click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Media of Belarus

The media of Belarus are mass-media outlets based in Belarus. Television and newspapers are operated by state-owned and for-profit corporations and depend on advertising and other sales-related revenue; the Constitution of Belarus guarantees freedom of speech, but this is contradicted in practice by repressive and restrictive laws. Arbitrary detention and harassment of journalists are frequent in Belarus. Anti-extremism legislation targets independent journalism, including material considered unfavourable to the president; the legal framework of Belarusian media include the Constitution of Belarus, the Закон Республики Беларусь "О средствах массовой информации", international obligations and treaties, by-laws. The Media Law of Belarus, enacted in February 2009, required the registration of mass media by February 2010; some articles of the law are considered to restricting Belarusian citizens' constitutional rights to freedom of speech a free press. Despite constitutional protections, criticizing the president or the government is a criminal offense in Belarus.

No guarantee exists for public access to a free trial. A politicized legal system and obscure regulations are used to harass independent media outlets in Belarus. Since it is not a member of the Council of Europe, Belarus is not bound to the European Convention on Human Rights. More than 20 journalists were questioned, warned or fined in 2014 for "illegal production and distribution of media products". Belarusian journalists adopted two ethical codes in 1995: "Кодекс профессиональной этики журналиста" and "Кодекс журналистской этики"; the Ministry of Information of Belarus, established in 2001, is the country's media regulator. Licensing and registration procedures are opaque and politicized. Since 2009, all media outlets must register to avoid being blocked. Independent publications have been forced to use foreign-based internet domains. Outlets which "threaten the interests of the state" may shut down. In February 2009, the government established a Public Coordination Council for Mass Information to coordinate the interaction of state management, public associations and other organisations generating mass information, enforce mass-media laws, answer legal questions.

Journalists need to receive press accreditation by the authorities to be authorized "to cover events organised by state bodies, political parties, other public associations, other legal persons as well as other events taking place in the territory of the Republic of Belarus and outside it". Freelance journalists do not have the right to have accreditation, journalists working for independent media are denied accreditation; this means. Freedom of the press in Belarus remains restricted. State-owned media are subordinate to the president, harassment and censorship of independent media are routine; the government intimidates independent and foreign media for reporting on the deteriorating economy and human-rights abuses. Journalists and detained for reporting on unauthorized demonstrations or working with unregistered media outlets, have died under suspicious circumstances. Most local independent outlets practice self-censorship. Reporters Without Borders ranked Belarus 154th out of 178 countries in its 2010 Press Freedom Index.

In the 2011 Freedom House Freedom of the Press report, Belarus scored 92 on a scale from 10 to 99 because Aleksandr Lukashenko's regime curtails press freedom. The score placed Belarus ninth from the bottom of the 196 countries included in the report, giving the country "not free" status. Belarus hosts state- and owned media. In 2009 there were 1,314 media outlets in the country, of which 414 were state-owned and 900 owned; the country has a monopoly of terrestrial broadcasting infrastructure, does not allow cable companies to carry channels without prior approval. State-owned postal and kiosk distribution systems and state-owned print facilities and advertising contracts are off-limits for independent media; the country's Internet is controlled by Beltelecom. State media are supported with tax subsidies. Most state-dominated media in Belarus praise President Alexander Lukashenko and vilify the opposition. Self-censorship is pervasive in private outlets; the Belarusian government maintains a "virtual monopoly" of domestic broadcast media.

Independent broadcasters from neighboring countries include Belsat TV, Radio Racyia and European Radio for Belarus. Bloggers and online journalism used to be free, but the government has begun censoring the World Wide Web. Belarus hosts nine news agencies. BelaPAN: Private news agency founded in 1991 Interfax-West: Part of Interfax, it has operated in Belarus since 1994 and caters to national and local media, it established the agricultural agency Agrobel.by. Ecopress Minsk News News Release PRIME-TASS Union Info Vladimir Grevtsov Agency (Агентство

Denmark Vesey

Denmark Vesey was a literate, skilled carpenter and leader of African Americans in Charleston, South Carolina. In June 1822 he was accused and convicted of being the leader of "the rising," a major slave revolt, scheduled to take place in the city on July 14, he was executed on July 2. Born into slavery in St. Thomas, Vesey was enslaved to a man in Bermuda for some time before being brought to Charleston, where he gained his freedom. Vesey won a lottery and purchased his freedom around the age of 32, he had a good business and a family, but was unable to buy his first wife Beck and their children out of slavery. Vesey became active in the Second Presbyterian Church. In 1818 he was one of the founders of an independent African Methodist Episcopal Church in the city, which became known as the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church after the Civil War; this first independent black denomination in the US was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1816. His church in Charleston had the support of white clergy in the city.

It attracted 1,848 members, making it the second-largest AME congregation in the nation after Mother Bethel in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 1822, Vesey was alleged to be the leader of a planned slave revolt. Vesey and his followers were said to be planning to kill slaveholders in Charleston, liberate the slaves, sail to the black republic of Haiti for refuge. By some accounts, the revolt would have involved thousands of slaves in the city as well as others who lived on plantations which were located miles away. City officials sent a militia to arrest the plot's leaders and many suspected followers on June 22 before the rising could begin, believed to be planned for July 14. No white people were injured. Vesey and five slaves were among the first group of men to be judged guilty by the secret proceedings of a city-appointed Court and condemned to death, they were executed by hanging on July 2, 1822. Vesey was about 55 years old. In proceedings, some 30 additional followers were executed, his son was judged guilty of conspiracy and deported from the United States, along with many others.

The church was destroyed and its minister was expelled from the city. Manuscript transcripts of testimony at the 1822 Court proceedings in Charleston, South Carolina, its Report after the events constitute the chief source of documentation about Denmark Vesey's life; the Court executed him by hanging. The court reported that he was born into slavery about 1767 in St. Thomas, at the time a colony of Denmark, he was called Telemaque. Biographer David Robertson suggests that Telemaque may have been of Mande origin, but his evidence has not been accepted by historians. Telemaque was purchased around the age of 14 by Joseph Vesey, a Bermudian sea captain and slave merchant. After a time, Vesey sold the youth to a planter in French Saint-Domingue; when the youth was found to suffer epileptic fits, Captain Vesey took him back and returned his purchase price to the former master. Biographer Egerton found no evidence of Denmark Vesey having epilepsy in life, he suggests that Denmark may have faked the seizures in order to escape the brutal conditions on Saint-Domingue.

Telemaque worked as a personal assistant for Joseph Vesey and served Vesey as an interpreter in slave trading, a job which required him to travel to Bermuda for long periods of time, as a result, he was known to be fluent in French and Spanish as well as English. Following the American Revolution, the captain retired from the sea and slave trade, settling in Charleston, South Carolina. Colonists from Bermuda, including the first Governor, had settled here since 1669, there were many ties. Numerous Bermudians, such as Thomas Tudor Tucker, had settled prior to American independence. Telemaque had Vesey settled in Charleston. Charleston was a continental hub, connected to Bermuda's thriving merchant shipping trade; the trading center of the Low country's rice and indigo plantations, the city had a majority-slave population and thriving port. In 1796, Captain Vesey wed Mary Clodner, a wealthy "free East Indian woman", the couple used Telemaque as a domestic at Mary's plantation, "The Grove", just outside Charleston on the Ashley River.

On November 9, 1799, Telemaque won $1500 in a city lottery. At the age of 32, he bought his freedom for $600 from Vesey, he took the surname Vesey and the given name of'Denmark,' after the nation ruling his birthplace of St. Thomas. Denmark Vesey built up his own business. By this time he had married an enslaved woman, their children were born into slavery under the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, by which children of a slave mother took her status. Vesey worked to gain freedom for his family; this meant their future children would be born into slavery. Along with other slaves, Vesey had belonged to the Second Presbyterian church and chafed against its restrictions on black members. In 1818, after becoming a free man of color, he was among founders of a congregation on what was known as the "Bethel circuit" of the African Methodist Episcopal Church; this had been organized in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1816 as the first independent black denomination in the United States. The AME Church in Charleston was supported by leading white clergy.

In 1818 white authorities ordered th

Right to silence in England and Wales

The right to silence in England and Wales is the protection given to a person during criminal proceedings from adverse consequences of remaining silent. It is sometimes referred to as the privilege against self-incrimination, it is used on any occasion when it is considered the person being spoken to is under suspicion of potential criminal proceedings. In England and Wales, the right of suspects to refuse to answer questions during their actual trial was well established at common law from the 17th century; the defendant was considered "incompetent" to give evidence and attempts to force defendants to provide answers, such as the efforts of the Star Chamber, were judged unlawful. Being unable to speak at their own trial, the practice of defendants giving an unsworn statement was introduced and was recognised in law in 1883. Defendants testifying in their own defence was introduced in the 1880s although the right to silence was protected; as the right to testify was extended the possibility of unsworn statements was withdrawn.

However the right of suspects to refuse to answer questions before trial was not codified as Judges' Rules until 1912. Prior to 1912, while torture had been banned, the mistreatment of silent suspects to induce a confession was common and the refusal to answer questions was used as evidence against them; the intermingling of the investigative and judicial roles was not formally divided until 1848, when the interrogation of suspects was made a police matter, with the establishment of the modern police forces. Defendants giving evidence in court became commonplace to such an extent that by 1957, it was a shock when a defendant did not give evidence. When, during his trial for murder, Dr John Bodkin Adams decided, on the advice of his lawyer, not to give evidence, the prosecution, the gallery and the judge, Baron Devlin, were surprised. In the view of Melford Stevenson, junior counsel in the prosecution, speaking in the early 1980s: "It should be possible for the prosecution to directly examine an accused It was a clear example of the privilege of silence having enabled a guilty man to escape."The Judges' Rules, with the inclusion of a caution on arrest of the right to silence, were not taken in by the government until 1978.

However the rights were well established by case law as was the necessity of no adverse comments, the principle being that the defendant does not have to prove his innocence — the burden of proof rests on the prosecution. However the right to remain silent "does not denote any single right, but rather refers to a disparate group of immunities, which differ in nature, origin and importance." Lord Mustill identified six rights contained within the umbrella term: A general immunity, possessed by all persons and bodies, from being compelled on pain of punishment to answer questions posed by other persons or bodies. A general immunity... from being compelled on pain of punishment to answer questions the answers to which may incriminate them. A specific immunity, possessed by all persons under suspicion of criminal responsibility whilst being interviewed by police officers or others in similar positions of authority, from being compelled on pain of punishment to answer questions of any kind. A specific immunity, possessed by accused persons undergoing trial, from being compelled to give evidence, from being compelled to answer questions put to them in the dock.

A specific immunity, possessed by persons who have been charged with a criminal offence, from having questions material to the offence addressed to them by police officers or persons in a similar position of authority. A specific immunity... possessed by accused persons undergoing trial, from having adverse comment made on any failure to answer questions before the trial, or to give evidence at the trial. There were a number such as the 1972 Criminal Law Revision Committee; the committee recommended that inferences should be drawn from silence, but the committee report was opposed. Certain changes were introduced in 1984, deriving from the Royal Commission on Criminal Procedure report of 1981; the right to silence during questioning and trial was changed in the 1990s. The right had been reduced for those accused of terrorist offences, or questioned by the Serious Fraud Office or the Royal Ulster Constabulary, but in 1994 the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act modified the right to silence for any person under police questioning in England and Wales.

Before the Act, the caution issued by the police varied from force to force, but was along the lines of: "You do not have to say anything but anything you do say will be taken down and may be given in evidence."This is similar to the right to silence clause in the Miranda Warning in the US. The 1994 Act modified this to be: "You do not have to say anything, but it may harm your defence if you do not mention when questioned something which you rely on in court. Anything you do say may be given in evidence."The new Act was based on the 1972 Criminal Law Revision Committee report and the Criminal Evidence Order 1988. It rejected the reports of the 1991 Royal Commission on Criminal Justice and the Working Group on the right to silence; the supporters of the proposed Act argued that the existing law was being exploited by "professional" criminals, while innocent people would exercise their right. Changing the law would improve police investigations and adequate safeguards existed to prevent police abuse.

Opponents claimed that i

Player efficiency rating

The player efficiency rating is John Hollinger's all-in-one basketball rating, which attempts to boil down all of a player's contributions into one number. Using a detailed formula, Hollinger developed a system that rates every player's statistical performance. PER strives to measure a player's per-minute performance. A league-average PER is always 15.00, which permits comparisons of player performance across seasons. PER takes into account accomplishments, such as field goals, free throws, 3-pointers, rebounds and steals, negative results, such as missed shots and personal fouls; the formula adds positive stats and subtracts negative ones through a statistical point value system. The rating for each player is adjusted to a per-minute basis so that, for example, substitutes can be compared with starters in playing time debates, it is adjusted for the team's pace. In the end, one number sums up the players' statistical accomplishments for that season. Hollinger's work has benefitted from the observations of sabermetric baseball analysts, such as Bill James.

One of the primary observations is that traditional counting statistics in baseball, like runs batted in and wins, are not reliable indicators of a player's value. For example, runs batted in is dependent upon opportunities created by a player's teammates. PER extends this critique of counting statistics to basketball, noting that a player's opportunities to accumulate statistics are dependent upon the number of minutes played as well as the pace of the game. PER measures offensive performance. Hollinger admits that two of the defensive statistics it incorporates—blocks and steals —can produce a distorted picture of a player's value and that PER is not a reliable measure of a player's defensive acumen. For example, Bruce Bowen regarded as one of the best defenders in the NBA through the 2006–07 season posted single-digit PERs. "Bear in mind that this rating is not the final, once-and-for-all answer for a player's accomplishments during the season. This is true for players such as Bruce Bowen and Trenton Hassell who are defensive specialists but don't get many blocks or steals."

Some have argued that PER gives undue weight to a player's contribution in limited minutes, or against a team's second unit, it undervalues players who have enough diversity in their game to play starter's minutes. PER has been said to reward inefficient shooting. To quote Dave Berri, the author of The Wages of Wins: "Hollinger argues that each two point field goal made is worth about 1.65 points. A three point field goal made. A missed field goal, costs a team 0.72 points. Given these values, with a bit of math we can show that a player will break on his two point field goal attempts if he hits on 30.4% of these shots. On three pointers the break-even point is 21.4%. If a player exceeds these thresholds, every NBA player does so with respect to two-point shots, the more he shoots the higher his value in PERs. So a player can be an inefficient scorer and inflate his value by taking a large number of shots." Hollinger responded via a post on ESPN's TrueHoop blog: Berri leads off with a huge misunderstanding of PER—that the credits and debits it gives for making and missing shots equate to a “break-even” shooting mark of 30.4% on 2-point shots.

He made this assumption because he forgot that PER is calibrated against the rest of the league at the end of the formula. If we took a player, average in every other respect for the 2006–07 season—rebounds, free throws, turnovers, etc.—and gave him a league-average rate of shots, all of them were 2-pointers, he shot 30.4%, he'd end up with a PER of 7.18. As long-time PER fans know, that would make him worse than nearly every player in the league. To end up with a league-average PER of 15.00, the actual break-even mark in this case is 48.5%, what the league average is on 2-point shots this season. Hollinger has set up PER so that the league average, every season, is 15.00, which produces sort of a handy reference guide: Only 21 times has a player posted a season efficiency rating over 30.0, with the highest score being 31.82. Michael Jordan and LeBron James lead with four 30+ seasons, with Shaquille O'Neal and Wilt Chamberlain having accomplished three each, Anthony Davis having accomplished two, David Robinson, Tracy McGrady, Dwyane Wade, Chris Paul, Stephen Curry, Russell Westbrook, Giannis Antetokounmpo, James Harden having accomplished one each.

Antetokounmpo is on pace to achieve a PER score that matches Chamberlain's record. As of 5 March 2020 Active players are listed in bold. * Indicates member of the Hall of Fame. PER since 1951–52 Prior to the 2013–14 season, LeBron James was on the verge of surpassing Michael Jordan's career PER to take the number one spot.. The debate was intensified on 1 October 2013, with Jordan stating that he would have liked to have played against LeBron, believes he would have won a one-on-one encounter; as a result, many news features are focusing on comparing the two players, with some using the PER metric to

Low Water (band)

Low Water is a rock band based in Brooklyn, NY. Started in San Francisco, CA, the band relocated to the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn; the band's most recent cd is called, The Taste You Know and Enjoy. The songs "Voodoo Taxi", "She Shined Down" and "House In The City", appear in several episodes of PBS's documentary show Roadtrip Nation; the band consists of Joe Burch. Johnny Leitera plays with the Brooklyn band Tuff Sunshine; the band created a mobile photobooth in order to produce a video for the song "Sister, Leave Me" from their second CD entitled "Who Said That Life Is Over?". The band's fourth CD, "The Taste You Know and Enjoy" was released on January 15, 2011, has a seven-syllable title like the previous three CDs; the third track on the CD, "I Amplify", contains a Shepard tone at 1:00, again at 2:07. The band discuses it in an interview with American Songwriter; the eighth track, "Centralia" is named after a ghost town in Pennsylvania, the site of an underground mine fire. The song is a musical palindrome.

Former TechTV personalities Morgan Webb, Catherine Schwartz, Sarah Lane, Laura Swisher, Chi-Lan Lieu, Sumi Das appeared in the band's music video Strange New Element. In addition to appearing in the video, Chi-Lan and Laura are featured in the artwork of the band's first album, Hard Words In A Speakeasy. Hard Words In A Speakeasy Who Said The Life Is Over? Twisting The Neck Of The Swan The Taste You Know and Enjoy Low Water Low Water on Spotify Low Water - Facebook Indierockcafe - Bands to Watch Photobooth.net - Low Water video Sister, Leaver Me Strange New Element American Songwriter - Writer Of The Week - Low Water "Low Water rising" "Literate, rootsy trio Low Water" PGH CityPaper "Low Water seeks high ground" Low Water on Myspace

James Moses (cricketer)

James Moses is a Botswana cricketer. He played in the 2015 ICC World Cricket League Division Six tournament. In October 2018, he represented Botswana in the Southern sub region group in the 2018–19 ICC World Twenty20 Africa Qualifier tournament. In the final match of the group, against Namibia, he was named the man of the match for his all-round performance, with Botswana finishing top of the group. In May 2019, he was named in Botswana's squad for the Regional Finals of the 2018–19 ICC T20 World Cup Africa Qualifier tournament in Uganda, he made his Twenty20 International debut for Botswana against Uganda on 20 May 2019. As a result, he became the oldest player to debut in a T20I as well as the oldest player to play in a T20I match. James Moses at ESPNcricinfo