Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
Adductor magnus muscle
The adductor magnus is a large triangular muscle, situated on the medial side of the thigh. It consists of two parts; the portion which arises from the ischiopubic ramus is called the pubofemoral portion, adductor portion, or adductor minimus, the portion arising from the tuberosity of the ischium is called the ischiocondylar portion, extensor portion, or "hamstring portion". Due to its common embryonic origin and action the ischiocondylar portion is considered part of the hamstring group of muscles; the ischiocondylar portion of the adductor magnus is considered a muscle of the posterior compartment of the thigh while the pubofemoral portion of the adductor magnus is considered a muscle of the medial compartment. Those fibers which arise from the ramus of the pubis are short, horizontal in direction, are inserted into the rough line of the femur leading from the greater trochanter to the linea aspera, medial to the gluteus maximus; those fibers from the ramus of the ischium are directed downward and laterally with different degrees of obliquity, to be inserted, by means of a broad aponeurosis, into the linea aspera and the upper part of its medial prolongation below.
The medial portion of the muscle, composed principally of the fibers arising from the tuberosity of the ischium, forms a thick fleshy mass consisting of coarse bundles which descend vertically, end about the lower third of the thigh in a rounded tendon, inserted into the adductor tubercle on the medial condyle of the femur, is connected by a fibrous expansion to the line leading upward from the tubercle to the linea aspera. By its anterior surface the adductor magnus is in relation with the pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, femoral artery and vein, profunda artery and vein, with their branches, with the posterior branches of the obturator artery, obturator vein and obturator nerve. By its posterior surface with the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and gluteus maximus muscle. By its inner border with the gracilis and sartorius. By its upper border with the obturator externus, quadratus femoris, it is a composite muscle as the adductor and hamstring portions of the muscle are innervated by two different nerves.
The adductor portion is innervated by the posterior division of the obturator nerve while the hamstring portion is innervated by the sciatic nerve. At the insertion of the muscle, there is a series of osseoaponeurotic openings, formed by tendinous arches attached to the bone; the upper four openings are small, give passage to the perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery. The lowest is large, transmits the femoral vessels to the popliteal fossa; the upper, lateral part of the adductor magnus is an incompletely separated division considered a separate muscle — the adductor minimus. These two muscles are separated by a branch of the superior perforating branch of the profunda femoris artery; the adductor magnus is a powerful adductor of the thigh, made active when the legs are moved from a wide spread position to one in which the legs parallel each other. The part attached to the linea aspera acts as a lateral rotator; the part which reaches the medial epicondyle acts as a medial rotator when the leg is rotated outwards and flexed, acts to extend the hip joint.
In other tetrapods, the adductor magnus crosses the knee joint and inserts into the tibia. In humans, the distal part of the tendon detaches and becomes the medial collateral ligament of the knee; because of this, the medial collateral ligament of the knee in humans may contain a few muscle fibres as an atavistic variation. Adductor hiatus This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 473 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0401 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center PTCentral
Pes anserinus (leg)
Pes anserinus refers to the conjoined tendons of three muscles that insert onto the anteromedial surface of the proximal extremity of the tibia. The muscles are the sartorius and semitendinosus sometimes referred to as the guy ropes; the name "goose foot" arises from the three-pronged manner in which the conjoined tendon inserts onto the tibia. The three tendons, from front to back, that conjoin to form the pes anserinus come from the sartorius and semitendinosus muscles; the pes anserinus lies superficial to the tibial insertion of the medial collateral ligament of the knee. It is a cause of chronic knee weakness. Pes bursitis is a condition. If the bursa underlying the tendons of the sartorius and semitendinosus gets irritated from overuse or injury, a person can develop this ailment; this condition occurs in athletes from overuse. This pathology is characterized by pain, / or tenderness; the semitendinosus tendon can be used in certain techniques for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.
Pes_anserinus at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program
Inferior genicular arteries
The inferior genicular arteries, two in number, arise from the popliteal beneath the gastrocnemius. On the inside of the knee, is the medial inferior genicular artery, on the outer side is the lateral inferior genicular artery. Patellar anastomosis This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 633 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
The iliofemoral ligament is a ligament of the hip joint which extends from the ilium to the femur in front of the joint. It is referred to as the Y-ligament or the ligament of Bigelow, any combinations of these names. With a tensile strength exceeding 350 kg, the iliofemoral ligament is not only stronger than the two other ligaments of the hip joint, the ischiofemoral and the pubofemoral, but the strongest ligament in the human body and as such is an important constraint to the hip joint. Arising from the anterior inferior iliac spine and the rim of the acetabulum, the iliofemoral ligament spreads obliquely downwards and laterally to the intertrochanteric line on the anterior side of the femoral head, it is divided into two parts or bands which act differently: the transverse part above, is strong and runs parallel to the axis of the femoral neck. The descending part below, runs parallel to the femoral shaft; as the lateral portion is twisted like a screw, the two parts together take the form of an inverted Y.
It is intimately connected with the joint capsule, serves to strengthen the joint by resisting hyperextension. Its upper band is sometimes named the iliotrochanteric ligament. Between the two bands is a thinner part of the capsule. In some cases there is no division, the ligament spreads out into a flat triangular band, attached to the whole length of the intertrochanteric line. In a standing posture, when the pelvis is tilted posteriorly, the ligament is twisted and tense, which prevents the trunk from falling backwards and the posture is maintained without the need for muscular activity. In this position the ligament keeps the femoral head pressed into the acetabulum; as the hip flexes, the tension in the ligament is reduced and the amount of possible rotations in the hip joint is increased, which permits the pelvis to tilt backwards into its sitting angle. Lateral rotation and adduction in the hip joint is controlled by the strong transversal part, while the descending part limits medial rotation.
Turnout used in the classical ballet style requires a great deal of flexibility in this ligament. As does the front split. Many externally rotate the rear leg while doing a front split, this external rotation when the hip is not flexed stretches the ligament more; this "martial arts split" is distinguished by the rear knee pointing outward sideways rather than pointing straight down with the patella facing the floor, in a pure extension front split. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 335 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman hip/hip%20ligaments/ligaments3 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy
The gracilis muscle is the most superficial muscle on the medial side of the thigh. It is thin and flattened, broad above and tapering below, it arises by a thin aponeurosis from the anterior margins of the lower half of the symphysis pubis and the upper half of the pubic arch. The muscle's fibers run vertically downward; this tendon passes behind the medial condyle of the femur, curves around the medial condyle of the tibia where it becomes flattened, inserts into the upper part of the medial surface of the body of the tibia, below the condyle. For this reason, the muscle is a lower limb adductor. At its insertion the tendon is situated above that of the semitendinosus muscle, its upper edge is overlapped by the tendon of the sartorius muscle, which it joins to form the pes anserinus; the pes anserinus is separated from the medial collateral ligament of the knee-joint by a bursa. A few of the fibers of the lower part of the tendon are prolonged into the deep fascia of the leg. By its inner or superficial surface gracilis is in relation with the fascia lata, below with the sartorius and internal saphenous nerve.
By its outer or deep surface with the adductor longus and magnus, the internal lateral ligament of the knee-joint, from which it is separated by a synovial bursa common to the tendons of the gracilis and semitendinosus. The obturator nerve innervates the gracilis muscle via the lumbar spinal vertebrae; the muscle adducts, medially rotates, laterally rotates, flexes the hip as above, aids in flexion of the knee. The gracilis muscle is used as a flap in microsurgery. According to the classification of Mathes and Nahai, it presents a type II blood supply, allowing it to be transferred on its artery derived from the medial circumflex femoral artery; this artery enters the muscle about 10 cm from the pubic symphysis. At this point the nerve enters. Gracilis muscle is used in reconstructive surgery, either as a pedicled flap or as a free microsurgical flap. Both pedicled and free flaps can be musculocutaneos; as a pedicled flap, gracilis muscle can be used in perineal and vaginal reconstruction, after oncological surgery, in the treatment of recurrent anovaginal and rectovaginal fistulas as well in the coverage of the neurovascular bundle after vascular surgery.
As a functioning pedicled flap, the gracilis muscle can be transferred for the treatment of anal incontinence. This technique called graciloplasty was described in the 1950s by Pickrell and was revolutionized in the late 1980s by the introduction of chronic muscle electro-stimulation; the gracilis microsurgical free flap is used in the reconstruction of upper and lower limbs, in breast reconstruction and – as a free functioning flap – to restore forearm function or in dynamic reconstruction of facial paralysis. Gracilis Muscles Clinical Role The muscle may be split to reduce bulk for facial reanimation, as well as to repair hand muscles, it can be used to fashion an external anal sphincter. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 471 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 12:02-07 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh." Anatomy figure: 14:02-02 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Muscles that form the superficial boundaries of the popliteal fossa."
Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna
Medial condyle of tibia
The medial condyle is the medial portion of the upper extremity of tibia. It is the site of insertion for the semimembranosus muscle. Lateral condyle of tibia Medial collateral ligament This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 256 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 17:06-02 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy figure: 17:07-02 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman