuals and organizations can share, co-create and modify user-generated content or pre-made content posted online.
Networks formed through social media change the way groups of people communicate. They "introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations and individuals." These changes are the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies. Social media differ from paper-based media and traditional electronic media such as TV broadcasting in many ways, including quality, frequency, usability and performance. Social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system; this is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a monologic transmission model, such as a newspaper, delivered to many subscribers, or a radio station which broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Some of the most popular social media websites, with over 100 million registered users, include Facebook, YouTube, WeChat, Instagram, QQ, QZone, Twitter, Telegram, Baidu Tieba, LinkedIn, LINE, Pinterest, VK. Observers have noted a range of negative impacts of social media use. Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities, can be an effective communication tool for corporations, nonprofit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, governments.
Social media may have been influenced by the 1840s introduction of the telegraph in the US, which connected the country. The PLATO system launched in 1960, developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation, offered early forms of social media with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-forum application. ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network etiquette described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. ARPANET became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, established in 1980. A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system, known as Community Memory, had appeared by 1973. True electronic bulletin board systems arrived with the Computer Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on 16 February 1978.
Before long, most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, similar personal computers. The IBM PC was introduced in 1981, subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone. Message forums arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout early 1990s; when the Internet proliferated in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated online, becoming Internet forums due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people than telco modem banks. GeoCities was one of the Internet's earliest social networking websites, appearing in November 1994, followed by Classmates in December 1995 and Six Degrees in May 1997.
According to CBS news, Six Degrees is "widely considered to be the first social networking site", as it included "profiles, friends lists and school affiliations" that could be used by registered users. Open Diary was launched in October 1998. 360° in March 2005.
Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical audience to access the content. This is in contrast to static media, which today are most created electronically, but do not require electronics to be accessed by the end user in the printed form; the primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public are video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia presentations, slide presentations, CD-ROM and online content. Most new media are in the form of digital media. However, electronic media may be in either analogue electronics data or digital electronic data format. Although the term is associated with content recorded on a storage medium, recordings are not required for live broadcasting and online networking. Any equipment used in the electronic communication process may be considered electronic media. Electronic media are ubiquitous in most of the developed world. Electronic media devices have found their way into all parts of modern life; the term is relevant to media ecology for studying its impact compared to printed media and broadening the scope of understanding media beyond a simplistic aspect of media such as one delivery platform aside from many other options.
The term is relevant to professional career development regarding related skill set. Media states various means of communication like communication devices which are used to interact and communicate among people. Electronic media is media that uses electromechanical device to access the content Broadcast or storage media that take advantage of electronic technology, they may include television, Internet, fax, CD-ROMs, DVD, any other medium that requires electricity or digital encoding of information. The term'electronic media' is used in contrast with print media. Electronic media uses media such as television and internet enabled computers made possible by technology. Electronic media plays a crucial role promoting communication in the society through various ways. First, electronic media contributes to the advancement of the business environment. Use of electronic media & communications: Early childhood to teenage years June 2009 Use of electronic media and communications: Early childhood to teenage years brings together the ACMA's research on media use by eight- to 17-year-olds and new findings about three- to four- and seven- to eight-year-olds from the Australian Institute of Family Studies study Growing Up in Australia.