Sir Arthur Newsholme was a leading British public health expert during the Victorian era. He was died at Worthing, he recalled talking with people. He was educated in Keighley. Newsholme advocated improvement of public health by state intervention, such as national health insurance, sanitary measurement and sanatoriums for the isolation of persons with contagious disease; some of these proposals for public health interventions were described in a seminal paper in 1919, with the following abstract:"There is much illness that might have been avoided if there had been an organized system of state medicine," says Sir Arthur Newsholme, speaking of England. He would give a freer hand to the health officer. England's chief defect lies in the existence of inefficient local health bodies. Newsholme lived through a time wherein England, many other countries in the western world, saw a demographic transition characterized by an exponential growth of the population since halfway the nineteenth century, which he explained both by a rise in fertility and mortality since the early nineteenth century, followed by a decline of mortality since halfway the nineteenth century followed by a decline in fertility after 1875.
In his 1911 book on The Declining Birth-Rate he ascertained:'There is no reasonable doubt that the decline in the birth-rate, one of the most striking features of the last thirty years, has been principally caused by volitional regulation of the size of the family.' He realized that the decline in the birth-rate was both be seen as a threat and an advantage:'The population question, in particular, is one in which thoughtful men have alternatively been racked by fears of depopulation or, at least, stagnation of population and of the excessive growth of population.' Although a decrease in birth-rate could results in a stagnation of population growth, although the reasons to volitionally regulate the size of the family may sometimes have been'selfish', the effect will be beneficial to the development and prosperity of the population. Time proved that he was right:'It would not be fair to omit from consideration what is one of the chief factors tending to restrict families; this is the desire of parents with small incomes to educate their children more satisfactorily than they themselves were educated, to give their children the means for rising in the social scale.'
Graduated MB, London, 1880. 1884 appointed part-time Medical Officer of Health for the parish of Clapham 1888 appointed MOH for Brighton conducted research in epidemiology relating to tuberculosis, scarlet fever, diphtheria 1895 gave Milroy lectures at Royal College of Physicians on The Natural History and Affinities of Rheumatic Fever 1900–1901 President, Society of Medical Officers of Health 1908 appointed Principal Medical Officer, Local Government Board. Member of the executive of the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. 1914–1918 served on Army Sanitary Committee with rank of Lt Col, Royal Army Medical Corps. 1909 He moved to the Local Government Board, supported by John Burns 1919 Retired from Whitehall. 1920–1921 Lecturer on Public Health, Johns Hopkins University. 1898 FRCP London 1912 Made CB 1917 Made KCB 1917 Awarded Bisset Hawkins Medal by the Royal College of Physicians 1908: Alcohol and the Human Body 1908: The Prevention of Tuberculosis 1925: The Ministry of Health 1927: Evolution of Preventive Medicine 1929: The Story of Modern Preventive Medicine 1932: Medicine and the State with John Adams Kingsbury.
1933: Red Medicine with John Adams Kingsbury. 1935: Fifty Years in Public Health 1936: The Last Thirty Years in Public Health Hygiene. A bus in Brighton has been named after him. Obituary in The Lancet of 29 May 1943 Obituary] in American Journal of Public Health Sheard, The Nation's Doctor, London: The Nuffield Trust The Newsholme Archive
Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations and private, communities and individuals". Analyzing the health of a population and the threats it faces is the basis for public health; the public can be as large as a village or an entire city. The concept of health takes into account physical and social well-being; as such, according to the World Health Organization, it is not the absence of disease or infirmity. Public health is an interdisciplinary field. For example, epidemiology and management of health services are all relevant. Other important subfields include environmental health, community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, mental health, occupational safety, gender issues in health, sexual and reproductive health. Public health aims to improve the quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease, including mental health.
This is done through the surveillance of cases and health indicators, through the promotion of healthy behaviors. Common public health initiatives include promotion of handwashing and breastfeeding, delivery of vaccinations, suicide prevention, distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Modern public health practice requires multidisciplinary teams of public health workers and professionals. Teams might include epidemiologists, medical assistants, public health nurses, medical microbiologists, sociologists, data managers, physicians. Depending on the need, environmental health officers or public health inspectors and veterinarians, gender experts, or sexual and reproductive health specialists might be called on. Access to health care and public health initiatives are difficult challenges in developing countries. Public health infrastructures are still forming in those countries; the focus of a public health intervention is to prevent and manage diseases and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments.
Many diseases are preventable through nonmedical methods. For example, research has shown that the simple act of handwashing with soap can prevent the spread of many contagious diseases. In other cases, treating a disease or controlling a pathogen can be vital to preventing its spread to others, either during an outbreak of infectious disease or through contamination of food or water supplies. Public health communications programs, vaccination programs and distribution of condoms are examples of common preventive public health measures. Measures such as these have contributed to the health of populations and increases in life expectancy. Public health plays an important role in disease prevention efforts in both the developing world and in developed countries through local health systems and non-governmental organizations; the World Health Organization is the international agency that coordinates and acts on global public health issues. Most countries have their own governmental public health agency called the ministry of health, with responsibility for domestic health issues.
In the United States and local health departments are on the front line of public health initiatives. In addition to their national duties, the United States Public Health Service, led by the Surgeon General of the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, are involved with international health activities. In Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada is the national agency responsible for public health, emergency preparedness and response, infectious and chronic disease control and prevention; the Public health system in India is managed by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare of the government of India with state-owned health care facilities. Most governments recognize the importance of public health programs in reducing the incidence of disease and the effects of aging and other physical and mental health conditions. However, public health receives less government funding compared with medicine. Public health programs providing vaccinations have made strides in promoting health, including the eradication of smallpox, a disease that plagued humanity for thousands of years.
The World Health Organization identifies core functions of public health programs including: providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed. In particular, public health surveillance programs can: serve as an early warning system for impending public health emergencies. Diagnose and monitor health problems and health hazards of the communityPublic health surveillance has led to the identification and prioritization of many public health issues facing the world today, including HIV/AIDS, waterborne diseases, zoonotic diseases, antibiotic resistance leading to the reemergence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Antibiotic resistance kno
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent. When this system is exposed to molecules that are foreign to the body, called non-self, it will orchestrate an immune response, it will develop the ability to respond to a subsequent encounter because of immunological memory; this is a function of the adaptive immune system. Therefore, by exposing an animal to an immunogen in a controlled way, its body can learn to protect itself: this is called active immunization; the most important elements of the immune system that are improved by immunization are the T cells, B cells, the antibodies B cells produce. Memory B cells and memory T cells are responsible for a swift response to a second encounter with a foreign molecule. Passive immunization is direct introduction of these elements into the body, instead of production of these elements by the body itself. Immunization is done through various techniques, most vaccination. Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body's immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection.
The fact that mutations can cause cancer cells to produce proteins or other molecules that are known to the body forms the theoretical basis for therapeutic cancer vaccines. Other molecules can be used for immunization as well, for example in experimental vaccines against nicotine or the hormone ghrelin in experiments to create an obesity vaccine. Immunizations are widely stated as less risky and an easier way to become immune to a particular disease than risking a milder form of the disease itself, they are important for both adults and children in that they can protect us from the many diseases out there. Immunization not only protects children against deadly diseases but helps in developing children's immune systems. Through the use of immunizations, some infections and diseases have completely been eradicated throughout the United States and the World. One example is polio. Thanks to dedicated health care professionals and the parents of children who vaccinated on schedule, polio has been eliminated in the U.
S. since 1979. Polio is still found in other parts of the world so certain people could still be at risk of getting it; this includes those people who have never had the vaccine, those who didn't receive all doses of the vaccine, or those traveling to areas of the world where polio is still prevalent. Active immunization/vaccination has been named one of the "Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century". Before the introduction of vaccines, people could only become immune to an infectious disease by contracting the disease and surviving it. Smallpox was prevented in this way by inoculation, which produced a milder effect than the natural disease; the first clear reference to smallpox inoculation was made by the Chinese author Wan Quan in his Douzhen xinfa published in 1549. In China, powdered smallpox scabs were blown up the noses of the healthy; the patients would develop a mild case of the disease and from on were immune to it. The technique did have a 0.5–2.0% mortality rate, but, less than the 20–30% mortality rate of the disease itself.
Two reports on the Chinese practice of inoculation were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700. According to Voltaire, the Turks derived their use of inoculation from neighbouring Circassia. Voltaire does not speculate on where the Circassians derived their technique from, though he reports that the Chinese have practiced it "these hundred years", it was introduced into England from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in 1721 and used by Zabdiel Boylston in Boston the same year. In 1798 Edward Jenner introduced inoculation with a much safer procedure; this procedure, referred to as vaccination replaced smallpox inoculation, now called variolation to distinguish it from vaccination. Until the 1880s vaccine/vaccination referred only to smallpox, but Louis Pasteur developed immunization methods for chicken cholera and anthrax in animals and for human rabies, suggested that the terms vaccine/vaccination should be extended to cover the new procedures; this can cause confusion if care is not taken to specify which vaccine is used e.g. measles vaccine or influenza vaccine.
Immunization can be achieved in an active or passive manner: vaccination is an active form of immunization. Active immunization can occur when a person comes in contact with, for example, a microbe; the immune system will create antibodies and other defenses against the microbe. The next time, the immune response against this microbe can be efficient. Artificial active immunization is where the microbe, or parts of it, are injected into the person before they are able to take it in naturally. If whole microbes are used, they are pre-treated; the importance of immunization is so great that the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has named it one of the "Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century". Live attenuated vaccines have decreased pathogenicity, their effectiveness depends on the immune systems ability to replicate and elicits a response similar to natural infection. It is effective with a single dose. Examples of live, attenuated vaccines include measles, rubella, MMR, yellow fever, varicella and influenza.
Passive immunization is where pre-synthesized elements of the immune system are transferred to a person so th
University of Calcutta
The University of Calcutta is a collegiate public state university located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India established on 24 January 1857. It was the first institution in Asia to be established as a multidisciplinary and secular Western-style university. Within India it is recognized as a "Five-Star University" And Accredited "A" Grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council and declared as a "University With Potential For Excellence" & a "Centre with Potential for Excellence In Particular Area" by the University Grants Commission, its alumni and faculty include four Nobel laureates, namely Ronald Ross, Rabindranath Tagore, C. V. Raman, Amartya Sen; the university has the highest number of students who have cleared the doctoral entrance eligibility exam in Natural Science & Arts conducted by Government of India's National Eligibility Test to become eligible to pursue research with a full scholarship awarded by the Government of India. The Calcutta University Act came into force on 24 January 1857 and a 41-member Senate was formed as the policy making body of the university.
The land for the establishment of this university was given by Maharaja Maheshwar Singh Bahadur, a Maharaja of Darbhanga. When the university was first established it had a catchment area covering the area from Lahore to Rangoon, Ceylon, the largest of any Indian university. Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee was the Vice-Chancellor for four consecutive two-year terms and a fifth two-year term. Four Nobel laureates were associated with this university: Ronald Ross. Rabindra Nath Tagore, C. V. Raman and Amartya Sen; the current university seal is the modified version of the sixth seal. The motto Advancement of Learning has remained the same through the seal's transitions; the university has a total of 14 campuses spread over the city of its suburbs. The major campuses are the Central Campus in College Street, Rashbehari Shiksha Prangan in Rajabazar, Taraknath Palit Shiksha Prangan in Ballygunge and Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan in Alipore. Other campuses include the Hazra Road Campus, the University Press and Book Depot, the B. T.
Road Campus, the Viharilal College of Home Science Campus, the University Health Service, the Haringhata Campus, the Dhakuria Lakes and the University Ground and Tent at Maidan. Asutosh Siksha Prangan is the main campus of the university. Located on College Street, is spread over a small area of 2.7 acres. Rashbihari Siksha Prangan, located on Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road in Rajabazar, established in 1914, houses several scientific and technological departments, including pure and applied chemistry and applied physics, applied mathematics, physiology and molecular biology, others. Taraknath Siksha Prangan on Ballygunge Circular Road in the southern part of the city, houses the departments of agriculture, biochemistry, botany, statistics, neuroscience, marine science and most notably geology, among others, and Department of Jute and Fibre Technology. Known as Institute of Jute Technology. Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan known as Alipore Campus,located at Alipore is the Humanities campus of the University.
Departments of History, Ancient Indian History & Culture, Islamic History & Culture, South & South East Asian Studies, Political Science, Business Management are situated in this campus. Department of Museology, houses in this campus is a valuable department of the University as well as any universities in India; the university is building a campus, known as "Technology Campus" or "Tech Campus", to bring together the three engineering and technical departments, in Sector 3, JD Block, Salt Lake. As of December 2016, most of these departments have been moved to this campus and regular classes are held here; the main building houses most of these departments while the Nanotechnology. Undergraduates enroll for a three-year program. Students choose a major when they enter the university, cannot change it unless they opt for the university's professional or self-financed postgraduate programs later. Science and business disciplines are in high demand in the anticipation of better employment prospects.
Most programs are organized on an annual basis. Most departments offer masters programs of a few years' duration. Research is conducted in specialized institutes as well as individual departments, many of which have doctoral programs. University of Calcutta has the biggest research center which started from the 100th Science Congress of India in January, 2013; this is the Center for Research in Nanosience and Nanotechnology in the Technology Campus of CU at Salt Lake, West Bengal. The university has 18 research centres, 710 teachers, 3000 non-teaching staff and 11,000 post-graduate students. Internationally, the University of Calcutta was ranked 751-780 in the QS World University Rankings of 2018; the same rankings ranked it 125 in Asia and 64 among BRICS nations. It was ranked 801-1000 in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2018, 201-250 in ASIA an
Surgeon General of the United States
The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U. S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States; the Surgeon General's office and staff are known as the Office of the Surgeon General, housed within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health. The U. S. Surgeon General is confirmed by the Senate; the Surgeon General must be appointed from individuals who are members of the Regular Corps of the U. S. Public Health Service, have specialized training or significant experience in public health programs; the Surgeon General serves a four-year term of office and, depending on whether the current Assistant Secretary for Health is a Public Health Service commissioned officer, is either the senior or next most senior uniformed officer of the commissioned corps, holding the rank of a vice admiral. The current Surgeon General is Jerome Adams, having taken office on September 5, 2017.
The Surgeon General reports to the Assistant Secretary for Health, who may be a four-star admiral in the commissioned corps, who serves as the principal adviser to the Secretary of Health and Human Services on public health and scientific issues. The Surgeon General is the overall head of the Commissioned Corps, a 6,500-member cadre of uniformed health professionals who are on call 24 hours a day, can be dispatched by the Secretary of HHS or the Assistant Secretary for Health in the event of a public health emergency; the Surgeon General is the ultimate award authority for several public health awards and decorations, the highest of which that can be directly awarded is the Surgeon General's Medallion. The Surgeon General has many informal duties, such as educating the American public about health issues and advocating healthy lifestyle choices; the office periodically issues health warnings. The best known example of this is the Surgeon General's warning label, present on all packages of American tobacco cigarettes since 1966.
A similar health warning has appeared on alcoholic beverages labels since 1988. In 1798, Congress established the Marine Hospital Fund, a network of hospitals that cared for sick and disabled seamen; the Marine Hospital Fund was reorganized along military lines in 1870 and became the Marine Hospital Service—predecessor to today’s United States Public Health Service. The service became a separate bureau of the Treasury Department with its own staff, headquarters in Washington, D. C, the position of Supervising Surgeon. After 141 years under the Treasury Department, the Service came under the Federal Security Agency in 1939 the Department of Health and Welfare in 1953, the United States Department of Health and Human Services; some Surgeons General are notable for being outspoken and/or advocating controversial proposals on how to reform the U. S. health system. The office is not a powerful one, has little direct statutory impact on policy-making, but Surgeons General are vocal advocates of precedent-setting, far-sighted, unconventional, or unpopular health policies.
On January 11, 1964, Rear Admiral Luther Terry, M. D. published a landmark report saying that smoking may be hazardous to health, sparking nationwide anti-smoking efforts. Terry and his committee defined cigarette smoking of nicotine as not an addiction; the committee itself consisted of physicians who themselves smoked. This report went uncorrected for 24 years. In 1986, Vice Admiral Dr. C. Everett Koop's report on AIDS called for some form of AIDS education in the early grades of elementary school, gave full support for using condoms for disease prevention, he resisted pressure from the Reagan administration to report that abortion was psychologically harmful to women, stating he believed it was a moral issue rather than one concerning the public health. In 1994, Vice Admiral Dr. Joycelyn Elders spoke at a United Nations conference on AIDS, she was asked whether it would be appropriate to promote masturbation as a means of preventing young people from engaging in riskier forms of sexual activity.
She replied, "I think that it is part of human sexuality, it should be taught." Elders spoke in favor of studying drug legalization. In a reference to the national abortion issue, she said, "We need to get over this love affair with the fetus and start worrying about children." She was fired by President Bill Clinton in December 1994. The U. S. Army and Air Force have officers overseeing medical matters in their respective services who hold the title Surgeon General; the insignia of the Surgeon General, the USPHS, use the caduceus as opposed to the Rod of Asclepius. The Surgeon General is a commissioned officer in the U. S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, by law holds the rank of vice admiral. Officers of the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps are classified as non-combatants, but can be subjected to the Uniform Code of Military Justice and the Geneva Conventions when designated by the Commander-in-Chief as a military force or if they are detailed or assigned to work with the armed forces.
Officer members of these services wear uniforms that are similar to those worn by the United States Navy, except that the commissioning devices and insignia are unique. Officers in the U. S. Public Health Service wear unique devices that are similar to U. S. Navy, Staff Corps Officers
Health policy can be defined as the "decisions and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society". According to the World Health Organization, an explicit health policy can achieve several things: it defines a vision for the future. There are many categories of health policies, including global health policy, public health policy, mental health policy, health care services policy, insurance policy, personal healthcare policy, pharmaceutical policy, policies related to public health such as vaccination policy, tobacco control policy or breastfeeding promotion policy, they may cover topics of financing and delivery of healthcare, access to care, quality of care, health equity. Health-related policy and its implementation is complex. Conceptual models can help show the flow from health-related policy development to health-related policy and program implementation and to health systems and health outcomes. Policy should be understood as more than a national law or health policy that supports a program or intervention.
Operational policies are the rules, regulations and administrative norms that governments use to translate national laws and policies into programs and services. The policy process encompasses decisions made at a national or decentralized level that affect whether and how services are delivered. Thus, attention must be paid to policies at multiple levels of the health system and over time to ensure sustainable scale-up. A supportive policy environment will facilitate the scale-up of health interventions. There are many topics in the politics and evidence that can influence the decision of a government, private sector business or other group to adopt a specific policy. Evidence-based policy relies on the use of science and rigorous studies such as randomized controlled trials to identify programs and practices capable of improving policy relevant outcomes. Most political debates surround personal health care policies those that seek to reform healthcare delivery, can be categorized as either philosophical or economic.
Philosophical debates center around questions about individual rights and government authority, while economic topics include how to maximize the efficiency of health care delivery and minimize costs. The modern concept of healthcare involves access to medical professionals from various fields as well as medical technology, such as medications and surgical equipment, it involves access to the latest information and evidence from research, including medical research and health services research. In many countries it is left to the individual to gain access to healthcare goods and services by paying for them directly as out-of-pocket expenses, to private sector players in the medical and pharmaceutical industries to develop research. Planning and production of health human resources is distributed among labour market participants. Other countries have an explicit policy to ensure and support access for all of its citizens, to fund health research, to plan for adequate numbers and quality of health workers to meet healthcare goals.
Many governments around the world have established universal health care, which takes the burden of healthcare expenses off of private businesses or individuals through pooling of financial risk. There are a variety of arguments against universal healthcare and related health policies. Healthcare is an important part of health systems and therefore it accounts for one of the largest areas of spending for both governments and individuals all over the world. Many countries and jurisdictions integrate a human rights philosophy in directing their healthcare policies; the World Health Organization reports that every country in the world is party to at least one human rights treaty that addresses health-related rights, including the right to health as well as other rights that relate to conditions necessary for good health. The United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserts that medical care is a right of all people: UDHR Article 25: "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing and medical care and necessary social services, the right to security in the event of unemployment, disability, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control."In some jurisdictions and among different faith-based organizations, health policies are influenced by the perceived obligation shaped by religious beliefs to care for those in less favorable circumstances, including the sick.
Other jurisdictions and non-governmental organizations draw on the principles of humanism in defining their health policies, asserting the same perceived obligation and enshrined right to health. In recent years, the worldwide human rights organization Amnesty International has focused on health as a human right, addressing inadequate access to HIV drugs and women's sexual and reproductive rights including wide disparities in maternal mortality within and across countries; such increasing attention to health as a basic human right has been welcomed by the leading medical journal The Lancet. There remains considerable controversy regarding policies on who would be paying the costs of medical care for all people and under what circumstances. For example, government spending on healthcare is sometimes used as a global indicator of a government's commitment to the health of its people. On the other hand, one school of thought emerging from the United States rejects the notion of health care financing through taxpayer funding as incompatible with the
Edwin Lankester FRS, FRMS, MRCS was an English surgeon and naturalist who made a major contribution to the control of cholera in London: he was the first public analyst in England. Edwin Lankester was born in 1814 in Melton, near Woodbridge in Suffolk, to'poor but clever parents' according to his son E. Ray Lankester, his father was a builder. Edwin married Phebe Pope in daughter of a former mill-owner, she was 19 at the time of marriage, became a botanist and microscopist, published books for children and wrote natural history articles. They had a total of eleven children of whom eight survived -- four girls. Thomas Henry Huxley became a close friend of the family, visited often. John Stevens Henslow, Darwin's tutor, was a family friend. A born teacher, he introduced Edwin's son Ray to the delights of fossil collecting. Through his association with East Suffolk and his friendship with Henslow, Lankester became an early and active Honorary Member of the Ipswich Museum, of which his son Ray Lankester was afterwards President.
E. B. Ford, the ecological geneticist, said of Edwin: "Lankester was a close personal friend of Darwin's and was so impressed by him that he was determined that one of his sons should become a great biologist, He named all three of his sons suitably: Forbes and Owen!". But, alas for this excellent story, Edwin had his second, whom he named Rushton. Rushton emigrated to Java and raised a family, the only one of Edwin's offspring to do so; the lack of productivity in this otherwise capable family was distinctly unusual at that time. Apprenticed at first to a Mr. Ginney, a surgeon of Woodbridge, in 1832 he became Assistant to Thomas Spurgin of Saffron Walden. Spurgin raised £300 to enable Edwin to study medicine and science from 1834–7 at the new University College London, he attended lectures by John Lindley and Robert Edmund Grant – to whose post Edwin's eldest son E. Ray Lankester succeeded in 1875. Grant had been one of Darwin's tutors at Edinburgh. Edwin's friends at UCL included William Benjamin Carpenter.
Edwin could not afford a complete degree course, so qualified as MRCS and Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries. In 1837 he moved to Doncaster to become resident medical attendant and science tutor to the Woods family of Campsall Hall, recommended by Lindley; the Woods family were "indifferent to religion and fervent Owenites" as he mentioned in a letter home. Robert Owen visited Campsall Hall, Lankester described the event in his diary. In 1839 Lankester left the Woods and travelled to Heidelberg to take his M. D. which he got in six months. Back in London, he befriended Arthur Henfrey, the botanist, he practised medicine and wrote articles on botany and surgery for the Penny Cyclopaedia. He contributed to the Biographical Dictionary, wrote for other journals; as time went by, he became more absorbed in natural history. In 1841 his study of sulphur bacteria was noteworthy, as was his microscopic examination of drinking water, his book the Aquavivarium had a great vogue. He co-founded the important Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science in 1853, co-edited it with George Busk, with his son Ray.
Half-hours with the microscope was a best-seller, reprinted until 1918. Edwin Lankester was President of the British Association for 25 years, the founder of the Biological Section of the BA, he was present at the infamous Wilberforce-Huxley encounter in 1860. He was the first Secretary of the Ray Society, with his wife as Assistant Secretary. In 1845 he was President of the Royal Microscopical Society, that same year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Twenty years he became the first President of the Quekett Microscopical Club. In addition, Lankester served as coroner for Central Middlesex, succeeding the first medically qualified coroner to take up the position, Dr Thomas Wakley, in 1862. Dr. Lankester, like his predecessor, contributed to our knowledge on the social problem of infanticide in nineteenth century Britain by producing a series of'statistically detailed Annual Reports' on the phenomenon; the cause of London's cholera outbreaks had been identified by John Sutherland and Dr John Snow the matter was not decided until Lankester established a committee to look into the latest outbreak.
The Committee's report had sections written by Snow and the Reverend Henry Whitehead, a local curate. They reached the conclusion that the outbreak was attributable to the use of impure water from the well in Broad Street. In 1866, twelve years after the event, Dr. Lankester wrote "The Board of Guardians met to consult what ought to be done. Of that meeting, the late Dr. Snow demanded an audience, he was admitted and gave it as his opinion that the pump in Broad Street, that pump alone, was the cause of all the pestilence. He was not believed: not a member of his own profession, not an individual in the parish believed that Snow was right, but the pump was closed and the plague was stayed."Lankester became the first Medical Officer of Health for the St. James's district, the area where the outbreak occurred, it still took years. Lankester's interest in this came through his microscopical examinati