Medical Subject Headings is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. It serves as a thesaurus. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine, it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials. MeSH was introduced in the 1960s, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus as precursors; the yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be downloaded free of charge through PubMed. In English, MeSH has been translated into numerous other languages and allows retrieval of documents from different origins. MeSH vocabulary is divided into four types of terms; the main ones are the "headings". Most of these are accompanied by a short description or definition, links to related descriptors, a list of synonyms or similar terms.
MeSH contains 27,000 and is updated annually to reflect changes in medicine and medical terminology. MeSH terms are arranged in alphabetic order and in a hierarchical structure by subject categories with more specific terms arranged beneath broader terms; when we search for a MeSH term, the most specific MeSH terms are automatically included in the search. This is what is called the extended search of the term MeSH; this additional information and the hierarchical structure make the MeSH a thesaurus, rather than a plain subject headings list. Another type of MeSH vocabulary are MeSH subheadings or qualifiers, that are used with MeSH terms to help describe more a particular aspect of a subject, such as adverse, diagnostic or genetic effects. For example, the drug therapy of asthma is displayed as asthma/drug therapy; the other two types are those that describe the type of material that the article represents and the "supplementary concept records", which describes substances such as chemical products and drugs that are not included in the "headings".
The descriptors or subject headings are arranged in a hierarchy. A given descriptor may appear at several locations in the hierarchical tree; the tree locations carry systematic labels known as tree numbers, one descriptor can carry several tree numbers. For example, the descriptor "Digestive System Neoplasms" has the tree numbers C06.301 and C04.588.274. The tree numbers of a given descriptor are subject to change; every descriptor carries a unique alphanumerical ID that will not change. Most subject headings come with definition. See the MeSH description for diabetes type 2 as an example; the explanatory text is written by the MeSH team based on their standard sources if not otherwise stated. References are encyclopaedias and standard textbooks of the subject areas. References for specific statements in the descriptions are not given. In addition to the descriptor hierarchy, MeSH contains a small number of standard qualifiers, which can be added to descriptors to narrow down the topic. For example, "Measles" is.
The "epidemiology" qualifier can be added to all other disease descriptors. Not all descriptor/qualifier combinations are allowed. In all there are 83 different qualifiers. In addition to the descriptors, MeSH contains some 139,000 supplementary concept records; these do not belong to the controlled vocabulary as such. Many of these records describe chemical substances. In MEDLINE/PubMed, every journal article is indexed with about 10–15 subject headings and supplementary concept records, with some of them designated as major and marked with an asterisk, indicating the article's major topics; when performing a MEDLINE search via PubMed, entry terms are automatically translated into the corresponding descriptors with a good degree of reliability. By default, a search for a descriptor will include all the descriptors in the hierarchy below the given one. PubMed does not apply automatic mapping of the term in the following circumstances: by writing the quoted phrase, when truncated on the asterisk, when looking with field labels.
At ClinicalTrials.gov, each trial has keywords. The ClinicalTrials.gov team assigns each trial two sets of MeSH terms. One set is for the conditions studied by the trial and the onother for the set of interventions used in the trial; the XML file that can be downloaded for each trial contains these MeSH keywords. The XML file has a comment that says: "the assignment of MeSH keywords is done by imperfect algorithm"; the top-level categories in the MeSH descriptor hiera
David Littmann, M. D. was an American cardiologist born in Chelsea Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School professor and researcher. The name Littmann is well known in the medical field for the patented Littmann Stethoscope reputed for its acoustic performances for auscultation. With Gus Machlup, Dr. David Littmann founded Inc. to sell his stethoscopes. At that time the stethoscope line consisted of two key models, the doctor's stethoscope and the nurse's stethoscope. 3M acquired the stethoscope company on April 1, 1967, hired Dr. Littmann as a consultant. 3M produces the range of Littmann brand stethoscopes. The 1960s-era Littman Cardiology 3 stethoscope, out of patent, became the basis of a 3D-printed stethoscope developed by Dr. Tarek Loubani and a team of medical and technology specialists as part of the open source Glia project. 3M Littmann Worldwide Polish web site about David Littmann Comparison of Littmann Stethoscopes 3M Littmann Stethoscope Stetoscop Littmann Littmann Stethoscope UK Littmann Stethoscope USA
The Milwaukee Brewers were a minor league baseball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. They played in the American Association from 1902 through 1952; the 1944 and 1952 Brewers were recognized as being among the 100 greatest minor league teams of all time. The nickname "Brewers" has been used by baseball teams since at least the 1880s, although none of the early clubs enjoyed a measure of success or stability; that would change with Milwaukee's entry into the American Association, which would last 50 years and provide the city's springboard into the major leagues. The American Association Milwaukee Brewers were founded in 1902, after the American League Brewers moved to St. Louis and became the St. Louis Browns; the Brewers were an independent club except for 1929-1933, when they were owned by Phil Ball as an affiliate of his St. Louis Browns, from October 1946 through their final days, when Lou Perini owned the club and operated the Brewers as the AAA-affiliate of the Boston Braves; the Brewers repeated the next year.
More than 20 years passed before they claimed another with a 90–64 club in 1936. In 1943–45, the team won three consecutive pennants, after the following season the Brewers were purchased by the Boston Braves, became their Triple-A affiliate for six seasons. Although this move paved the way for the team's demise, in the short run it led directly to Milwaukee's final two league championships—one in 1951 when they won the Junior World Series, followed by an better team the next year. In 1941, the club was purchased by Bill Veeck in a partnership with former Cubs star Charlie Grimm. Under Veeck's ownership, the Brewers would become one of the most colorful squads in baseball and Veeck would be become one of the game's premiere showmen. Creating new promotional gimmicks, Veeck gave away live animals, scheduled morning games for wartime night shift workers, staged weddings at home plate, sent Grimm a birthday cake containing a much-needed left-handed pitcher; when Grimm was hired as the manager of the Cubs, he recommended that Casey Stengel be hired to replace him.
Veeck was opposed to the idea – Stengel had little success in his previous managerial stints with the Dodgers and Braves – but as Veeck was stationed overseas in the Marine Corps, Grimm won out. The club won the American Association pennant in 1944, Stengel's managerial career was resurrected. After three consecutive pennants, Veeck sold his interest in the Brewers after for a $275,000 profit after the 1945 season. Grimm returned to Milwaukee twice more during the early 1950s; the Braves named him manager of the Brewers for 1951 and he again enjoyed huge success, winning an American Association title in 1951 and leading the Brewers to first place over the first two months of the 1952 campaign before his promotion to skipper of the MLB Braves May 31. In 1953, as manager of the transplanted Milwaukee Braves, he led the city's first National League team to three first division finishes. Milwaukee had long been coveted by major league teams looking for a new home. Bill Veeck himself tried to relocate the St. Louis Browns back to Milwaukee in 1952, but his move was vetoed by the other American League owners.
The city of Milwaukee, hoping to attract a major league club, constructed Milwaukee County Stadium for the 1953 season. The Brewers were set to move in, until spring training of 1953, when Lou Perini moved his Boston Braves to Milwaukee; the Brewers moved to Toledo, became the Sox, continued the Brewers' winning ways, claiming an American Association pennant in their first season in Ohio. The legacy of the American Association Milwaukee Brewers continues in the major league Milwaukee Brewers, which took its name from the 1902–1952 club. After the Braves moved to Atlanta in 1966, local automobile dealer and Braves part-owner Bud Selig created a group to lobby for a new major league club in Milwaukee; as a name for his group, he chose "Milwaukee Brewers Baseball Club, Inc.", after the American Association club he grew up watching. As a logo, he chose the Beer Barrel Man in red -- traditional Brewers colors; when Bud Selig bought the one-year-old Seattle Pilots franchise in the spring of 1970, he moved them to Milwaukee and they became the "new" major-league Milwaukee Brewers.
The club continued to use the Beer Barrel Man as the team's primary logo until 1978. It has seen a resurgence on throwback merchandise, been featured on several stadium promotions; the Milwaukee Brewers won eight pennants in their fifty-one seasons: 1913, 1914 1936 1943, 1944, 1945 1951, 1952 Before the Junior World Series became an annual event, the American Association pennant winners scheduled postseason minor league championship series against the champions of other leagues. For the Brewers' first two championships, these were held against the Denver Grizzlies of the Western League and Birmingham Barons of the Southern Association. 1913 – defeated Denver, 4 games to 2 1914 – defeated Birmingham, 4 games to 2 After 1919, the Junior World Series was held between the American Association and the International League. For the 1936 season, the American Association introduced a Shaughnessy playoff between the league champions and three runners-up to determine the league's representative. 1936 – defeated Buffalo, 4 games to 1 1947 – defeated Syracuse, 4 games to 3 1951 – defeated Montreal, 4 games to 2 During its 51-year tenure in the American Association, Milwaukee played in the same ballpark.
Constructed in 1888, it was located in the North side of Milwaukee