Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation systems are used for cooling livestock, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, in mining. Irrigation is studied together with drainage, the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States. Archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation in areas lacking sufficient natural rainfall to support crops for rainfed agriculture.
The earliest known use of the technology dates to the 6th millennium BCE in Khuzistan in the south-west of present-day Iran. Irrigation was used as a means of manipulation of water in the alluvial plains of the Indus valley civilization, the application of it is estimated to have begun around 4500 BC and drastically increased the size and prosperity of their agricultural settlements; the Indus Valley Civilization developed sophisticated irrigation and water-storage systems, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BCE, an early canal irrigation system from c. 2600 BCE. Large-scale agriculture was practiced, with an extensive network of canals used for the purpose of irrigation. Farmers in the Mesopotamian plain used irrigation from at least the third millennium BCE, they developed perennial irrigation watering crops throughout the growing season by coaxing water through a matrix of small channels formed in the field. Ancient Egyptians practiced basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots, surrounded by dykes.
The flood water remained until the fertile sediment had settled before the engineers returned the surplus to the watercourse. There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the twelfth dynasty using the natural lake of the Faiyum Oasis as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during dry seasons; the lake swelled annually from the flooding of the Nile. The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a waterwheel-like device called a sakia. Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennia BCE, it depended upon the flood waters that would flow through the Nile River and other rivers in what is now the Sudan. In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet-season flooding and water harvesting. Evidence of terrace irrigation occurs in pre-Columbian America, early Syria and China. In the Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists have found remains of three irrigation canals radiocarbon-dated from the 4th millennium BCE, the 3rd millennium BCE and the 9th century CE.
These canals provide the earliest record of irrigation in the New World. Traces of a canal dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th-millennium canal. Ancient Persia used irrigation as far back as the 6th millennium BCE to grow barley in areas with insufficient natural rainfall; the Qanats, developed in ancient Persia about 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today. They are now found in the Middle East and North Africa; the system comprises a network of vertical wells and sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and of steep hills to tap groundwater. The noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow of the stream, first came into use at about this time among Roman settlers in North Africa. By 150 BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced into the water; the irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE in the reign of King Pandukabhaya, under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world.
In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build artificial reservoirs to store water. These reservoirs and canal systems were used to irrigate paddy fields, which require a lot of water to cultivate. Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering; the system was further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu. The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao of the Spring and Autumn period and Ximen Bao of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects. In the Sichuan region belonging to the state of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System devised by the Qin Chinese hydrologist and irrigation engineer Li Bing was built in 256 BCE to irrigate a vast area of farmland that today still supplies water. By the 2nd century AD, during the Han Dynasty, the Chinese used chain pumps which lifted water from a lower elevation to a higher one.
These were powered by manual foot-pedal, hydraulic waterwheels, or rotating mechanical wheels pulled by oxen. The water was used for public works, providing water for urban residential quarters and palace gardens, bu
The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. It consists of a flat surface raised from the main wall surface treated as though it were a column, with a capital at the top, plinth at the bottom, the various other elements. In contrast to a pilaster, an engaged column or buttress can support the structure of a wall and roof above. In discussing Leon Battista Alberti's use of pilasters, which Alberti reintroduced into wall-architecture, Rudolf Wittkower wrote, "The pilaster is the logical transformation of the column for the decoration of a wall, it may be defined as a flattened column which has lost its three-dimensional and tactile value."A pilaster appears with a capital. And entablature in "low-relief" or flattened against the wall. A pilaster repeats all parts and proportions of an order column. Pilasters appear on the sides of a door frame or window opening on the facade of a building, are sometimes paired with columns or pillars set directly in front of them at some distance away from the wall, which support a roof structure above, such as a portico.
These vertical elements can be used to support a recessed archivolt around a doorway. The pilaster can be replaced by ornamental brackets supporting the entablature or a balcony over a doorway; when a pilaster appears at the corner intersection of two walls it is known as a canton. As with a column, a pilaster can have a plain or fluted surface to its profile and can be represented in the mode of any architectural style. During the Renaissance and Baroque architects used a range of pilaster forms. In the giant order pilasters appear as two storeys tall; the fashion of using this element from ancient Greek and Roman architecture was adopted in the Italian Renaissance, gained wide popularity with Greek Revival architecture, continues to be seen in some modern architecture. Pilaster is also referred to as a non-ornamental, load-bearing architectural element in non-classical architecture where a structural load must be carried by a wall or column next to a wall and the wall thickens to accommodate the structural requirements of the wall.
Archivolt Buttress Classical architecture Engaged column Ionic order Lesene List of classical architecture terms Post and lintel Lewis and Gillian Darley, Dictionary of Ornament NY: Pantheon
The Nišava or Nishava is a river in Bulgaria and Serbia, a right tributary, with a length of 218 km the longest one, of the South Morava. The Nišava originates in western Bulgaria, in the Stara Planina mountains near the village of Gintsi, its source is close to the Serbian border. It enters Serbia after 67 km of flow through Bulgaria without receiving any major tributaries; because it flows through Gintsi, the upper course of the river is known as Ginska. It first flows to the south sharply turns west into the Godech Kettle, passing through Razboishte, after which it forms a gorge. Coming out of the gorge, it reaches Kalotina, a major border crossing on the Bulgarian-Serbian border, continues to the west into Serbia. Flowing to the west for the remaining 151 km, it passes near Dimitrovgrad, Bela Palanka, Niška Banja and Niš, one of the largest cities in Serbia, 10 km after which the Nišava empties into the Južna Morava. However, with the rapid growth of Niš in previous decades and its still fast growing suburbs, the banks of the Nišava are urbanized to its mouth.
After being divided into districts in 1992, the Nišava District is named after the river. The river belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin, its own drainage area covers 4,086 km2, of which about 73 % in the rest in Bulgaria. The Nišava is not navigable, it is not only the longest tributary of the Južna Morava, but the largest one in terms of discharge. It has many smaller tributaries, the most important being the Temštica from the right, the Jerma, Crvena reka, Koritnička reka and Kutinska reka from the left; the Nišava valley is part of a major natural route that from ancient times has connected Europe and Asia: the route follows the valleys of the Morava, Nišava and Maritsa and onwards towards Constantinople, present-day Istanbul. Both the Belgrade-Sofia-Istanbul road and the railway follow this route. Nishava Cove in Rugged Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Nishava. In its Serbian part, the Nišava carved a composite valley with several depressions. However, the most prominent geological feature the river formed is the Sićevo gorge between Bela Palanka and Niška Banja.
The river is quite powerful in the gorge, used for two power stations used for electricity production and fishery. The gorge is 350 -- 400 m deep, in some parts developing canyon like-structures; the gorge itself carved through the Kunovica plateau between the southern slopes of the Mountains of Svrljig and the mountain of Suva Planina, the surrounding areas are known for their high-quality vineyards. There is a huge quarry in the gorge, where six villages are located, the largest one being Sićevo that gives the name to the whole gorge. Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition. Marković: Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije.
Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance (Serbia)
In Serbia, Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance are archaeological sites that have the highest level of state protection under the Law on Cultural Heritage. Some of them are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Cultural Heritage of Serbia Serbian culture Notes: References: Arheološka nalazišta od izuzetnog značajа at the site of the Ministry of Culture of Serbia Археолошка налазишта at www.spomenicikulture.mi.sanu.ac.rs
Valentinian I known as Valentinian the Great, was Roman emperor from 364 to 375. Upon becoming emperor he made his brother Valens his co-emperor, giving him rule of the eastern provinces while Valentinian retained the west. During his reign, Valentinian fought against the Alamanni and Sarmatians. Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 367 at the Battle of Solicinium, his brilliant general Count Theodosius defeated a revolt in Africa and the Great Conspiracy, a coordinated assault on Roman Britain by Picts and Saxons. Valentinian was the last emperor to conduct campaigns across both the Rhine and Danube rivers. Valentinian rebuilt and improved the fortifications along the frontiers building fortresses in enemy territory. Due to the successful nature of his reign and the rapid decline of the empire after his death, he is considered to be the "last great western emperor", he founded the Valentinian Dynasty, with his sons Gratian and Valentinian II succeeding him in the western half of the empire.
Valentinian was born in 321 at Cibalae in southern Pannonia into an Illyrian family. Valentinian and his younger brother Valens were the sons of Gratianus Major, a prominent commander during the reigns of emperors Constantine I and Constans I, he and his brother grew up on the family estate where they were educated in a variety of subjects, including painting and sculpting. Gratian the Elder was promoted to Comes Africae in the late 320s or early 330s, the young Valentinian accompanied his father to Africa. However, Gratian was forced to retire. Valentinian joined the army in the late 330s and probably acquired the position of protector domesticus. Gratian was recalled during the early 340s and was made comes of Britannia. After holding this post, Gratianus retired to the family estate in Cibalae. In 350, Constans I was assassinated by agents of the usurper Magnentius, a commander in Gaul proclaimed emperor by his soldiers. Constantius II, older brother of Constans and emperor in the East, promptly set forth towards Magnentius with a large army.
The following year the two emperors met in Pannonia. The ensuing Battle of Mursa Major resulted in a costly victory for Constantius. Two years he defeated Magnentius again in southern Gaul at the Battle of Mons Seleucus. Magnentius, now realizing the futility of continuing his revolt, committed suicide in August that year, it was around this time that Constantius confiscated Gratianus' property, for showing hospitality to Magnentius when he was in Pannonia. Despite his father's fall from favor, Valentinian does not seem to have been adversely affected at this time, making it unlikely he fought for the usurper, it is known that Valentinian was in the region during the conflict, but what involvement he had in the war, if any, is unknown. The conflict between Magnentius and Constantius had allowed the Alamanni and Franks to take advantage of the confusion and cross the Rhine, attacking several important settlements and fortifications. In 355, after deposing his cousin Gallus but still feeling the crises of the empire too much for one emperor to handle, Constantius raised his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar.
With the situation in Gaul deteriorating, Julian was made at least nominal commander of one of the two main armies in Gaul, Barbatio being commander of the other. Constantius devised a strategy where Julian and Barbatio would operate in a pincer movement against the Alamanni. However, a band of Alamanni attacked Lugdunum. Julian sent the tribunes Valentinian and Bainobaudes to watch the road the raiders would have to return by. However, their efforts were hindered by his tribune Cella; the Alamanni king Chnodomarius took advantage of the situation and attacked the Romans in detail, inflicting heavy losses. Barbatio complained to Constantius and the debacle was blamed on Valentinian and Bainobaudes, who were cashiered from the army. With his career in ruins, Valentinian returned to his new family estate in Sirmium. Two years his first son Gratian was born by his wife Marina Severa. Valentinian's actions and location become uncertain around this time, but he was exiled. Theodoret say that this was because he'd reacted angrily when a pagan temple attendant sprinkled water on him, saying "I am not purified, but defiled", striking the priest.
At the news of Julian's death on a campaign against the Sassanids, the army hastily declared a commander, emperor. The army still found itself beleaguered by Persian attacks, forcing Jovian to accept humiliating peace terms. Jovian's authority within the empire was still insecure, so he sent a notary Procopius and the tribune Memoridus west to announce his accession. During Jovian's reign Valentinian was promoted to tribune of a Scutarii regiment, was dispatched to Ancyra. Jovian's rule would be short – only eight months – and before he could consolidate his position in Constantinople he died en route between Ancyra and Nicaea, his death was attributed to either assassination by poisoning or accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Jovian is remembered for restoring Christianity to its previous favored status under Constantine and his sons; the army marched to Nicaea, a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The purple was offered to Sallustius; the prefect declined, did so again on behalf of his son when the offer was extended to him.
Two different names were proposed: Aequitius, a tribune of the first Scutarii
Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia. First mentioned in the 4th century BC and inhabited by Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Pannonia Inferior. In 294 AD, Sirmium was proclaimed one of four capitals of the Roman Empire, it was the capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and of Pannonia Secunda. Sirmium was located on the site of modern Sremska Mitrovica in northern Serbia; the site is protected as an Archaeological Site of Exceptional Importance. The modern region of Syrmia was named after the city. Sirmium was one of the largest cities of its time. Colin McEvedy, put the population at only 7,000, based on the size of the archaeological site. Ammianus Marcellinus called it "the glorious mother of cities". Remains of Sirmium stand on the site of the modern-day Sremska Mitrovica, 55 km west of Belgrade and 145 km away from Kostolac. Archaeologists have found traces of organized human life on the site of Sirmium dating from 5,000 BC.
The city was firstly mentioned in the 4th century BC and was inhabited by the Illyrians and Celts. The Triballi king Syrmus was considered the eponymous founder of Sirmium, but the roots are different, the two words only became conflated later; the name Sirmium by itself means "flow, flowing water, wetland", referring to its close river position on the nearby Sava. With the Celtic tribe of Scordisci as allies, the Roman proconsul Marcus Vinicius took Sirmium in around 14 BC. In the 1st century AD, Sirmium gained the status of a Roman colony, became an important military and strategic center of the Pannonia province; the Roman emperors Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Claudius II prepared war expeditions in Sirmium. In 103 Pannonia was split into two provinces: Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior, Sirmium became the capital city of the latter. In 296 Diocletian reorganized Pannonia into four provinces: Pannonia Prima, Pannonia Valeria, Pannonia Savia and Pannonia Secunda, Sirmium became the capital of Pannonia Secunda.
He joined them with Noricum and Dalmatia to establish the Diocese of Pannonia, with Sirmium as its capital also. In 293, with the establishment of the Tetrarchy, the Roman Empire was split into four parts. With the establishment of Praetorian prefectures in 318, the capital of the prefecture of Illyricum was Sirmium, remaining so until 379, when the westernmost Diocese of Illyricum, was detached and joined to the prefecture of Italia assuming the name of Diocese of Illyricum; the eastern part of Illyricum remained a separate prefecture under the East Roman Empire with its new capital in Thessalonica. The city had an imperial palace, a horse-racing arena, a mint, an arena theatre, a theatre, as well as many workshops, public baths, public palaces and luxury villas. Ancient historian Ammianus Marcellinus called it "the glorious mother of cities"; the mint in Sirmium was connected with the mint in Salona and silver mines in the Dinaric Alps through the Via Argentaria. At the end of the 4th century Sirmium came under the sway of the Goths, was again annexed to the East Roman Empire.
In 441 the Huns conquered Sirmium. For a short time, Sirmium was the centre of the Gepids and king Cunimund minted gold coins there. After 567, Sirmium was returned to the East Roman Empire; the Pannonian Avars conquered and destroyed the city in 582. Ten Roman emperors were born in this city or in its surroundings: Herennius Etruscus, Decius, Claudius II, Aurelian, Maximian, Constantius II, Gratian; the last emperor of the united Roman Empire, Theodosius I, became emperor in Sirmium. The usurpers Ingenuus and Regalianus declared themselves emperors in this city and many other Roman emperors spent some time in Sirmium, including Marcus Aurelius, who might have written parts of his famous work Meditations in the city. Sirmium was, most the site of the death of Marcus Aurelius, of smallpox, in March of 180 CE; the city had a Christian community by the third century. By the end of the century, it had a bishop, the metropolitan of all the Pannonian bishops; the first known bishop was Irenaeus, martyred during the Diocletianic Persecution in 304.
For the next century, the sequence of bishops is known, but in the fifth and sixth centuries the see falls into obscurity. An unnamed bishop is mentioned in 448; the last known bishop is mentioned in a papal letter of 594, after which the city itself is mentioned and the see went into abeyance. From the time of the first synod of Tyre in 335, Sirmium became a stronghold of the Arian movement and site of much controversy. Between 347 and 358 there were four synods held in Sirmium. A fifth took plate in 375 or 378. All dealt with the Arian controversy. On the location Glac near Sirmium is found unexcavated the palace of Emperor Maximianus Herculius built on the place where his parents worked as laborers on the estate of a Roman column. During the construction of the hospital in 1971, was found in monumental Jupiter's sanctuary with more than eighty of the altar, the second largest in Europe. Sirmium had two bridges with which she was bridged river Sava, of which indicate the historical sources, bri
In Hellenistic Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle is a continuous porch formed by a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard. Tetrastoon is a used archaic term for this feature; the peristyle in a Greek temple is a peristasis. In the Christian ecclesiastical architecture that developed from the Roman basilica, a courtyard peristyle and its garden came to be known as a cloister. In rural settings, a wealthy Roman could surround a villa with terraced gardens; the peristylium was an open courtyard within the house. Sometimes the lararium, a shrine for the Lares, the gods of the household, was located in this portico, or it might be found in the atrium; the courtyard might contain flowers and shrubs, benches and fish ponds. Romans devoted as large a space to the peristyle as site constraints permitted; the end of the Roman domus is one mark of the extinction of late antiquity: "the disappearance of the Roman peristyle house marks the end of the ancient world and its way of life," remarked Simon P. Ellis.
"No new peristyle houses were built after A. D. 550." Noting that as houses and villas were abandoned in the fifth century, a few palatial structures were expanded and enriched, as power and classical culture became concentrated in a narrowing class, public life withdrew to the basilica, or audience chamber, of the magnate. In the Eastern Roman empire, late antiquity lingered longer: Ellis identified the latest-known peristyle house built from scratch as the "House of the Falconer" at Argos, dating from the style of its floor mosaics about 530-550. Existing houses were subdivided in many cases, to accommodate a larger and less elite population in a warren of small spaces, columned porticoes were enclosed in small cubicles, as at the House of Hesychius at Cyrene. Although ancient Egyptian architecture predates Greek and Roman antiquity, historians use the Greek term peristyle to describe similar, earlier structures in ancient Egyptian palace architecture and in Levantine houses known as liwan houses.
Atrium Cloister – medieval ecclesiastical development of the form Hypostyle Loggia Portico Quadrangle Media related to Peristylia at Wikimedia Commons Barbara McManus, "The Peristylium": a reconstruction of a peristyle