Chico is the most populous city in Butte County, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 86,187, reflecting an increase of 26,233 from the 59,954 counted in the 2000 Census; the city is the cultural and educational center of the northern Sacramento Valley and home to both California State University and Bidwell Park, the country's 26th largest municipal park and the 13th largest municipally-owned park. Bidwell Park makes up over 17% of the city. Other cities in close proximity to the Chico Metropolitan Area include Paradise and Oroville, while local towns and villages include Durham, Dayton and Forest Ranch; the Chico Metropolitan Area is the 14th largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in California. The nickname "City of Roses" appears on the Seal of the City of Chico; the city has been designated a Tree City USA for 31 years by the National Arbor Day Foundation. The first known inhabitants of the area now known as Chico were the Mechoopda Maidu Native Americans.
The City of Chico was founded in 1860 by John Bidwell, a member of one of the first wagon trains to reach California in 1843. During the American Civil War, Camp Bidwell, was established a mile outside Chico, by Lt. Col. A. E. Hooker with a company of cavalry and two of infantry, on August 26, 1863. By early 1865 it was being referred to as Camp Chico when a post called Camp Bidwell was established in northeast California to be Fort Bidwell; the city became incorporated January 8, 1872. Chico was home to a significant Chinese American community when it was first incorporated, but arsonists burned Chico's Chinatown in February 1886, driving Chinese Americans out of town. Historian W. H. "Old Hutch" Hutchinson identified five events as the most seminal in Chico history. They included the arrival of John Bidwell in 1850, the arrival of the California and Oregon Railroad in 1870, the establishment in 1887 of the Northern Branch of the State Normal School, which became California State University, the purchase of the Sierra Lumber Company by the Diamond Match Company in 1900, the development of the Army Air Base, now the Chico Municipal Airport.
Several other significant events have unfolded in Chico more recently. These include the construction and relocation of Route 99E through town in the early 1960s, the founding of Sierra Nevada Brewing Company in 1979—what would become one of the top breweries in the nation—and the establishment of a "Green Line" on the western city limits as protection of agricultural lands. Chico is at the northeast edge of the Sacramento Valley, one of the richest agricultural areas in the world; the Sierra Nevada mountains lie to the east and south, with Chico's city limits venturing several miles into the foothills. To the west, the Sacramento River lies 5 miles from the city limits. Chico sits on the Sacramento Valley floor close to the foothills of the Cascade Range to the north and the Sierra Nevada range to the east and south. Big Chico Creek is the demarcation line between the ranges; the city's terrain is flat with hilly terrain beginning at the eastern city limits. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.8 square miles, of which 27.7 square miles is land and 0.04% is water.
The city is bisected by Bidwell Park, which runs 5 miles from the flat city center deep into the foothills. The city is traversed by two creeks and a flood channel, which feeds the Sacramento River, they are named Big Chico Creek, Little Chico Creek, Lindo Channel. Downtown Chico is located between Big Chico Creek and Little Chico Creek; the downtown has a street grid offset 49.75° from the four cardinal directions. There are numbered streets and avenues, which run east-northeast to west-southwest. Blocks are addressed in hundreds corresponding to the numbered streets and avenues. While the east-northeast to west-southwest streets and avenues are numbered, streets running north-northwest to south-southeast are named after trees; the part of the "tree" streets that intersect the Chico State campus spell the word "CHICO" at Chestnut, Ivy and Orange streets. The main thoroughfare running northwest–southeast through the city is State Route Business 99, not to be confused with Highway 99. Business 99 has several common names.
From Northwest to Southeast, these are Esplanade, Main Street/Broadway, Main Street/Oroville Avenue, Park Avenue, Midway. The city streets are designated as "east" or "west" by their relation to this street. There are numbered avenues both of which flow east -- west; this fact can cause confusion. The "streets" are south of the Chico State campus through downtown, while the "avenues" are north of campus through The Esplanade. There are no left turns permitted onto any odd numbered avenue from The Esplanade, in either direction, with the exception of West 11th Avenue. In the numbered streets and avenues and most other streets that intersect The Esplanade and Park, the west addresses are all numbers whose last two digits are 00 through 49 and the east addresses are all numbers whose last two digits are 50 through 99. There are few exceptions. On most Chico streets odd addresses are on the south side of the street. Standing at the bridge over the Big Chico Creek—where Main Street changes to The Esplanade—and facing north, the odd addresses are on the left.
This convention holds for all the numbered avenues. However, while facing
In stationery, a Diary, Datebook, Appointment Book, Planner or Agenda is a small book containing a main diary section with a space for each day of the year with room for notes, a calendar, various pages at the beginning and end containing various pieces of reference information, which may include maps and telephone codes, pages for a short address book at the end. Most diaries are pre-printed for a specific year, printed on the cover, with each day's space therefore able to be printed with the day of the week; however diaries that can be used for any year are produced. Page-marker ribbons are included; the US Customs official definition of a diary is: "A book prepared for keeping a daily record, or having spaces with printed dates for daily memoranda and jottings. The main different sizes produced are the small pocket diary and larger desk diary, both of which come in many different sizes. Any size may be referred to as an appointment diary larger diaries with pre-printed lines for each period in the day, as in the picture above.
A large variety of layout formats are sold, including: page per day week per view/opening week per page month per view/openingOften, as in the diary pictured above, weekend days are given less space than workdays. Small calendars of the current month, if there is room and following months at the bottom of the page are typical. Most diaries run from January to December, but school or academic diaries known as "mid-year" diaries, run for twelve months from shortly before the beginning of the school or academic year. Many diaries are themed for different interest groups, contain relevant reference information to that interest, others are given as gifts by businesses. In diaries for children or young people, many are now branded for fictional characters, recording artists or magazines; the British stationery business now called the Letts Filofax Group Ltd produced the world's first pre-printed diary in 1812, calling it the "Commercial Diary". Printed diaries now compete with loose-leaf personal organizers and various electronic forms of diary functions on personal computers, personal digital assistants and mobile telephones.
Library of Congress Seven pocket diaries of Theodore Roosevelt
An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, theatre, video games, or academics in any medium. Audience members participate in different ways in different kinds of art. Media audience studies have become a recognized part of the curriculum. Audience theory offers scholarly insight into audiences in general; these insights shape our knowledge of just how audiences affect and are affected by different forms of art. The biggest art form is the mass media. Films, video games, radio shows and other formats are affected by the audience and its reviews and recommendations. In the age of easy internet participation and citizen journalism, professional creators share space, sometimes attention with the public. American journalist Jeff Jarvis said, "Give the people control of media, they will use it; the corollary: Don't give the people control of media, you will lose. Whenever citizens can exercise control, they will." Tom Curley, President of the Associated Press said, "The users are deciding what the point of their engagement will be — what application, what device, what time, what place."
In rhetoric, some audiences depend on circumstance and situation, are characterized by the individuals that make up the audience. Sometimes these audiences are subject to engage with the ideas of the speaker. Ranging in size and composition, this audience may come together and form a "composite" of multiple groups. An immediate audience is a type of audience, composed of individuals who are face-to-face subjects with a speaker and a speaker's rhetorical text or speech; this audience directly listens to, engages with, consumes the rhetorical text in an unmediated fashion. In measuring immediate audience reception and feedback, one can depend on personal interviews and verbal comments made during and after a rhetorical speech. In contrast to immediate audiences, mediated audiences are composed of individuals who consume rhetorical texts in a manner, different from the time or place in which a speaker presents text. Audiences who consume texts or speeches through television and internet are considered mediated audiences because those mediums separate the rhetor and the audience.
Such audiences are physically away from the audience and the message is controlled. Understanding the size and composition of mediated audiences can be difficult because mediums such as television and Internet can displace the audience from the time and circumstance of a rhetorical text or speech. In measuring mediated audience reception and feedback, one can depend on opinion polls and ratings, as well as comments and forums that may be featured on a website; this applies to may fields such as movies and much more. There are companies. Theoretical audiences are imagined for the purpose of helping a speaker compose, practice, or a critic to understand, a rhetorical text or speech; when a rhetor considers and deliberates over the content of the ideas they are conveying, it can be said that these individuals are addressing the audience of self, or self-deliberating. Scholars Chaim Perelman and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca, in their book The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation, argue that the rhetor "is in a better position than anyone else to test the value of his own arguments."
The audience of self, while not serving as the ends to all rhetorical purpose or circumstance acts as a type of audience that not only operates as a function of self-help, but as instrument used to discover the available means of persuasion. The universal audience is an imagined audience that serves as an ethical and argumentative test for the rhetor; this requires the speaker to imagine a composite audience that contains individuals from diverse backgrounds and to discern whether or not the content of the rhetorical text or speech would appeal to individuals within that audience. Scholars Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca ascertain that the content addressed to a universal audience "must convince the reader that the reasons adduced are of a compelling character, that they are self-evident, possess an absolute and timeless validity"; the concept of the universal audience has received criticism for being idealistic because it can be considered as an impediment in achieving persuasive effect with particular audiences.
Yet, it still may be useful as an ethical guide for a speaker and a critical tool for a reader or audience. An ideal audience is a rhetor's imagined, intended audience. In creating a rhetorical text, a rhetor imagines is the target audience, a group of individuals that will be addressed, persuaded, or affected by the speech or rhetorical text; this type of audience is not imagined as the most receptive audience, but as the future particular audience that the rhetor will engage with. Imagining such an audience allows a rhetor to formulate appeals that will grant success in engaging with the future particular audience. In considering an ideal audience, a rhetor can imagine future conditions of mediation, size and shared beliefs among the audience to be persuaded. An implied audience is an imaginary audience determined by an auditor or reader as the text's constructed audience; the implied audience is not the actual audience, but the one that can be inferred by reading or analyzing the text. Communications scholar Edwin Black, in his essay, The Second Persona, presents the theoretical concep
Lancaster is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States. With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvania's cities; the Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the U. S. and second largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area. The city's primary industries include healthcare, public administration and both professional and semi-professional services. Lancaster hosts more electronic public CCTV outdoor cameras per capita than cities such as Boston or San Francisco, despite controversy among residents. Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nation's 15th president, to congressman and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens. Called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright, its symbol, is from the House of Lancaster. Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penn's Woods Charter of William Penn, was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734.
It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818. During the American Revolution, Lancaster was the capital of the United States for one day, on September 27, 1777, after the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, captured by the British; the revolutionary government moved still farther away to York, Pennsylvania. Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg. In 1851, the current Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England; the prison remains in use, was used for public hangings until 1912. It replaced a 1737 structure on a different site; the first paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, which makes up part of the present-day U. S. Route 30. Opened in 1795, the Turnpike connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia, was designed by a Scottish engineer named John Loudon McAdam. Lancaster residents are known to use the word "macadam" in lieu of asphalt.
This name is a reference to the paving process named for McAdam. The city of Lancaster was home to several important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancaster's most popular attractions. Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney. Stevens gained notoriety for his abolitionism; the Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had local schools named after them. After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center. Two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster: the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle; the Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River. The innovative gunsmith William Henry lived in Lancaster and was a U.
S. congressman and leader during and after the American Revolution. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott. During his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In 1879, Franklin Winfield Woolworth opened his first successful "five and dime" store in the city of Lancaster, the F. W. Woolworth Company. Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000. On October 13, 2011, Lancaster's City Council recognized September 27 as Capital Day, a holiday recognizing Lancaster's one day as capital of the United States in 1777. Lancaster is located at 40°02'23" North, 76°18'16" West, is 368 feet above sea level; the city is located about 34 miles southeast of Harrisburg, 70 miles west of Philadelphia, 55 miles north-northeast of Baltimore and 87 miles northeast of Washington, D. C; the nearest towns and boroughs are Millersville, Willow Street, East Petersburg, Landisville, Mountville and Leola.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.4 square miles of it is land and 0.14% is water. Lancaster has a humid subtropical climate with hot or warm summers; as of the 2010 census, the city was 55.2% White, 16.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, 5.8% were two or more races. 39.3 % of the population were of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 56,348 people, 20,933 households, 12,162 families residing in the city; the population density was 7,616.5 people per square mile. There were 23,024 housing units at an average density of 3,112.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 61.55% White, 14.09% African American, 0.44% Native American, 2.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 17.44% from other races, 3.94% from two or more races. 30.76 % of the population were Latino people of any race. The largest ethnic groups in Lancaster as of recent estimates are: Puerto Rican 29.2% German 21.2% African American 12.8% Irish 8.6% English 8.2% Italian 4.1% Dominican 3.2% Polish 2.0% Scottish 1.9% Mexican 1.8% Cuban 1.7% West Indian 1.0%In 2010, 29.2% of Lancaster residents were of P
Code of Federal Regulations
The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles; the CFR annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published by the Office of the Federal Register and the Government Publishing Office. In addition to this annual edition, the CFR is published in an unofficial format online on the Electronic CFR website, updated daily. Under the nondelegation doctrine, federal agencies are authorized by "enabling legislation" to promulgate regulations; the process of rulemaking is governed by the Administrative Procedure Act: the APA requires a process that includes publication of the proposed rules in a notice of proposed rulemaking, a period for comments and participation in the decisionmaking, adoption and publication of the final rule, via the Federal Register. The rules and regulations are first published in the Federal Register.
The CFR is structured into 50 subject matter titles. Agencies are assigned chapters within these titles; the titles are broken down into chapters, parts and paragraphs. For example, 42 CFR 260.11 would be read as "title 42, part 260, section 11, paragraph." While new regulations are continually becoming effective, the printed volumes of the CFR are issued once each calendar year, on this schedule: Titles 1–16 are updated as of January 1 Titles 17–27 are updated as of April 1 Titles 28–41 are updated as of July 1 Titles 42–50 are updated as of October 1The Office of the Federal Register keeps an unofficial, online version of the CFR, the e-CFR, updated within two days after changes that have been published in the Federal Register become effective. The Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules lists rulemaking authority for regulations codified in the CFR; the CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad subject areas: Title 1: General Provisions Title 2: Grants and Agreements Title 3: The President Title 4: Accounts Title 5: Administrative Personnel Title 6: Domestic Security Title 7: Agriculture Title 8: Aliens and Nationality Title 9: Animals and Animal Products Title 10: Energy Title 11: Federal Elections Title 12: Banks and Banking Title 13: Business Credit and Assistance Title 14: Aeronautics and Space Title 15: Commerce and Foreign Trade Title 16: Commercial Practices Title 17: Commodity and Securities Exchanges Title 18: Conservation of Power and Water Resources Title 19: Customs Duties Title 20: Employees' Benefits Title 21: Food and Drugs Title 22: Foreign Relations Title 23: Highways Title 24: Housing and Urban Development Title 25: Indians Title 26: Internal Revenue Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms Title 28: Judicial Administration Title 29: Labor Title 30: Mineral Resources Title 31: Money and Finance: Treasury Title 32: National Defense Title 33: Navigation and Navigable Waters Title 34: Education Title 35: Reserved Title 36: Parks and Public Property Title 37: Patents and Copyrights Title 38: Pensions and Veterans' Relief Title 39: Postal Service Title 40: Protection of Environment Title 41: Public Contracts and Property Management Title 42: Public Health Title 43: Public Lands: Interior Title 44: Emergency Management and Assistance Title 45: Public Welfare Title 46: Shipping Title 47: Telecommunication Title 48: Federal Acquisition Regulations System Title 49: Transportation Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries The Federal Register Act provided for a complete compilation of all existing regulations promulgated prior to the first publication of the Federal Register, but was amended in 1937 to provide a codification of all regulations every five years.
The first edition of the CFR was published in 1938. Beginning in 1963 for some titles and for all titles in 1967, the Office of the Federal Register began publishing yearly revisions, beginning in 1972 published revisions in staggered quarters. On March 11, 2014, Rep. Darrell Issa introduced the Federal Register Modernization Act, a bill that would revise requirements for the filing of documents with the Office of the Federal Register for inclusion in the Federal Register and for the publication of the Code of Federal Regulations to reflect the changed publication requirement in which they would be available online but would not be required to be printed; the American Association of Law Libraries opposed the bill, arguing that the bill undermines citizens' right to be informed by making it more difficult for citizens to find their government's regulations. According to AALL, a survey they conducted "revealed that members of the public, researchers, students and small business owners continue to rely on the print" version of the Federal Register.
AALL argued that the lack of print versions of the Federal Register and CFR would mean the 15 percent of Americans who don't use the internet would lose their access to that material. The House voted on July 14, 2014 to pass the bill 386–0. Regulations.gov United States Reports California Code of Regulations Florida Administrative Code Illinois Administrative Code Code of Massachusetts Regulations New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules New Jersey Administrative Code New York Codes and Regulations Oregon Administrative Rules Pennsylvania Code "About Code of Federal Regulations". Government Publishing Office. "A Res
Redding the City of Redding, is the county seat of Shasta County, California, in the northern part of the state. It lies along the Sacramento River, 162 miles north of Sacramento, 120 miles south of California's northern border, shared with the state of Oregon. Interstate 5 bisects the entire city, from the south to north before it approaches Shasta Lake, located 15 miles to the north; the 2010 population was 89,861. Redding is the largest city in the Shasta Cascade region, it is the sixth-largest city in the Sacramento Valley, behind Sacramento, Elk Grove, Roseville and Chico. During the gold rush, the area that now comprises Redding was called Poverty Flats. In 1868 the first land agent for the Central Pacific Railroad, a former Sacramento politician named Benjamin Bernard Redding, bought property in Poverty Flats on behalf of the railroad so that it could build a northern terminus there. In the process of building the terminus, the railroad built a town in the same area, which they named Redding in honor of Benjamin Redding.
In 1874 there was a dispute over the name by local legislators and it was changed for a time to Reading, in order to honor Pierson B. Reading, who founded the community of Shasta, but the name was changed back to Redding by 1880, it has been called Redding since. Before European settlers came to the area, it was inhabited by a tribe of Native Americans called the Wintu. At their height, the Wintu had as many as 239 villages in the Shasta County area. Although Europeans had been to California as early as 1542, when Juan Cabrillo sailed to what is now the San Diego Bay, the indigenous Indians were the only inhabitants of far Northern California region until Russian fur trappers came through the area in 1815; the first European settlement in the area was established in 1844 by Pierson B. Reading, an early California pioneer who received a Rancho Buena Ventura Mexican land grant for 26,632 acres, now covered by Redding and Cottonwood, California. At the time, it was the northernmost nonnative settlement in California.
During the gold rush, the area, now Redding was called Poverty Flats. In 1868 the first land agent for the Central Pacific Railroad, a former Sacramento politician named Benjamin Bernard Redding, bought property in Poverty Flats on behalf of the railroad for a northern terminus. In the process of building the terminus, the railroad built the town of Redding, incorporated on October 4, 1887. In the early twentieth century the town's economic growth was spurred by the significant copper and iron mineral extraction industry nearby. However, the mining industry declined, causing the economy and population to falter by 1920, it recovered in the thirties as the economy boomed due to the construction of Shasta Dam to the northwest. The building of the dam, completed in 1945, caused Redding's population to nearly double spurring the growth and development of other towns in the area. Redding continued to grow in the 1950es due to the region's growing lumber industry and tourism brought about by the newly completed dam.
The constructions of Whiskeytown and Keswick dams helped boost the economy by bringing new workers to the area. Highway Interstate 5 was built during the sixties and seventies, which added to development and tourism in the region. Growth in Redding during the'60s and'70s was caused by annexation of an area east of the Sacramento River made up of the unincorporated community of Enterprise. Enterprise residents voted to support the annexation to acquire less expensive electricity via Redding's municipal utility, which receives power from the dam. During the 1970s, the lumber industry suffered from decline. Lumber mills in the area closed down and impacted the Redding area. Things picked up, due to a retail and housing boom in the late-1980s that continued until the mid-1990s. In 2017, the city adopted a new flag after holding a redesign contest. In late July 2018, the Carr Fire in Shasta county impacted the Redding area with the destruction of at least 1100 buildings, with several thousand more threatened, 38,000 people instructed to evacuate and 6 deaths.
Redding is located at 40°34′36″N 122°22′13″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 61.2 square miles. 59.6 square miles of it is land, 1.5 square miles of it is beneath water. Redding is located at the northwestern end of the Central Valley, which transitions into the Cascade foothills; the city is surrounded by mountains to the north and west and fertile farm land to the south. Outermost parts of the city are part of the Cascade foothills, whereas southern and central areas are in the Sacramento Valley; the elevation in Redding is 495 feet on average, whereas anywhere to the north, east, or west of downtown ranges between 550 feet and 800 feet feet. Southern portions range between 500 feet; the Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River provides a considerable level of flood protection for Redding. The dam is capable of controlling flows up to 79,000 cubic feet per second; the flow rate exceeded this threshold in both 1970 and 1974. Soils in and around town are composed of clay or gravelly loam texture, with red or brown mineral horizons.
They are or moderately acidic in their natural state. Redwood Estates Los Robles Estates Mountain Shadows Mobile Home Estates Twin View Terrace Mobile Home Park Redding Lakeside Mobile Homes Estates There are several rare and endangered species in Redding and its immediate vicinity; the Redding Redevelopment Plan EIR no