Special Broadcasting Service
The Special Broadcasting Service is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television network. SBS operates eight radio networks. SBS Online is home to SBS On Demand video streaming service; the stated purpose of SBS is "to provide multilingual and multicultural radio and television services that inform and entertain all Australians and, in doing so, reflect Australia's multicultural society". SBS is one of five main free-to-air networks in Australia; as a result of extensive post-World War II immigration to Australia, the federal government began to consider the need for "ethnic broadcasting" – programming targeted at ethnic minorities and delivered in languages other than English. Until 1970, radio stations were prevented by law from broadcasting in foreign languages for more than 2.5 hours per week. In June 1975, two "experimental" radio stations began broadcasting: 2EA in Sydney and 3EA in Melbourne. In March 1976, the federal government established the Consultative Committee on Ethnic Broadcasting, followed by the National Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Council in January 1977.
It was considered feasible for ethnic broadcasting to be delivered by the Australian Broadcasting Commission. In October 1977, the government announced the creation of SBS as a new independent statutory authority for ethnic broadcasting; this was achieved by an amendment to the Broadcasting Act 1942. SBS formally came into existence on 1 January 1978; the inaugural chairman of SBS was Grisha Sklovsky, the inaugural executive director was Ronald Fowell. The service was radio-only, had oversight only of the two existing stations 2EA and 3EA, it was always intended that it would be enlarged, but this process was controversial – the Federation of Australian Commercial Television Stations wanted the television functions to be controlled by the ABC. In March 1979, the government set up the Ethnic Television Review Panel, which recommended that SBS expand into television. SBS TV began test transmissions in April 1979 when it showed various foreign language programs on ABV-2 Melbourne and ABN-2 Sydney on Sunday mornings.
Full-time transmission began at 6:30 pm on 24 October 1980, as Channel 0/28. The first program shown was a documentary entitled Who Are We?, hosted by veteran news presenter Peter Luck. At the time, SBS was broadcasting on UHF Channel 28 and VHF Channel 0, with a planned discontinuation of the latter at some time in the future. Bruce Gyngell, who introduced television to Australia in 1956, was given the task of introducing the first batch of programs on the new station. SBS programming content was imported from the countries-of-origin of Australia's major migrant communities and subtitled in English. On 14 October 1983, the service expanded into Canberra and Goulburn and, at the same time, changed its name to Network 0–28, its new slogan was the long-running "Bringing the World Back Home". The network began daytime transmissions. SBS expanded to Brisbane, Newcastle and the Gold Coast in June of that year. On 5 January 1986, SBS ceased broadcasting on the VHF channel 0 frequency. Although many Australians at the time did not have UHF antennas, SBS's VHF licence had been extended by a year at this stage and not all antennas had worked well with the low-frequency Channel 0 either.
In August 1986, the government proposed legislation that would merge SBS into the ABC. This was unpopular with ethnic-minority communities, leading the Prime Minister of Australia, Bob Hawke, to announce in 1987 that the proposed amalgamation would not proceed; the SBS Radio and Television Youth Orchestra was launched in 1988 with founding conductor Matthew Krel. Plans to introduce limited commercial-program sponsorship, as well as the establishment of SBS as an independent corporation with its own charter, were put in place in July 1989. Eat Carpet, showcasing local and international short films, was launched in 1989; the proclamation of the Special Broadcasting Service Act 1991 made SBS a corporation in 1991. Throughout the early 1990s, SBS TV coverage was expanded further to include new areas such as the Latrobe Valley, Spencer Gulf, northeast Tasmania and Townsville. In 1992, SBS's radio and television facilities were moved to new headquarters in Artarmon, New South Wales, from their original studios at Bondi Junction and Milsons Point.
The new building was opened on 10 November 1993 by the prime minister, Paul Keating. A national radio network was launched in January 1994; the new service covered Brisbane, Adelaide and Darwin, while original stations 2EA and 3EA were renamed Radio Sydney and Radio Melbourne respectively. The new national service was launched on a separate frequency in Sydney and Melbourne in July of that year. Throughout 1996, radio services were expanded to cover Hobart and Canberra, while SBS TV's coverage was further expanded to include the New South Wales North Coast and Albury. South Park, SBS's most successful television series, was first aired in 1997. A time-delay system was installed for South Australia in May 1999, shortly before the establishment of the Transmission Services division. A New Media division, responsible for the SBS website, was established at the start of 2000 in time for the first webcast of the Australian Film Institute Awards. Ratings continued to increase through 2000 to 20
HSV (TV station)
HSV is a television station in Melbourne. It is part of the Seven Network, one of the three main commercial television networks in Australia, its first and oldest station, having been launched in time for the 1956 Summer Olympic Games in Melbourne. HSV-7 is the home of the AFL coverage; the HSV building is the network's operations hub, where the Master Control Room is located for all metropolitan and regional feeds to be controlled. Programming line-up, advertisement output, feed switching, time zone monitoring and national transmission output are delivered here. All Seven Network owned and operated studios have their LIVE signals relayed here ATN's output is fed to HSV and transmitted via satellite or fibre optic to the towers around metropolitan Sydney. In 2020 however, this function will transfer to a new play-out centre in Sydney as part of a joint venture with the Nine Network. HSV-7 began test transmissions in July 1956, the first 7 station in Australia and the first TV station in Melbourne, commencing broadcasting on 4 November, soon after the Commonwealth Government started issuing television licences.
In the opening ceremony, Eric Pearce declared: "We dedicate this station to the full service of the community. To Australian life – the happy families in the homes – we promise to serve you faithfully and well". HSV-7 and rival station GTV-9 were formed in time to broadcast the Melbourne Olympics, while Sydney stations TCN-9 and ATN-7 in Sydney relayed the Melbourne coverage. HSV-7 was owned by The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, owners of The Herald and The Sun; these two newspapers gave rise to the call sign HSV. In March 1960, the station converted an old cinema in Fitzroy into the southern hemisphere's first remote studio equipped with RCA TRT video tape recorders and vision mixing equipment, as well as major stage and artist areas and audience seating, it was connected to the station's main Dorcas Street studios by multiple microwave links. The studios were opened with a major live show featuring the US entertainer Bob Crosby and his band and the British comedian Jimmy Edwards, among others.
The station began to identify as Channel Seven in the late 1960s, since the early 1970s has used the national Seven Network logos, has followed the network's on-air presentation and programming. In 1979, Fairfax bought a substantial share of HSV-7 after many failed bids for the entire station. In December 1986, the station was purchased in its entirety by Rupert Murdoch's News Limited. In February 1987 HSV-7 was sold back to Fairfax, along with Brisbane station BTQ-7; as a result of the payback, HSV's unique faces - sports program World of Sport, newsreader Mal Walden and its Hello Melbourne campaign, Australia's contribution to the Hello News campaigns -were all pulled out, by 1987 its rights to Australian rules football telecasts were taken by the ABC's state station ABV-2. Walden moved to Ten as a result of this. In late 1987, the government introduced cross-media ownership laws which forced Fairfax to choose between its print and broadcast operations, it chose print, HSV-7 was sold to Christopher Skase's Qintex, which owned Seven stations in Sydney and Perth.
Skase himself pledged to revitalize the channel and its programs after years of ratings losses against Ten and Nine, as well as ABC and SBS, to bring it back to its place among Melbourne viewers. In 1990, Qintex was sent into damage control after Skase escaped extradition proceedings, the Seven Network became a discreet company. Entrepreneur Kerry Stokes bought the network in 1995. In November 2011, the station celebrated 55 years on air in Melbourne. At 9 am on Tuesday 10 December 2013, HSV-7 closed its analogue signal as part of the final phase of the national switchover to digital only transmissions; the event was marked on-screen with a special five-minute retrospective of the station's local and networked programming during its 57 years on air. HSV's production studios and headquarters were located at the Dorcas Street Studios in South Melbourne. HSV remained at the Dorcas Street Studios until March 2002 when news, current affairs and sport shows were moved to a new headquarters at Docklands.
The main production studios in Dorcas Street were sold off to Global Television in 2007, while the former offices and news studios were demolished in 2009. The Seven Network now chooses to hire studios facilities for its Melbourne-based entertainment and reality programmes. Docklands Studios Melbourne and Global Television is home to shows such as Dancing with the Stars and the quiz show The Chase Australia; the new facilities, known as Broadcast Centre Melbourne or BCM, are located near the Marvel Stadium in Docklands. On 11 March 2002, the first Seven News Melbourne bulletin, fronted by Peter Mitchell, was broadcast from these offices for the first time; the centre consists of three studios: a theatre studio, a product studio and a news studio that opens onto the newsroom. The offices are used as the transmission control centre for Seven's owned-and-operated stations in Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and regional areas of Queensland. 200 full-time employees work in the building with an additional 100 hired casual or part-time.
In 2005, BCM experienced a major power failure which resu
Tabloid (newspaper format)
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format; the term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, celebrity gossip and television, is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a high standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets if the newspaper is now printed on smaller pages; the word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. to the compressed tablets they marketed as "Tabloid" pills in the late 1880s. The connotation of tabloid was soon applied to other small compressed items. A 1902 item in London's Westminster Gazette noted, "The proprietor intends to give in tabloid form all the news printed by other journals." Thus "tabloid journalism" in 1901 meant a paper that condensed stories into a simplified absorbed format.
The term preceded the 1918 reference to smaller sheet newspapers that contained the condensed stories. Tabloid newspapers in the United Kingdom, vary in their target market, political alignment, editorial style, circulation. Thus, various terms have been coined to describe the subtypes of this versatile paper format. There are, two main types of tabloid newspaper: red top and compact; the distinction is of editorial style. Red top tabloids are so named due to their tendency, in British and Commonwealth usage, to have their mastheads printed in red ink. Red top tabloids, named after their distinguishing red mastheads, employ a form of writing known as tabloid journalism. Celebrity gossip columns which appear in red top tabloids and focus on their sexual practices, misuse of narcotics, the private aspects of their lives border on, sometimes cross the line of defamation. Red tops tend to be written with a straightforward vocabulary and grammar; the writing style of red top tabloids is accused of sensationalism.
In the extreme case, red top tabloids have been accused of lying or misrepresenting the truth to increase circulation. Examples of British red top newspapers include the Daily Star and the Daily Mirror. In contrast to red-top tabloids, compacts use an editorial style more associated with broadsheet newspapers. In fact, most compact tabloids used the broadsheet paper size, but changed to accommodate reading in tight spaces, such as on a crowded commuter bus or train; the term compact was coined in the 1970s by the Daily Mail, one of the earlier newspapers to make the change, although it now once again calls itself a tabloid. The purpose behind this was to avoid the association of the word tabloid with the flamboyant, salacious editorial style of the red top newspaper; the early converts from broadsheet format made the change in the 1970s. In 2003, The Independent made the change for the same reasons followed by The Scotsman and The Times. On the other hand, The Morning Star had always used the tabloid size, but stands in contrast to both the red top papers and the former broadsheets.
Compact tabloids, just like broadsheet- and Berliner-format newspapers, span the political spectrum from progressive to conservative and from capitalist to socialist. In Morocco, Maroc Soir, launched in November 2005, is published in tabloid format. In South Africa, the Bloemfontein-based daily newspaper Volksblad became the first serious broadsheet newspaper to switch to tabloid, but only on Saturdays. Despite the format proving to be popular with its readers, the newspaper remains broadsheet on weekdays; this is true of Pietermaritzburg's daily, The Witness in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The Daily Sun, published by Naspers, has since become South Africa's biggest-selling daily newspaper and is aimed at the black working class, it sells over 500,000 copies per day, reaching 3,000,000 readers. Besides offering a sometimes satirical view of the seriousness of mainstream news, the Daily Sun covers fringe theories and paranormal claims such as tokoloshes, ancestral visions and all things supernatural.
It is published as the Sunday Sun. In Bangladesh, The Daily Manabzamin became the first and is now the largest circulated Bengali language tabloid in the world, in 1998. Published from Bangladesh, by renowned news presenter Mahbuba Chowdhury, the Daily Manab Zamin is ranked in the Top 500 newspaper websites, in the Top 10 Bengali news site categories in the world, is the only newspaper in Bangladesh which houses credentials with FIFA, UEFA, The Football Association, Warner Bros. A
The Argus (Melbourne)
The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, established in 1846 and closed in 1957. It was considered to be the general Australian newspaper of record for this period. Known as a conservative newspaper for most of its history, it adopted a left-leaning approach from 1949; the Argus's main competitor was The Age. The newspaper was owned by William Kerr, a journalist who had worked with The Sydney Gazette before moving to Melbourne in 1839 to work on John Pascoe Fawkner's newspaper, the Port Phillip Patriot; the first edition was published on 2 June 1846, with the paper soon known for its scurrilous abuse and sarcasm, such that by 1853, Kerr had lost ownership after a series of libel suits. The paper was published under the name of Edward Wilson. By the 1880s, Richard Twopeny regarded it as "the best daily paper published out of England." The paper become a stablemate to the weekly, The Australasian, to become The Australasian Post in 1946. During the Depression in 1933, it launched the Melbourne Evening Star in competition with The Herald newspaper of The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, but was forced to close the venture in 1936.
In 1949 the paper was acquired by the London-based Daily Mirror newspaper group. On 28 July 1952, The Argus became the first newspaper in the world to publish colour photographs in a daily paper; the paper had interests in radio and, in 1956, the new medium of television, being part of the consortium General Telecasters Victoria and its television station GTV-9. The company's newspaper operation experienced a severe loss of profitability in the 1950s, attributable to increased costs of newsprint and acute competition for newspaper circulation in Melbourne. In 1957, the paper was discontinued and sold to the Herald and Weekly Times group, which undertook to re-employ Argus staff and continue publication of selected features, HWT made an allocation of shares to the UK owners; the final edition was published on 19 January 1957. The company's other print and broadcasting operations were unaffected; the takeover of The Argus by the powerful Mirror Group, of Fleet Street, led to hopes of a renaissance for The Argus.
Fresh capital, new ideas, new strategies from London. But instead, the new arrivals from England finished up destroying their new possession. Frederick William Haddon – Argus sub-editor in 1863, editor 1867–1898 Edward Wilson Andrew Murray, editor in 1855 and 1856 Howard Willoughby Julian Howard Ashton, journalist and critic Roy Curthoys, editor 1929–1935 List of newspapers in Australia Argus Building Argus finals system, a series of systems for determining the Premiers of the Victorian Football League and other Australian rules football competitions in the early 20th century Australasian Sketcher with Pen and Pencil Don Hauser, The Printers of the Streets and Lanes Of Melbourne Nondescript Press, Melbourne 2006 Jim Usher The Argus – life and death of a newspaper Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne 2008 The Melbourne Argus at Trove The Argus at Trove The Argus: Special War Edition – 1 May 1915 Digitised World War I Victorian newspapers from the State Library of Victoria
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
Deal or No Deal (Australian game show)
Deal or No Deal was an Australian game show that aired on the Seven Network between 2003 and 2015. It was the first international version of the game show, after the original Dutch version, it was the first of the versions to use No Deal name. The show was recorded at the studio facilities of Global Television located in the Melbourne suburb of Southbank; the top prize of $200,000 was won by four contestants. Many changes were made to No Deal during its run; these included, among others, changing from a weekly format to a daily format, which resulted in the reduction of the top prize from $2,000,000 to $200,000. The show included many special episodes including several hour-long prime-time specials and the successful Dancing with the Deals which occurred in conjunction with Dancing with the Stars; the program celebrated its 1,000th episode on 8 September 2008. The narrator that introduced the show between 2003-2011 was Marcus Irvine, the voiceover on The Weakest Link. In 2012, Irvine was replaced by John Deeks as narrator.
No new episodes were produced since 2013, with only repeat episodes airing at 5:00 pm weeknights from October 2013 to September 2015. It was announced in March 2014 that no new episodes will be produced, in August 2015 it was announced that the show, along with Million Dollar Minute, would be axed and replaced by a new one-hour game show titled The Chase Australia; the show begins in a studio with six groups of 26 people sitting in stands. One group is randomly selected, who move onto the podium. In the chosen group, one person, based on personality, is picked to be the main contestant; the contestant selects one of the briefcases to be placed at the front, the other briefcases are distributed to the other 25 contestants on the podium. Each briefcase contains a hidden amount of money; the contestant begins the game by opening six cases. To open the case, the podium player holding the case must first guess the amount that they have in their briefcase, winning $500 if their guess is proved correct upon opening the briefcase.
This process is repeated for the next five cases. After the first six cases, the major contestant is given a "Bank Offer," based on the arithmetic mean of the remaining briefcases: the higher the values in the remaining briefcases, the higher the offer; the contestant now has to decide between a "Deal" or "No Deal". If the contestant says Deal, they win the money, offered, they must open the rest of the cases to see if they made the right decision. If the contestant says No Deal play continues; the contestant chooses another five cases, followed by another bank offer four cases. This pattern continues. If the player continues to the end without making a "Deal", the game ends with their own briefcase being opened and the amount in that briefcase being won. Exceptions to the end of the game include the introduction of either a Super Case, Double or Nothing cases or a second Chance. See below for more information on them. After every game a large blue fake cheque is given to the contestant displaying the amount of money won, but if someone wins one of the green amounts, the cheque will have a green coloured background for the following amounts: $50,000, $75,000, $100,000 and $200,000.
A light blue cheque is given to a contestant for the 50c amount if they win 50c. The money is given directly to the contestant, such as a single $1 coin if somebody wins $1; because of the rule of podium players guessing what is in their cases, contestants are not allowed the opportunity to swap cases if they turn down every bank offer. The Australian version of Deal or No Deal has a number of special features to make the show entertaining: Super Case, Double or Nothing and Risk it All all occur at the end of the game. Due to time restrictions, these four occur rarely. Only one of these features is used per episode. At the end of the program a Super Case is brought out; this feature was introduced in 2004. Contestants have the opportunity to either keep the deal they made or forfeit it and take whatever value is hidden in the Super Case; the Super Case contains one of the following values: 50c, $50, $500, $5,000, $10,000, $20,000, $30,000 & $50,000.. Super Cases appear in most episodes when contestants take a deal of $10,000 when there are at least five cases left on the board, appear in any other circumstances.
This means that the Super Case offers a 50/50 chance at equalling the $10,000 deal. If contestants take a $10,000 deal with fewer than four cases left on the board, Super Cases are rare because there is not any time left in the show to run it. During the 2006 season, the way of telling the contestant that a Super Case will be brought out changed, where instead of the Super Case panel flashing, a Super Case alert flashes beside the'Cases remaining' panel, remains there until it is brought out. In 2010 the Super Case has been used more frequently. At the start of the game the host, will reveal it's a "Fantastic Four day!" Fantastic Four occurs sometimes. It first aired back in 2009; the additional $50,000 is
Ripponlea is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, named after the adjoining Rippon Lea Estate. It is 7 km south east of Melbourne's Central Business District, its local government area is the City of Port Phillip. At the 2011 Census, Ripponlea had a population of 1,478. Ripponlea is centred on the intersection of Glen Eira Hotham Street. In terms of its cadastral division, Ripponlea is in the Parish of Prahran, within the County of Bourke; the suburb is named after Rippon Lea Estate. After the death of Frederick Sargood in 1903, the estate's original owner, some of his property was subdivided to form the current suburb of Ripponlea. Since 1909, Ripponlea has been the site of Caulfield Grammar School's senior school; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Ripponlea television studios were built in 1954 on land compulsorily acquired from the Rippon Lea Estate, by the Victorian State Government. The studios closed in 2017. Ripponlea has the Ripponlea railway station, located on the Sandringham Line.
City of St Kilda - the former local government area of which Ripponlea was a part History of Rippon Lea