The company is based at 1095 Avenue of the Americas in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but is incorporated in Delaware. Bell Atlantic came into existence in 1984 with a footprint from New Jersey to Virginia, as part of the rebranding that the Baby Bells took in the mid-1990s, all of the operating companies assumed the Bell Atlantic name. In 1997, Bell Atlantic expanded into New York and the New England states by merging with fellow Baby Bell NYNEX, although Bell Atlantic was the surviving company, the merged company moved its headquarters from Philadelphia to NYNEXs old headquarters in New York City. In 2000, Bell Atlantic merged with GTE, which operated telecommunications companies across most of the rest of the country that was not already in Bell Atlantics footprint, Bell Atlantic, the surviving company, changed its name to Verizon, a portmanteau of veritas and horizon. As of 2016, Verizon is one of three companies that had their roots in the former Baby Bells, the other two, like Verizon, exist as a result of mergers among fellow former Baby Bell members.
One, SBC Communications, bought out its former parent AT&T Corporation, the other, CenturyLink, was formed initially in 2011 by the acquisition of Qwest. Bell Atlantic Corporation was created as one of the original Regional Bell Operating Companies in 1984, in 1994, Bell Atlantic became the first RBOC to entirely drop the original names of its original operating companies. In 1996, CEO and Chairman Raymond W. Smith orchestrated Bell Atlantics merger with NYNEX, when it merged, it moved its corporate headquarters from Philadelphia to New York City. NYNEX was consolidated into this name by 1997, the approval came with 25 stipulations to preserve competition between local phone carriers, including investing in new markets and broadband technologies. The new venture was headed by co-CEOs Charles Lee, formerly the CEO of GTE, upon its inception, Verizon became the largest local telephone company in the United States, operating 63 million telephone lines in 40 states. The company inherited 25 million mobile phone customers, Verizon offered internet services and long-distance calling in New York, before expanding long-distance operations to other states.
The name Verizon derives from the combination of the words veritas, Latin for truth, the name was chosen from 8,500 candidates and the company spent $300 million on marketing the new brand. The companies established Verizon Wireless as its own business operated by Bell Atlantic, Vodafone retained 45% of the company. The deal was valued at approximately $70 billion and created a mobile carrier with 23 million customers, Verizon Wireless merged Bell Atlantics wireless network, Vodafones AirTouch and PrimeCo holdings, and the wireless division of GTE. Due to its size, Verizon Wireless was able to offer national coverage at competitive rates, in another partnership with MSN in 2002, Verizon Wireless launched the mobile content service VZW with MSN and a phone that utilized the Microsoft Windows operating system. In August 2000, approximately 85,000 Verizon workers went on an 18-day labor strike after their contracts expired. The strike affected quarterly revenues, resulting in Verizon Wireless postponement of the companys IPO, Verizon launched 3G service in 2002, which doubled the Internet speeds of the time to 144kb a second.
In August 2002, Verizon began offering local, long-distance, and mobile calling, as well as Internet service and it was initially only available to customers in New York and Massachusetts
Grupo Globo, formerly known as Organizações Globo, is the largest mass media group of Latin America, founded in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1925 by Irineu Marinho. It formerly owned companies on the industry and the real estate. The first enterprise of the company was the newspaper A Noite, with the success of the newspaper, published on the late afternoon, Marinho decided to launch the morning daily O Globo in 1925. After his sudden death, just weeks after the launch of O Globo, his son, Roberto Pisani Marinho, working actively on the media business, Roberto Marinho decided to invest in other areas and launched Radio Globo in 1944. However, the company only became recognizable nationwide after the launching of Rede Globo, the company is currently run by the sons of Roberto Marinho, Roberto Irineu Marinho, João Roberto Marinho and José Roberto Marinho. In May 2013, a released by media agency ZenithOptimedia showed Globo occupied the 17th place in a list with the top global media owners. It was the first time the company appeared on this ranking and this ranking was still held in 2015. C.
2 - It is a joint-venture with NBC Universal, half of the shares belongs to Grupo Globo. 3 - Playboy do Brasil is a created from the association between Globosat and Playboy TV Latin America. Paulo Valor Econômico Globo. com Globo International EGO G1 Globo Online GloboEsporte
21st Century Fox
Twenty-First Century Fox Inc. is an American multinational mass media corporation based in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was one of two formed from the 2013 spin-off of the publishing assets of News Corporation, as founded by Rupert Murdoch in 1979. 21st Century Fox is the successor to News Corporation dealing primarily in the film. The other company, the new News Corporation, holds Murdochs print interests, 21st Century Fox was formed by the splitting of entertainment and media properties from News Corporation. In February 2012, Natalie Ravitz accepted a position to become Rupert Murdoch’s Chief of Staff at News Corporation. Plans for the split were originally announced on June 28,2012, while additional details, the move came in the wake of a series of scandals that had damaged the reputation of the companys publishing operations in the United Kingdom. The split was structured so that the old News Corporation would change its name to 21st Century Fox and its logo was officially unveiled on May 9,2013, featuring a modernized version of the iconic Fox searchlights.
However, the 21st Century Fox brand does not extend to the existing 20th Century Fox division, the formation of 21st Century Fox was officially finalized on June 28,2013. It formally began trading on the NASDAQ and Australian Securities Exchange on July 1,2013, on January 8,2014, Rupert Murdoch announced plans to delist 21st Century Foxs shares from the Australian Securities Exchange, in favor of solely trading on the NASDAQ. Its listing in Australia was a holdover from its period as News Corporation, in June 2014, 21st Century Fox made a bid to acquire Time Warner, which had similarly spun off its publishing assets, for $80 billion in a cash and stock deal. The deal, which was rejected by Time Warners board of directors in July 2014, on August 5,2014, 21st Century Fox announced it had withdrawn its bid for Time Warner. The companys stock had fallen sharply since the bid was announced, on July 25,2014, 21st Century Fox announced the sale of Sky Italia and Sky Deutschland to BSkyB for $9 billion, subject to regulatory and shareholder approval.
Fox would use the money from the sale, along with $25 billion it received from Goldman Sachs, on September 9,2015, 21st Century Fox announced a for-profit joint venture with the National Geographic Society. 21st Century Fox holds a 73% stake in the company, on December 15,2016, 21st Century Fox reached an agreement to takeover the 61% of Sky that it did not already own. The company was valued at £18. 5bn, 21st Century Foxs operations can be broadly categorized into four major reporting segments, Cable Network Programming Television Filmed Entertainment Direct-Broadcast Satellite Television. Among the divisions of the company is Twentieth Century Fox Consumer Products which licenses and markets properties worldwide on behalf of a number of 21st Century Fox assets, as of 2015, the senior vice president for government relations was Joe Welch. On its formation in 2013, Murdoch was chairman and chief officer of the company, while Chase Carey took the posts of president. Co-chairman and Co-CEO positions were created in 2014 and filled by Lachlan Murdoch and James Murdoch, respectively, on July 1,2015, Lachlan Murdoch was elevated to Co-Executive Chairman alongside his father and James Murdoch replaced his father as CEO
Comcast Corporation is an American global telecommunications conglomerate that is the largest broadcasting and cable television company in the world by revenue. Comcast services U. S. residential and commercial customers in 40 states, the companys headquarters are located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The first Universal theme park outside of the U. S, Universal Studios Japan, opened in 2001, followed by Universal Studios Singapore in 2011. Few new locations are being planned or developed for future operation, Comcast has significant holdings in digital distribution. In February 2014 the company agreed to merge with Time Warner Cable in an equity swap deal worth $45.2 billion, under the terms of the agreement Comcast was to acquire 100% of Time Warner Cable. However, on April 24,2015, Comcast terminated the agreement, Comcast has been criticized for multiple reasons, the companys customer satisfaction often ranks among the lowest in the cable industry. Critics point out a lack of competition in the vast majority of Comcasts service area, given Comcasts negotiating power as a large ISP, some suspect that Comcast could leverage paid peering agreements to unfairly influence end-user connection speeds.
And its ownership of content production and content distribution has raised antitrust concerns. These issues, in addition to others, led to Comcast being dubbed The Worst Company in America by The Consumerist in 2010 and 2014. Despite being publicly-traded, Comcast is a business, with the Ralph J Roberts family owning 33% controlling stake. Comcast is sometimes described as a family business, Brian L. Roberts, President, and CEO of Comcast, is the son of co-founder Ralph Roberts. Roberts owns or controls just over 1% of all Comcast shares but all of the Class B supervoting shares, legal expert Susan P. Crawford has said this gives him effective control over every step. In 2010, he was one of the highest paid executives in the United States, Comcast is headquartered in Philadelphia and has corporate offices in Atlanta, Detroit and Manchester, New Hampshire. On January 3,2005, Comcast announced that it would become the tenant in the new Comcast Center in downtown Philadelphia. The 975 ft skyscraper is the tallest building in Pennsylvania, Comcast has begun construction on a second 1,121 ft skyscraper directly adjacent to the original Comcast headquarters in the summer of 2014.
The company is criticized by both the media and its own staff for its less upstanding policies regarding employee relations. A2012 Reddit post written by an anonymous Comcast call center employee eager to share their experiences with the public received attention from publications including The Huffington Post. A2014 investigative series published by The Verge involved interviews with 150 of Comcasts employees and it sought to examine why the company has become so widely criticized by its customers, the media and even members of its own staff
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the second largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue. Disney was founded on October 16,1923 – by brothers Walt Disney, the company operated under the names The Walt Disney Studio and Walt Disney Productions. Taking on its current name in 1986, it expanded its operations and started divisions focused upon theater, music, publishing. In addition, Disney has since created corporate divisions in order to more mature content than is typically associated with its flagship family-oriented brands. The company is best known for the products of its studio, Walt Disney Studios. Disneys other three divisions are Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, Disney Media Networks, and Disney Consumer Products. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since May 6,1991, Mickey Mouse, an early and well-known cartoon creation of the company, is a primary symbol and mascot for Disney.
In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a film entitled Alices Wonderland. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studios, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice, in January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studios name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars, Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winklers husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disneys primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California.
The mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films, ub Iwerks refined Disneys initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disneys first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18,1928 through Pat Powers distribution company and it was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin Gaucho. Disney used Pat Powers Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee De Forests Phonofilm system, Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Mosss Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disneys Plane Crazy and The Galloping Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks, Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, and began the Silly Symphonies series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929
Viacom, Inc. is an American media conglomerate with interests primarily in cinema and cable television. It is currently the sixth largest broadcasting and cable company in terms of revenue—behind Comcast, The Walt Disney Company, Time Warner, and CBS Corporation. Voting control of Viacom is held by National Amusements, Inc. a privately owned theater company controlled by the billionaire Sumner Redstone, Redstone holds – via National Amusements – a controlling stake in CBS Corporation. The current incarnation of Viacom was created on December 31,2005 as a spin-off from the incarnation of Viacom. CBS Corporation currently retains control of the broadcasting, TV production, subscription pay television and publishing assets. Predecessor firms of the original Viacom included Gulf+Western and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in addition, the company was facing issues after MTV was banned from producing any more Super Bowl halftime shows after the Super Bowl Halftime Show controversy of 2004. Redstone was set to retire in the future, and a split was seen as a creative solution to the matter of replacing him.
A new company, the present Viacom, was created and was headed by Freston and it comprises BET Networks, MTV Networks, and Paramount Pictures Corporation. In June 2005, Viacom announced its purchase of Neopets, a virtual pet website, along with GameTrailers, GoCityKids and that December, Paramount announced it would acquire DreamWorks. On February 1,2006, Paramount completed its acquisition of DreamWorks. On April 24, Viacom obtained Xfire, in August, just hours before announcing its most recent quarterly earnings, Viacom announced that it had acquired Atom Entertainment for $200 million. In September, Viacom acquired game developer Harmonix for $175 million, in February 2007, Viacom ordered leaked copyrighted video clips be taken off the videosharing service YouTube for copyright reasons. On February 21, Viacom publicly announced they would be offering free access to their own material through Silicon Valleys distributor Joost thanks to a thorough content licensing deal. All future Viacom content for India and new ventures such as a Hindi entertainment channel, on December 19,2007, Viacom signed a five-year, $500 million contract with Microsoft that included content sharing and advertisement.
The deal allowed Microsoft to license many shows from Viacom owned cable television and film studios for use on Xbox Live, the deal made Viacom a preferred publisher partner for casual game development and distribution through MSN and Windows. On the advertisement side of the deal, Microsofts Atlas ad-serving division became the provider of previously unsold advertising inventory on Viacom owned web sites. Also, Microsoft purchased a large amount of advertising on Viacom owned broadcasts, Microsoft will collaborate on promotions and sponsorships for MTV and BET award shows, two Viacom owned cable networks. On December 4,2008, Viacom announced layoffs of 850 personnel, at the end of the year, Time Warner Cable and Viacoms MTV Networks could not come to terms for the renewal of any Viacom channel beyond the end of year
National Amusements, Inc. is an American privately owned theater company based in Dedham, United States. The company was founded in 1936, as the Northeast Theatre Corporation by Michael Redstone, National Amusements is now owned by Michael Redstones son, Sumner Redstone, who holds 80% of the company, and Sumners daughter, Shari Redstone, who owns the remaining 20%. Through National Amusements, the Redstones control both the CBS Corporation and Viacom through supervoting shares, National Amusements is equal partners in MovieTickets. com. At the end of 2008, the Redstones financial troubles started when billionaire Sumner Redstone had to dump $400 million of nonvoting shares and it was released that National Amusement planned to sell $390 million of notes in another attempt to refinance a large part of the companys bank owed debt. In October 2009, the news was released that National Amusement would be selling almost $1 billion of stock they own in CBS, National Amusements has sold 35 theaters to Rave Motion Pictures.
AMC Theatres Bow Tie Cinemas Cinemark Theatres Regal Entertainment Group Official website Showcase Cinemas website 2001 Box Office Magazine profile of the company Yahoo
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States federal government in the 1960s to build robust, the primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, Internet use grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s and from the late 1990s in the developing world. In the two decades since then, Internet use has grown 100-times, measured for the period of one year, newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The entertainment industry was initially the fastest growing segment on the Internet, the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries, the Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage, each constituent network sets its own policies. The term Internet, when used to refer to the global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, is a proper noun. In common use and the media, it is not capitalized. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. Historically, as early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably in everyday speech, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services.
The Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks, the term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web typically used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of growth, fifteen sites were connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks, early international collaborations on the ARPANET were rare. European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks, in December 1974, RFC675, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term internet as a shorthand for internetworking and RFCs repeated this use. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation funded the Computer Science Network, in 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite was standardized, which permitted worldwide proliferation of interconnected networks.5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s.
Commercial Internet service providers emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990
Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features articles on finance, investing. Forbes reports on related subjects such as technology, science and its headquarters is located in Jersey City, New Jersey. Primary competitors in the business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek. The magazine is known for its lists and rankings, including its lists of the richest Americans. Another well-known list by the magazine is The Worlds Billionaires list, the motto of Forbes magazine is The Capitalist Tool. Its chairman and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, and its CEO is Mike Perlis, Forbes, a financial columnist for the Hearst papers, and his partner Walter Drey, the general manager of the Magazine of Wall Street, founded Forbes magazine on September 15,1917. Forbes provided the money and the name and Drey provided the publishing expertise, the original name of the magazine was Forbes, Devoted to Doers and Doings. Drey became vice-president of the B. C. Forbes Publishing Company, while B. C.
Forbes became editor-in-chief, B. C. Forbes was assisted in his years by his two eldest sons, Bruce Charles Forbes and Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. Bruce Forbes took over on his fathers death, and his strengths lay in streamlining operations, during his tenure, 1954–1964, the magazines circulation nearly doubled. On Malcolms death, his eldest son Malcolm Stevenson Steve Forbes Jr. became President and Chief Executive of Forbes, between 1961 and 1999 the magazine was edited by James Michaels. In 1993, under Michaels, Forbes was a finalist for the National Magazine Award. com, a 2009 New York Times report said,40 percent of the enterprise was sold. For a reported $300 million, setting the value of the enterprise at $750 million, according to Mark M. Edmiston of AdMedia Partners, Its probably not worth half of that now. The companys headquarters moved to the Newport section of downtown Jersey City. In November 2013, Forbes Media, which publishes Forbes magazine, was put up for sale and this was encouraged by Elevation Partners, of whom were minority shareholders.
Sales documents prepared by Deutsche Bank revealed that the publishers 2012 EBITDA was $15 million, Forbes reportedly sought a price of $400 million. In July 2014, Forbes sold a majority of itself to Integrated Whale Media Investments, Steve Forbes and his magazines writers offer investment advice on the weekly Fox TV show Forbes on Fox and on Forbes On Radio. Other company groups include Forbes Conference Group, Forbes Investment Advisory Group, from the 2009 Times report, Steve Forbes recently returned from opening up a Forbes magazine in India, bringing the number of foreign editions to 10
It is the largest outdoor advertising corporation in the world. The company was founded in 1964 in Lyon, France by Jean-Claude Decaux, over the years it has expanded aggressively, partly through acquisitions of smaller advertising companies in several countries. Its headquarters is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris, JCDecaux currently employs more than 13,030 people worldwide and maintains a presence in over 75 countries. In France alone, JCDecaux employs more than 3,500 people, Jean-Claude Decaux first created a company in 1955 that specialised in Outdoor advertising alongside motorways. Since the first concept of the bus shelter in 1964, JCDecaux has continued to innovate, during the 70s, JCDecaux launched its first Citylight Information Panels, a 2m² billboard with signage to indicate directions in cities to drivers. The first fully accessible automatic amenities were installed in San Francisco in 1994, although, in 1981, in 1981, JCDecaux developed the News Electronic Journal, which broadcast news relating to culture, sport and information about the city.
JCDecaux bought the Société Fermière des Colonnes Morris, the Senior billboards, which measure 8m² and allow multiple ads on a single site, were created in the 1980s. The first scrolling billboards appeared in 1988, which increased the number of advertising panels without raising the number of structures, in 1999, the group acquired Havas Media Communication and Avenir. This acquisition allowed the Group to expand into the large format advertising market, in 2001, JCDecaux entered the Euronext Stock Exchange with an opening share price of €16,50. In 2002, Jean-Claude Decaux passed the management of the company on to two of his three sons, Jean-Charles Decaux and Jean-François Decaux, who became co-CEOs of the company. JCDecaux installed its first rental system of bicycles in Vienna in 2003. In 2007, JCDecaux won a tender for Paris’ street furniture, today, JCDecaux is ranked the number one company worldwide in self-service bicycles, with a fleet of 52,000 bicycles now present in 70 cities. JCDecaux operates this service under the brand Cyclocity, in 2011, JCDecaux acquired MediaKiosk as the main shareholder.
As part of the data movement, JCDecaux made available its data system of the rental bike service in 2013. The company is recognized for its commitment to sustainable development. The JCDecaux Group specialises in advertising street furniture, large format billboards, advertising on public transport, Advertising street furniture was a concept invented by Jean-Claude Decaux. Street furniture includes bus shelters, Morris Columns, City Information Panels, such formats enable advertisers to reach city centres, where large format billboards are not available. Cities can retain a portion of the panels for their own use
When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form, Radio systems need a transmitter to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation. Radio systems need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, an antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving. The electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios allow individual stations to be selected, the electromagnetic wave is intercepted by a tuned receiving antenna. Radio frequencies occupy the range from a 3 kHz to 300 GHz, a radio communication system sends signals by radio. The term radio is derived from the Latin word radius, meaning spoke of a wheel, beam of light, this invention would not be widely adopted. The switch to radio in place of wireless took place slowly and unevenly in the English-speaking world, the United States Navy would play a role.
Although its translation of the 1906 Berlin Convention used the terms wireless telegraph and wireless telegram, the term started to become preferred by the general public in the 1920s with the introduction of broadcasting. Radio systems used for communication have the following elements, with more than 100 years of development, each process is implemented by a wide range of methods, specialised for different communications purposes. Each system contains a transmitter, This consists of a source of electrical energy, the transmitter contains a system to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it. This modulation might be as simple as turning the energy on and off, or altering more subtle such as amplitude, phase. Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave works by varying the strength of the signal in proportion to the information being sent. For example, changes in the strength can be used to reflect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker. It was the used for the first audio radio transmissions.
Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier, the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. FM has the capture effect whereby a receiver only receives the strongest signal, Digital data can be sent by shifting the carriers frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at Very high frequency radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music, analog TV sound is broadcast using FM. Angle modulation alters the phase of the carrier wave to transmit a signal